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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Components of Female Reproductive System
* Ovaries (2)- suspended in a collection of ligaments

* Oviducts (2)- aka fallopian tube

*Uterus (1)


*External genitalia

- fimbria- fingerlike projections that transfer eggs from ovary to oviduct
Ovary functions
Two main functions:
1. Gametogenesis
2. Steroidogenesis
- estrogen
- progesterone
Ovarian Structure
*Outer layers (simple cuboidal):
- germinal epithelium
- tunica albuginea (layer of dense CT under germinal epithelium; white color comes from here)

*Two Main Regions:
1. Medulla
2. Cortex
- stroma (filler cells around follicle)
- we find developing follicles in the cortex
PGC--> primary oocyte (differentiates here)--meiosis I--> secondary oocyte--meiosis II--> ovum (egg)

-start with 100,000 primordial germ cells (PGC) as a fetus
- maximum number of eggs (~5 million) at 5-7 months fetus development
- puberty: about 300,000 eggs
- lose numbers of eggs from then onto menopause
- menopause: 8,000 eggs
Mammalian Oogenesis
- supportive cells form around it
- one layer of granulosa cells= primary follicle
- intermediate/secondary follicle = multiple layers of granulosa cells
- thecal cells later surround secondary follicle
Ovarian follicles
-primordial follicle (basically just the egg)
- primary follicle (oocyte is enlarged and surrounding cells become cuboidal)
- antral follicle (space starts to appear)
- graffian follicle

*all this is taking place in the cortex
Primordial follicle
*squamous follicle cells
*basal lamina
*first appear in the ovaries during the 3rd month of fetal development (30 um)
*protein machinery

*primordial cells found in periphery of ovary
Primary follicle
*Stratum granulosa
- cuboidal to columnar
- gap junctions

*Zone pellucida

*Theca folliculi (sheath of CT cells)
- Interna
*vascularized layer
*endocrine (secretive)
- Externa (more supportive CT here)
*smooth muscle
*collagen bundles
Intermediate (secondary) follicle
*Antrum appears(single crescent-shaped cavity)
- liquor folliculi (fluid inside space that has hyaluronic acid)
Graffian follicle
- 10 mm
- mature follicle

*Cumulus oophorus (thickened mound that projects into the antrum)
*Corona radiata- cells right around the oocyte
- egg is released into the body cavity

*increase in volume and pressure of liquor folliculi
*enzymatic proteolysis of follicle wall
*theca externa- smooth muscle contraction

- egg and supportive cells get released
- release digestive enzymes like collagenase to help release egg (digest the wall)
- after ovulation the egg sits on the periphery of ovary with a stock. The fimbria pick it up and bring it to the oviduct
Overview of oogenesis process
* Prophase I arrest
- primary oocyte
- 12 to 50 years
- released at ovulation

*Metaphase II arrest
- released at fertilization
Corpus Luteum
- leftover cells of follicle after egg is released form this
- corpus luteum stays for 10 days and then deteriorates, leading to menses
- HcG keeps corpus luteum from deteriorating (during pregnancy- it's a feedback)
- the corpus luteum is an endocrine structure- it produces progesterone (prepares uterus for implantation)
Female Menstrual Cycle
- 28 days

- 5 days = menses stage
- 9 days = follicle stage
- 14 days = luteal stage
Follicle Atresia
- all of the eggs once produced get reabsorbed (this is what happens to the vast majority of eggs)
- microphages and sometimes fibroblasts do this
*12 cm long

- infundibulum (opening for egg)
- ampullae (longest segment)
- isthmus (connection to uterus)

*Three layers:
1. mucosa (secretory and ciliated cells)
2. muscularis (circular and longitudinal layers)
3. serosa (CT)

*ectopic pregnancy- egg doesn't implant where it's supposed to (ex: body wall; oviduct(tubal pregnancy))
Two regions:
- body
- cervix

