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40 Cards in this Set

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URINARY SYSTEM
QUESTIONS AND ANSWER
Name the components of the urinary system and their functions (e.g. bladder) (4 components)
Kidneys (paired)- Prod urine, blood filtration, selective absorption of fluids, ions
Ureters (paired)- transfer fr kidneys to bladder
Bladder - stores and voids urine
Urethra- transfer urine from bladder to exterior
What is the function of the urinary system?
* Produce, stores, and voids urine --> control blood volume
* Remove toxic substances from blood
* electrolyte balance (Na, K, Ca)
* Hormone production (erythropoietin, renin)
What happens at the hilum of the kidneys?
* Entrance of the renal artery
* Exit of renal vein
* Exit of ureters
What is in the cortex of the kidneys?
Cortex of kidney consists of:
* renal corpuscles- beginning segment of nephron, containing capillary network called glomerulus
* convoluted/ straight tubules
* vascular supply
* medulla rays
Where is the main site of blood filtration in the kidney and the initial site of urine production?
At the renal corpuscles of the Nephron, the structural and functional unit of the kidney.
What are the components of the renal corpuscle?
Glomerulus
Bowman's capsule, proximal/distal convoluted tubule,
proximal/distal straight tubule,
loop of Henle
afferent / efferent arterioles
What does the collecting duct do?
Final concentration of the urine
Describe the capillaries of the glomerulus and their permeability characteristics.
The endothelium of the glomerulus capillaries has numerous fenestrations. Diaphragm between fenestration is absent. Has presence of large number of aquaporin-1 - water channel that allow fast movement of water through the epithelium . Size: small molecules can passed through BUT not large one such as albumin or negatively charged molecules.
Describe the structure and functions of the proximal and convoluted tubules as well as the Loop of Henle.
LOOK UP WHEN THERE IS TIME. NOT MENTIONED IN LECTURE!
What is counter current multiplier?
flow of fluid in adjacent structures in opposite direction. Can be seen in three structures:
Loop of Henle- descending from thin seg. and back up toward ascending thin seg
Vasa recta-
Collecting Duct-
Describe the effect of Antidiuretic hormone on the collecting tubule.
Antidiurecttic hormone (ADH- vasopressin- prod in hypothalamus) increase permeability of the collecting duct to water- which produce more concentrated urine.
What are aquaporins and where are they found? How is their concentration regulated?
BY ADH?
Describe the structure of ureters, bladder, and urethra.
URETERS & BLADDER:
Mucosa- transitional epithelium (aka urothelium), lamina propria
Musularis- two band of smooth muscles (longitudinal/circular)
Adventitia

URETHRA:Epithelium depends on gender and positional.
in both sex, when empty= transitional
When full:
Female- stratified squamous
Male- Pseudostratified columnar--> stratified squamous.
Reread section of Kidney dialysis method
Not in study questions but take a look again.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
QUESTIONS AND ANSWER
What are the components of the alimentary canal?
Mouth, Esophagus, Stomach, Sm. Intestine, Lg intestine

