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30 Cards in this Set

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Stem cell in Oogenesis
It is the oogonium, which can undergo mitosis like spermatogonia. Unlike the male however, these cells all at some point begin the first division while in the embryo. It turns into primary oocyte, which stops at prophase of the 1st mitotic division for years 12-40 (puberty to menopause)
Ovary Structure
Outside is the celomic cavity
Germinal Epithelium consists of simple cuboidal, lines outside of cell.
Under that is the Tunica Albuginea (CT)
Then is the cortex
Cortex of Ovary
Primary oocyte found all the follicle development cells. Looks like a satellite cell. Made up of BM, granulosa cells, nucleolus.
Medullar of Ovary
Blood vessels, lymphatic, CT, stroma aka cellular CT
Ovarian Follicle has 2 parts
oocyte and granulosa cells aka follicular cells
Follicular Development (4)
1) Primordial Follicle
2) Primary Follicle
3) Secondary Follicle
4) Mature of Graafian Follicle
Primoridial Follicle
Is the primary oocyte by itself. It is the first one developed. In prepubescent girls it is all you will see. It is the resting follicle. Contain simple squamous granulosa
Primary Follicle
They are located under the primordial follicles. Will include follicles that have simple cuboidal and stratified cuboidal granulosa (multilayered = active = growing). Contain theca, which are cells that excrete estrogen and other hormones (located outside of BM). Theca are equivalent to the Leydig Cells in males.
Primary Follicle during menstrual cycle
In one menstrual cycle (28 days), about 20 of these cells enlarge. Only one is released during ovulation (period), and the other 19 degenerate, otherwise known as undergoing the process of Atresia (might see some of these on slide)

FSH can stimulate egg formation, leading to 6-7 being ovulated instead of one. Used for infertile women.
Secondary Follicle
(will not be asked to ID). Is larger than the previous cell. Located under it. The antrum has formed in this cell, which are cavitites throughout the granulosa. The Zona Pellucida has also been formed, which is a glycoprotein layer)
Mature or Graafian Follicle
HUGE. It is what is ovulated. Some on slide will look like a big hole because they are cut differently since the antrum has expanded greatly. The only new structure here is the corona radiata, which is the section of granulosa cells located between the antrum (filled with fluid) and the primary oocyte.
Movement of Mature Follicle into the Fallopian Tube
The mature follicles tend to be on the edge of the ovaries when ready to be sent into the fallopian tube. The tube moves close to the celom and then the primary oocyte explodes into the tube. The cell bursts open because of the pressure in the antrum and the wall of both the follicle and tube break open.
Menstrual Cycle - Follicular Phase
It is the first phase of the cycle (day 1-13/14) during which follicles in the ovary mature. It ends with ovulation. During this phase, FSH and LH increase in the pituitary, and then FSH suffers a drop whereas LH continues to increase. In the Ovary during this stage, estrogen continues to increase. Progesterone stays low and constant
Menstrual Cycle - Ovulation
In the pituitary, both FSH and LH increase, with LH being higher. Both hit their highest point here, and LH undergoes "LH Surge" when it gets to this point.

In the ovary, estrogen is midway through a high point when ovulation occurs, causing positive feedback, which is needed to maintain a steady state. Progesterone begins to increase.

Ovulation occurs at the high LH point. Lots of estrogen has been released prior to this, which shuts down the pituitary gland. But once the releaser degenerates, the pituitary starts working again
Menstrual Cycle - Luteal Phase
As both LH and FSH begin to decrease, fertilization will occur here if possible with the production of the hormone hCG, whose role is to prevent the disintegration of the corpus luteum of the ovary and thereby maintain progesterone production that is critical for a pregnancy in humans. LH and FSH hit a lot, and stay constant until the end of the cycle.

