Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/54

Click to flip

54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of the female reproductive system?
• Makes female gametes→ oocytes
• Supports development of the embryo and fetus
• Produces female sex hormones
o Estrogen
o Progesterone
How do female gametes develop during gametogenesis?
• All oogonia enter meiosis before birth
• Oocytes are arrested in prophase of meiosis I as primary oocytes and arrest is released just before ovulation
• Meiosis is then complete in uterine tube following fertilization
What female sex hormones are produced?
• Estrogen
o Helps germ cells mature
o Develop secondary sex characteristics
o Repairs and grows the uterine lining
• Progesterone
o Prepares uterine lining to receive and support embryo
o Stimulates maturation of the secretion thing in mammary glands
What is the microscopic structure of an ovarian follicle?
• Cortex
o Has developing germ cells
• Medulla
o Has no germ cells but lots of connective tissue
What is the structure of an ovarian cortex?
• Covered with simple cuboidal epithelium which is atypical and known as germinal epithelium (no germ cells)
• Tunica albuginea
o (thin, fibrous capsule)
• Stroma
o Spindle shaped fibroblasts embedded in matrix of fine collagen fibers
• Follicles
What is the structure of a follicle?
• Primordial Follicles
o Majority of follicles
o Found beneath tunica albuginea
o Have a single primary oocyte with a germinal vesicle
o Have follicular epithelial cells
• Growing Follicles
o Primary
• Become cuboidal and are now called granulosa cells
• Unilaminar primary follicle- one layer of granulosa cells
• Multilaminar primary follicle- more than one layer of granulosa cells
• Stroma cells recruit and form theca folliculi
• These follicles are FSH independent
o Secondary (Antral)
• Early
 Also called Vesicular and Antral Follicles
 Form granulosa layers
 Theca layer differentiaties into
• Theca Interna
o Make Andro
o Aromatase converts Andro into estrogen
• Theca Externa (follicle capsule)
• Late
 Lakes coalesce into single antrum
 Granulosa cells press against follicle wall (stratum granulosa)
 Oocytes attach to one spot along the wall
• Sit on an egg cloud (cumulus oophorus)
• Secondary follicles growth is dependent on FSH
• FSH has two effects
 Stimulates development of follicles
 Induces synthesis of estrogen
o Tertiary (Mature; Graafian)
• One follicle becomes dominant
• Final maturation and ovulation is triggered by presence of LH which leads to
 Lots of follicular fluid accumulating
 Separation of oocyte from cumulus oophorus
 Completion of meiosis I and progression to Metaphase of Meiosis II
What changes occur as a follicle moves from primordial to growing follicle?
• The follicular cells become taller (cuboidal)
• Follicular cells acquire FSH receptors
• Primary oocytes enlarge and acquire a zona pellucida
• Oocytes become metabolically more active
What is a secondary oocyte?
• An oocyte that enters meiosis II
• It is covered by a few layers of granulosa cells known as corona radiate
Where does fertilization normally occur?
• In the ampulla of the uterine tube
What are atretic follicles?
• Dying follicles that did not have enough levels of FSH and LH
• Fibroblasts invade and replace dying follicular tissue with connective tissue
• Some theca internal cells may persist as interstitial cells→ source of testosterone in females
After ovulation, what happens to the remaining granulosa and theca cells?
• They are transformed into Lutein cells
• They form a new organ called→ Corpus Luteum
What is a corpus luteum?
• Produces both estrogen and progesterone
• Highly vascularized
• If pregnancy occurs it increases in size to become the corpus luteum of pregnancy
• Produces relaxin which softens the pubic symphysis and cervix
o Also inhibits uterine contraction
What is the corpus albicans?
• Regressed form of the corpus luteum
• White body
What is the function of the uterine tube?

