Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/47

Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
describe digestive system purposes
digest food, break it down, make to useable form, absorb nutrients and process, make waste
general organization of digestive system
epithelial lined tube some glands are built in to the tube, others are separate structures, Salivary glands
Pancreas,
Liver &Gallbladder
organization of gut tube (very important!!)- layers of gut
lined with epi, bsmt membrane, lamina propria (CT also called mucosa), thin sheet of smooth muscle, submucosa with loose CT (all big nerves run thru here), meissner's plexus, circular muscle, myenteric plexus, longitudinal muscle, adventita
muscularis mucousa
thin sheet of SM sitting under mucosa
serosa
thin layer of epithelial surrounding
epis in oral cavity
stratified squamous non cornified epithelium
esophagus
wet epi., non-corn, strat sq., specialized mucosal glands in 1st layer of CT (lamina propria) or submucosa, musclular layer - top 1/3 skeletal, next 1/3 mixed, final 1/3 SM. Delivers stuff to stomach
retrothoracic cavity?
parts of espophagus
stomach layers
columnar epithelium with deep pits of gastric glands, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, extra oblique layer of SM, circula, longitudinal muscle, serosa
stomach regions
cardiac,fundus, pyloric
cardiac region of stomach
glands producing mucous
fundus regions
most complicated glandular epithelium makes HCL, etc
pyloric region
secretory region making mostly mucous
parietal cells of stomach
cells-oxyphil- eosinophilic
Secrete hydrochloric acid
Secrete intrinsic factor-a glycoprotein that
binds to vitamin B12 to enhance absorbtion by
intestinal epithelial cells
Secretory activity of parietal cells regulated by gastrin
released by enteroendocrine cells in glands of pylorus
chief cells in stomach
basophilic
Secrete pepsinogen-an inactive precursor form of pepsin.
Acid environment of the gastric fluid cleaves pepsinogen
to liberate pepsin-a potent proteolytic enzyme.
surface mucous cells
Protective mucous carpet traps bicarbonate,
K+, Na+ and Cl- ions to generate local alkaline
environment
layout of layers of fundus
gastric pit, lower down- neck with stem cells, then parietal cells and deeper in gland chief cells (makes pepsinogen)
Breakdown of pepsinogen
Pepsinogen released into environment by chief cells, stomach acid cleaves and makes pepsin (protein proteolytic enzyme)
Describe mucosa in stomach
surface epis with pits, tubes of epithelia, lamina propria, lighter staining and darker staining cells
Describe Higher mag fundular body cells
Eosinophilic packed with mitochondria lighter staining parietal cells, darker staining chief cells basophilic making proteins. chief tends to be in deeper parts of glands
Pyloric region
distal part stomach links to gut tube. epithelium with bsmt membrane, lamina propria (submucosa), 3 layers of muscle still, serosa
pyloric sphincter
sphincter that squeezed down between pyloric region and intestine
job of intestine
absorption
how does intestine absorb?
lots of modifications for increased surface area
plica circulares
folds of mucosa to increase SA
villi
fingers of epithelium to increase SA
microvilli
brush border to increase SA
Layers of small intestine (duodenum)
simple columnar epi., microvilli into lumen, crypts just under imaginary midline, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa with bruners glands, muscularis externa, serosa.
bruners glands
Alkaline bicarbonate secretion to neutralize acidic material from stomach
duct from pancreas and gall bladder
big duct carrying assorted products from gall bladder and pancreas to help break down food
describe enterocytes
Microvilli to increase luminal cell surface area for absorption
Enzymes associated with microvilli-glycosidases,peptidases,
and enzymes that break down lipids
Additional cytoplasmic enzymes and transporters to move products to circulation
presence of enterocytes, goblet cells and enteroendocrine cells in sm intestine?
enterocytes most abundant, goblet - variable in amount, Gastroendocrine or Enteroendocrine cells-
scattered
describe goblet cells
mucous-mechanical and bacteriocidal protection
gastroendocrine cells
diffuse neuroendocrine system (DNES)
diffusely scattered among the epithelial cells lining the gut tube.
Collectively, the largest endocrine organ in the body
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
release triggered by presence of fat ingestion
Stimulates gallbladder contraction&secretion of bile
(bile salts help break down fat-detergent action).
secretin
produced by cells of duodenum when lumenal pH of duodenum < 4.5
Stimulates bicarbonate secretion by Brunner’s glands
Reduces acid secretion by parietal cells in stomach
Gastrin
produced by “G-cells” in pyloric region of stomach
Stimulates production of acid by parietal cells
paneth cells
cells-secrete lysozyme and other bactiocidal molecules, make lots of lysozyme to break down
what sheds into gut lumen
Terminally differentiated cells shed into gut lumen
jejunum layers (small intestine)
simple columnar ep. with villi, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, NO Brunners gland in submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
what gives moth eaten appearance in slide of small intestine?
all the plumbing is located in submucosa giving this appearance
Layers of ileum (sm intestine)
simple columnar epi, lamina p, muscularis mucosa, submucoas, muscle externa, serosa
diffuse lymphoid tissue in ileum
Lymphocytes
Antigen-presenting cells
Stromal (framework) cells most is in submucosa, but flows into lamina propria
large intestine layers
simple, columnar ep, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa, teniae coli (bundles of smooth muscle)
purpose of pits in LI
water absorption
why no villi and many goblet cells in LI?
No villi b/c absorption is mostly done, goblet for more lubrication
appendix of LI
simple columnar epi. (no villi, but with crypts), lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa (with massive diffuse lymphoid tissue-often with many primary and secondary follicles), muscularis externa, serosa