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87 Cards in this Set

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What is the function of LH in males?
stimulates synthesis of androgen
What is the function of FSH in males?
stimulates synthesis of ABP
(Androgen Binding Protein)
Where in the testes are sperm produced?
seminiferous tubules
Where do sperm mature?
epididymus
Where are sperm stored?
vas deferens
True or false: sperm that are not released are reabsorbed
True
What is the tunica albuginea (testes)
outer capsule
What is the mediastinum testis?
- Where the tunica albuginea is thickened
- where septa radiate, subdividing testis into lobuli testis
What do the lobuli testes contain?
1-4 seminiferous tubules
Where are Sertoli cells found?
seminiferous tubules
What are the "nurse" cells of the testes, which provide nourishment for the sperm?

A) Gametes
B) Leydig cells
C) Sertoli cells
C) Sertoli cells
What are the cells of the testes that secrete testosterone?

A) Gametes
B) Leydig cells
C) Sertoli cells
B) Leydig cells
What are the 3 phases of spermatogenesis?
1) spermatogonial (mitosis)
2) spermatocyte (meiosis x2)
3) spermatid→spermatazoa
What are the 4 stages of spermatids?
1) Golgi phase
2) Cap phase
3) Acrosome phase
4) Maturation phase
During spermatogenesis, when are residual bodies formed?
Acrosome phase of spermatid
What is the fate of the residual body (from spermatid)?
- taken up by sertoli cells
- digested & recycled
Where are the mitochondria in a sperm cell?
Middle piece
Where is the nucleus in a sperm cell?
head
List the pathway sperm travel to be expelled out
- seminiferous tubules
- rete testes
- efferent ducts
- epididymis
- vas deferens
- urethra
List the intratesticular ducts
- seminiferous tubules
- rete testes
- efferent ducts
List the excretory ducts
- epididymis
- vas deferens
- urethra
What type of epithelium does the epididymis have?

A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) simple columnar
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
E) cuboidal
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
&
E) cuboidal (basal layer)
What type of epithelium does the vas deferens have?

A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) simple columnar
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
E) cuboidal
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
The outer wall of the vas deferens is formed by _____ & _____
- smooth muscle
- collagen
Sertoli cells are held together by_____ to form a blood-testes barrier:

A) gap junction
B) desmosomes
C) tight junctions
C) tight junctions
What is the function of the bood-testes barrier?
prevent an auto-immune reaction
Name the 3 accessory genital glands (male)
- seminal vessicles (2)
- prostate
- bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands (2)
What is the function of the accessory genital glands (male)?
secrete fluid to form semen
What type of epithelium do the seminal vesicles have?

A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) simple columnar
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
E) cuboidal
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
&
E) cuboidal (basal layer)
What is the main function of the prostate gland?
store & secrete alkaline fluid
The ducts of the prostate are lined with _____ epithelium
transitional
Which zone of the prostate is the most common site for cancer?

A) peripheral
B) transitional
C) central
A) peripheral
Which zone of the prostate is the most common site for benign tumors?

A) peripheral
B) transitional
C) central
B) transitional
What type of epithelium does the prostate gland have?

A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) simple columnar
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
E) cuboidal
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
&
E) cuboidal
What is the corpora amylacea?
- small hyaline masses or calcified glycoproteins in the prostate
- look like onions
What type of epithelium does the urethra have?

A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) simple columnar
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
E) cuboidal
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
What type of epithelium does the penis have?

A) simple squamous
B) stratified squamous
C) simple columnar
D) pseudo-stratified columnar
E) cuboidal
B) stratified squamous
What are the 3 erectile tissues called?
- corpora cavernosa (x2)
- corpus spongiosum
True or false: both ovaries release eggs at the same time each month
False
(take turns each month)
What are the 4 main components of the ovary?
- Germinal epithelium
- Tunica albuginea
- Cortex
- Medulla
What type of epithelium is the germinal epithelium (ovary)?
cuboidal (1 layer)
What is the tunica albuginea of the ovary?
thin capsule of fibrous CT
What is the cortex of the ovary?
CT stroma housing ovarian follicles in various stages of development
What is the medulla of the ovary?
loose CT containing blood vessels & nerves
List the different stages of ovarian follicles
1) primordial
2) primary (unilaminar→multilaminar)
3) secondary (theca interna/externa)
4) Mature (Graafian)
Which follicle is described as "flat follicular cells"?