Ass. Organ: Tongue, teeth, salivary glands, Pancreas, liver, gall bladder.
What are the alimentary canal's function?
Barrier- bet internal and ext environment
Immunological defense- site of lymphatic tissues
Motility- movement of food
Secretion- Enzymes, mucous, acid, antibodies
Absorption: products of digestion
Name and describe the 4 layers of the alimentary canal.
1) Mucosa-
epithelium
lamina propria
muscularis mucosa
2) Submucosa: Dense, irregular connective tissue
3) Muscularis externa: two layers of smooth muscle
4) Serosa: simple squamous epithelium, connective tissue
Describe the epithelium of the alimentary canal from the mouth to the large intestine.
Mouth: striated squamous epithelium with keratinized layer
Esophagus: stratified squamous epithelium
Stomach: Simple columnar
Small and Large intestine: simple columnar
What is Barrett's esophagus?
Esophagus tissue that is becoming more similar to stomach lining due to damage caused by leakage of stomach acid into esophagus b/c of acid reflux, heartburn, ...
What is responsible for the motility of the alimentary canal? Describe the structure and motility functions of the muscularis mucosa and the muscularis externa.
MOTILITY-
1) Muscularis mucosa- thin layer of smooth muscle is responsible for moving the mucosa- due to its absorptive function. Ex: plicae circulares, villi, microvilli all increase SA for absorption.
Muscularis externa- see next slide
Muscularis Externa
Two thick layers of smooth muscles
Inner layer- circular, tight spiral
when shorten, lumen diameter will change- it goes around tube
Outer layer- longitudinally oriented layer, loose spiral
Runs length of tract, will shorten when contract- which helps move stuff.
Nervous Innervation (Auerbach's plexis- Myentric Plexis)- located in between the layers.
What are the exceptions to muscularis externa's motility?
1) 1/3 of upper esophagus and anus- skeletal muscles
2) Large intestine has TENIAE COLI = 3 thickened bands of longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
What are tonsils and adenoids?
They are the part of the alimentary canal's immune system. Tonsils= ring of lymphatic tissue (nodules / follicles) in back of mouth.
Adenoids- higher up in pharynx to help clear antigens from air.
Definition and functions of the IgA antibody, GALT, MALT, Peyer's patches, and M cells.
IgA= a secreted specialized antibody that appear in milk and saliva. Tough due to its dimer structure- which can bind to four same antigen at the end site and more resistant than others to digestion.
GALT
GALT- Gut-associated lymphatic tissue:
diffuse lymphatic tissues and lymphatic nodules in lamina propria of sm and lg intestine
MALT
Mucous associated lymphatic tissues
PEYER'S PATCHES
Aggregated GALT- founded in Ileum and Appendix
M cells
Lymph nodules capped by specialized epithelial cells (FAE- follicle-associated epithelium)
* Have extensive inpocketings of basal membrane containing T and B lymphocytes.
FUNCTION: detect antigen, endocytos them, and expose T & B cells to antigen.
What is the muscle composition of the alimentary canal- smooth or striated?
Mainly smooth muscles except for the upper 1/3 of the esophagus.
What are the three regions of the stomach?
Cardiac
Fundic
Pyloric
Describe the structure of the small intestine.
Small intestine is the longest component of the digestive tract, and is divided into 3 portions:
1) Duodenum- widest part, begins at the pylorus stomach and end at the doudenojejunal junction.
2) Jejunum- begins at the doudenojejunal junction and gradually change structure into ileum.
3) Ileum- ends at the ileocecal junction.
What increase the absorptive area of the small intestine?
- Plicae circulares- circular folds
- Villi-
-Microvilli- packed! on apical of cell giving it a striated border appearance like.
Describe the structure and function of enterocytes.
Enterocytes= tall columnar cells with striated borders, microvilli to increase SA. Has tight junction to keep content inside lumen.
FUNCTION: Secrete digestive enzymes
What is a lacteal and where is it found?
Lacteal is an extension that protrudes out of the villi of the small intestine to further increase absorption,
How are the epithelial cells of the stomach and small intestine replaced?
In the stomach, it is due to the mitotic activity in the isthmus of the fundic region. Turnover rate= 3-7 days.
In the small intestine: stem cells are "created" in the zone of cell replication in the lower half. Turnover rate = 5-6 days.
LIVER, GALLBLADDER, PANCREAS
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
What are the main functions of the liver?
1) produced / secretes circulating plasma proteins.
2) uptake, store, distribute nutrients and vitamins fr bloodstream
3) maintain blood glucose level.
4) degrades / conjugates toxic substances and drugs
5) produce bile secretion- exocrine
6) important endocrine-like functions.
Describe the composition of the gall bladder. What is it function? How is the release of bile regulated? What are the stimuli for release?
FUNCTION: concentrate and store biles
Release of bile is regulated by hormones of the small intestine in the presence of fat which stimulate contractions of the smooth muscles.
Lumen is lined by simple columnar epithelium.