- these two regions differ histologically and in function
The three layers of the uterus
1. endometrium (thin; the mucosa of the uterus)
2. myometrium (thick smooth muscular region; muscle fibers allow stretching and increas in size by forming more muscle cells (hypertrophy) and also hyperclasia (build new fibers- increase no. of cells))
3. perimetrium (outermost somewhat thin CT)
Uterus- endometrium
- this is the complex layer of the uterus (where everything happens)
- it changes histologically during pregnancy and once a month (it proliferates and then degenerates during a menstrual cycle)

*Lamina propria
- uterine glands

*Two layers:
1. basalis (base between myometrium and endometrium)
2. functionalis (most closely associated with the lumen)
Menstrual cycle:
1. proliferation (functionalis increases/gets thicker)
2. secretory
3. menstrual

- functionalis is eliminated during menstrual phase
- proliferation is at the same time as the follicular stage
- the secretory stage corresponds to the luteal stage (so influenced by progesterone secretion)
Uterus- Cervix
- simple columnar epithelium
- reduced smooth muscle
- dense CT (alot more present)
- transition to stratified squamous (from uterine epithelium to stratified squamous)

- during pregnancy the cervical glands increase mucous production
- there is no sluffing of here
HPV and cervical cancer
cervical cancer- cells in uterus, instead of becoming more squamous, continue to divide and exit through the basal lamina

*gardasil- recognizes viral proteins
*devoid of glands
*3 layers:
- Mucosa
* epithelium
* lamina propria
- Muscular
* longitudinal smooth
- Adventitia
* dense CT, elastic fibers
Male Reproductive System
*genital excurrent ducts
*accessory sex glands
- seminal vesicles
- prostrate
- bulbourethral glands
- tunica albuginea (like in the ovary; dense CT)
- tunica vaginalis (lining relates to stomach lining because it descended from abdominal cavity in development; has peritoneal sac)
- Septa (divide into lobes)
- Mediastinum testis (along the posterior surface of the testis, the tunica albuginea thickens and projects inward as this)

*Seminiferous tubules
- sertoli cells
- interstitial cells (leydig)
Sertoli and Leydig
- supportive cells
- columnar cells with apical and lateral processes

*Spermatogenesic cells
- produce sperm

*Tunica propria
- it's a multilayered CT
- has myoid cells (muscle cells that aid in contraction- move sperm thru seminiferous tubules)
- has blood vessels and lymph vessels

- testosterone production
PGC--(mitosis)--> spermatogonia --(mitosis)--> primary spermatocyte--(meiosis I)--> secondary spermatocyte--(meiosis II)--> spermatid--(spermiogenesis and differentiation)--> spermatozoa (mature sperm)

- this doesn't start until puberty; after then it constantly continues
-cytoplasmic bridges help coordinate development (connect developing sperm)
- get rid of extra cytoplasm by: residual bodies
Intratesticular ducts
* Straight tubule:
-at the end of the seminiferous tubules
- sertoli cells lining only
- simple cuboidal cells

*Rete testis
- a complex series of interconnecting channels within the highly vascular CT of the mediastinum
- highly vascular CT
- simple cuboidal or columnar cells
- single apical cilium (help move fluid thru)

*Efferent ductules
- nonciliated and ciliated cuboidal cells
- efferent ductules connect the developing rete testis with the duct of the epididymis
Excurrent ducts- epididymis
*ductus epididymis
*connective tissue around it
*blood vessels

-stereocilia in epididymis as well
-residual bodies may get reabsorbed here
- epididymis is a crescent-shaped structure that consists of the efferent ductules and the duct of the epididymis and associated vessels, smooth muscles, and CT coverings
Excurrent ducts- vas deferens
*narrow lumen
*thick smooth muscle layer
*mucosa of pseudostratified columnar

- thin pseudostratified epithelium; thick muscular layer
- the vas deferens is a direct continuation of the tail of the epididymis
*Corpus cavernosa (bundles of erectile tissue):
- of penis (2 dorsal)
- of urethra

*Tunica albuginea (CT around erectile tissue)

- artery
- cavernous spaces
- veins
- nutritive
- helicine (the spaces increase in size and rigidity by filling with blood, principally derived from the helicine arteries)

*Viagra regulates blood flow by allowing capillaries to dilate