A) primordial
B) unilaminar primary
C) multilaminar primary
D) secondary
E) mature
A) primordial
Which follicle is described as "one layer of cuboidal granulosa cells"?

A) primordial
B) unilaminar primary
C) multilaminar primary
D) secondary
E) mature
B) unilaminar primary
Which follicle is described as "several layers of granulosa cells & zona pellucida"?

A) primordial
B) unilaminar primary
C) multilaminar primary
D) secondary
E) mature
C) multilaminar primary
Describe the Mature follicle
- oocyte surrounded by granulosa cells of corona radiata
- these granulosa cells accompany oocyte when ovulated
- cumulus oophorus supports these granulosa cells
- remaining granulosa cells (from wall of the follicle) surround the large antrum
- theca surrounds the entire mature follicle
What is atresia?
Hormonally controlled apoptosis of follicles

How much of the follicles undergo atresia?
99%
(1% proceed into ovulation)
What 3 events occur during atresia?
1) granulosa cells die
2) corona radiata cells are lost
3) free-floating oocyte within the antrum
What do the follicles turn into after ovulation?
corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum produce?
progestogen
Granulosa luten cells constitute the majority of the cells of the ______
corpus luteum
What replaces the corpus luteum after it involutes?
corpus albicans
What does FSH do in females?
- stimulates growth of follicles
- stimulates synthesis of estrogen
What does LH do in females?
- induces ovulation
- transforms the granulosa layer & theca interna into corpus luteum
Estrogen & progesterone act on the _____, regulating the release of ____
- hypothalamus
- GnRH
True or false: the fallopian tubes are open into the peritoneal cavity
True
What are the 2 types of cells of the fallopian tube?
1) ciliated
2) secretory (look like pegs)
Which layer of the uterus "grows & sheds"?

A) myometrium
B) functional endometrium
C) basal endometrium
D) perimetrium/adventitia
B) functional endometrium
Which layer of the uterus is "stable"?

A) myometrium
B) functional endometrium
C) basal endometrium
D) perimetrium/adventitia
C) basal endometrium
Which layer of the uterus is composed of smooth muscle?

A) myometrium
B) functional endometrium
C) basal endometrium
D) perimetrium/adventitia
A) myometrium
Which of the following is the loose surrounding tissue of the uterus?

A) myometrium
B) functional endometrium
C) basal endometrium
D) perimetrium/adventitia
D) perimetrium/adventitia
On what day does ovulation begin?
day 14
What days is the menstrual phase?
1-6
What days is the proliferative phase?
6-14
What days is the secretory phase?
14-28
The uterine glands of the PROLIFERATIVE stage can be described as:

A) simple circles
B) curvy
A) simple circles
The uterine glands of the SECRETORY stage can be described as:

A) simple circles
B) curvy
B) curvy
The ____ it the maternal part of the placenta

A) chorion
B) decidual basalis
B) decidual basalis
The ____ it the fetal part of the placenta

A) chorion
B) decidual basalis
A) chorion
During pregnancy, the endometrium turn into the ____
decidua
What are the 3 regions of mucosa in the decidua?
- decidua basalis
- decidua capsularis
- decidua parietalis
Vaginal muscularis is made up of ____ muscle
smooth
The vagina is made up of _____ epithelium
non-keratinized stratified squamous
Why is the vaginal cytoplasm clear?
due to storage of glycogen
True or false: the submucosa of the vagina has glands and muscluarture
False
The mammary glands are modified ____ glands
sweat
The lactiferous duct of the mammary gland is ____

A) excretory
B) absorptive
A) excretory
What are the secretory units of the mammary glands?

A) lobes
B) branches
C) alveoli
D) ducts
C) alveoli
Mammary gland is inactive & undifferentiated

A) nonpregnant
B) during pregnancy
C) during lactation
A) nonpregnant
Alveoli proliferate at ends of the ducts

A) nonpregnant
B) during pregnancy
C) during lactation
B) during pregnancy
Alveoli are fully differentiated

A) nonpregnant
B) during pregnancy
C) during lactation
C) during lactation
In active mammary glands, what type of epithelium are the expanded alveoli?
simple cuboidal
what type of epithelium does the lactiferous duct consist of?
- cuboidal (basal)
- columnar (surface)
What are the myoepithelial cells of the mammary gland?
muscle-like cell which helps squeeze milk out of the gland