Estrogen increases a bit and progesterone in the ovary shoots up very high, surpassing estrogen, causing negative feedback. Then they both decrease to a low point by the 28th day.
What causes the dip of FSH during the follicular phase?
It's dip may be because of inhibin.
It dips b/c by this point, one follicle has become mature for ovulation. Too much ovulation leads to sextuplets.
Lack of FSH leads to atresia.
What causes the LH surge
Increased estrogen causes increased amounts of LH and FSH. The LH surges b/c of positive feedback. The FSH surge is not as big as LH b/c of inhibin.
Effects of LH Surge
1) Leads to the completion of the 1st meiotic division of Meiosis I. It causes the primary oocyte to become a secondary oocyte and polar body, which stops at metaphase of Meiosis II.

2) It is responsible for all processes involved in ovulation (release of egg from ovary).

3)What is left in the ovary after ovulation grows very fast during LH surge/estrogen dip. This material that is left causes the old follicle wall, which is made up of granulosa and theca, to develop into the Corpus Luteum.
Negative Feedback of Progesterone
Causes drop of LH and FSH. The follicle can only survive a few days without LH until it degenerates/undergoes artesia. It can die right in the fallopian tube, which can cause a scar in the ovary. This is the birth control pills do.
Fallopian Tube and Uterus are affected by what hormone(s)?
Estrogen and progesterone - they cause the development of the uterine lining
hCG
What the embryo is able to do upon fertilization is release a hormone similar to LH. It probably evolved from LH, and it is called hCG. It will have the same effect as LH.

hCG keeps the corpus luteum developed, so instead of estrogen and progesterone dipping before the 28th day, they continue to rise during the early stages of pregnancy, thus keeping the uterus developed.

If the corpus luteum is somehow removed within the first 3 months from the ovary, then a miscarriage occurs. After 3 months though, the placenta develops, which is independent.
Fallopian Tube Structure
Also known as the Uterine Tube and the Oviduct.

FT looks like a highly folded wall. This wall cushions the embryo. There is a lot of cellular CT in these walls and Smooth Muscle is located outside of the walls. Spaces in btw the SM is artifact.

Epithelium is simple columnar ciliated.
Two types of cells found in the epithelium of FT
1) ciliated cells

2) secretory cells - are columnar
Uterus - Structure
It undergoes tremendous change during the menstrual cycle. Our slide is the early phase, during which invagination of glands occur and mitotic divisions occur. Meiosis is finally complete during fertilization. If no fertilization, then the egg (secondary oocyte) is removed with menstrual flow.

The endometrium is on one edge of the uterus slide, it is the inner lining. Glands, some invaginated, are found here (look like random holes)

The Myometrium is filled with smooth muscle and is on most of the slide.

Its epithelium is kind of columnar.
Vagina (2 Functions and Structure)
1) Serves to receive the penis
2) Serves as birth canal

No actual glands are located in the main part of the vagina. Its epithelium is stratified squamous, which could cause it to look like the esophagus BUT it has to muscularis mucosae. Under the epithelium is CT and under that is SM
Mammary Gland Structure (4)
Also known as Fibro-Fatty Tissue.

It is filled with dense irregular CT and surrounded by adipose tissue.

Secretory cells (more elongated) are found here that secrete milk towards the Ducts (round), which are also found here, which drain the milk to the nipple. Both have simple cuboidal epithelium.
Two Hormones found in this gland
1) Oxytocin
2) Prolactin
Oxytocin (2 Functions)
1) This functions initially in birth, causing the contractions of the smooth muscle of the uterus (myometrium) to explode the baby out.

2) Its other function is for milk letdown: when the baby suckles on the nipple, a sensory nerve signals the brain to release oxytocin, which causes contractions of the myoepithelial cells, which squeezes milk from the breast to the nipple.
Prolactin
It causes the secretory cells of the mammary glands to synthesize and secrete the milk components.
Apocrine Secretion
Producing a secretion in which part of the secreting cell is released with the secretion

Apocrine is a term used to classify exocrine glands, which are glands that secrete their products into ducts. Cells which are classified as apocrine bud their secretions off through the plasma membrane producing membrane bound vesicles in the lumen. The lactating mammary gland is an example of an apocrine gland because the fatty component of the milk is released by being pinched off. The carbohydrates and proteins of milk are released via exocytosis.