o Transport of the Ovum
o Maintain the ovum
o Site for fertilization
What are the four parts of the uterine tube?
• Infundibulum
o Funnel shaped distal segment
o Has fimbrae- fingerlike extensions
• Ampulla
o Widest and longest segment of the tube
o Common site of fertilization
o Thin wall and extensively branched mucosal folds
• Isthmus
o Thick walled segment
o Stellate shaped lumen
o Next to uterus
o Has few mucosal folds
• Interstitial part
o Shortest segment
o Enclosed by uterine wall
o Opens into uterine cavity
What is the microscopic structure of the uterine tube?
• Mucosa
o Simple columnar epithelium which are ciliated
o The nonciliated secretoy part is called peg cells (responsible for capacitation)
• Muscularis
o Has inner circular and outer longitudinal smooth muscle
• Serosa
What is the structure of the uterus?
• Parturition (birth)
• Has 3 anatomical divisions
o Fundus
o Corpus (Body)
o Cervix
What is the structure of the body?
• Made of three layers
o Endometrium
• Made of simple columnar epithelium (both secretory and ciliated)
• Has a vascular lamina propria with simple tubular glands
• Has two layers
 Stratum functionale
• Thick spongy superficial layer that is removed during menstruation
 Stratum bassale
• Thin deeper, permanent layer
• Prvides the epithlium and lamina propria to regenerate the lost lining
o Myometrium
• Has 3-4 layers of smooth muscle
• Grows by hypertrophy and hyperplasia
• Effected to relax via relaxin and progesterone
• Effected to contracted via oxytocin
• Layers 1 and 3 run parallel to long axis
• Layer 2 is circular
o Perimetrium
• Outer surface of fundus and posterior corpus
• Has tunica serosa uteri
• Lower region of uterus is covered by adventitia
How do the arteries in the uterus divide?
• Go from uterine artery→ arcuate ateries→ radial arteries→ straight arteries and spiral arteries→ anastomosing arteries
What is the structure of the cervix?
• Simple columnar, mucus-secreting but changes to stratified swuamous nonkeratinized epithelium at external os
• Ectocervix- extends into vaginal canal
How does the secretion of the cervix change?
• Early: small amounts of thin serous mucus
• Middle: Lots of mucus secretions under influence of estrogen
• Late: becomes thick under progesterone
• Pregnancy: develops semi-solid plug
What are the three phases that capture the cyclic changes in endometrium?
• Menstrual phase
o Functional layer is sloughed removed
o Bleeding
o See effects of Declining corpus luterum
• Proliferative Phase
o Base of glands spread out to cover raw surface
o Glandular epithelium and connective tissue rebuild the functional layer
• Secretory Phase
o Starts after ovulation
o Depends on progesterone
o Uterine glands begin secreting mucus (have saw toothed appearance)
o Without LH Corpus luteum begins to decline
o Progesterone declines
o Smooth muscles in spiral arteries contract and the vessls break down and blood leaks into tissue→ leads to the detachment of the functional layer
What are anovulatory cycles?
• There is no corpus luteum and no increase in progesterone
• The uterine lining continues to grow due to estrogen
• The lining breaks down on its own
What is the structure of the vagina?
• Mucosa
o Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
o Has rugae
• Muscularis
o Mostly longitudinal smooth muscle
• Adventia
How do hormones influence the vagina?
• Thickens under the influence of estrogen
• Cells make and accumulate glycogen
• Under progesterone the epithelium shrinks back
What are the structures that make up female external genitalia?
• Have meisnner’s and pacinian corpuscles
• Clitoris
o Corpus Cavernosae
• Labia Minora
o Two thin folds of thin skin
o No fat, but sweat and sebaceous glands
o Hair follicles are here
• Labia Majora
o Two folds that overly core of subcutaneous fat and smooth muscle
• Vestibular glands
o On both side of vaginal opening
What is the structure of mammary glands?
• Made of compound tubuloalveolar glands
• Each gland is characterized as resting or lactating
• Each lobe is drained by a single lactiferous duct
What is the difference between a resting and lactating mammary gland?
• Resting is smaller and doesn’t have a well developed alveoli
• The lactating mammary gland have the terminal ortions of ducts branching and growing.
What is the structure of the alveoli?
• Made of cuboidal cells that are surrounded myoepithelial cells
How are lipids and proteins secreted in the mammary gland?
• Lipids are secreted by apocrine method
• Proteins are secreted by merocrine method
How does the mammary gland increase?
By hypertrophy of stroma and engorgement with colostrum
When does milk secretion occur and what is it controlled by?
• Milk secretion is controlled by prolactin and milk secretion occurs after several days when estrogen and progesterone levels fall
What is the function of areola?
• Function is to protect delicate breast skin from injury during breast feeding
• Has Montgomery glands that secrete stuff to lubricate the areola
What is the structure of the nipple?
• Covered by thin skin
• Has opening of lactiferous ducts
• Has two layers of smooth muscle
What are the mammary gland secretions?
• Colostrum: Yellowish fluid and has high protein content
• Milk: provides passive immunity
What is the milk ejection reflex?
• Suckling stimulates sensory nerves → Hypothalamus to stop releasing prolactin inhibiting factor
o Prolactin is released from adenhypophysis (anterior pituitary) and stimulate milk production for next feed
• Sensory nerve stimulation also lead to the release of oxytocin from posterior pituitary
o Leads to contraction of myoepithelial cells
o Leads to ejection of already present milk
What is the milk ejection reflex?
• High prolactin levels suppress LH secretion
• Low LH leads to suppression of ovulation
• When suckling decreases, prolactin levels decline and LH levels increase and ovulation resumes
What is a lactational amenorrhea?
• High prolactin levels suppress LH secretion
• Low LH leads to suppression of ovulation
• When suckling decreases, prolactin levels decline and LH levels increase and ovulation resumes
What is the function of the testes?
• Reproduction
o To make and develop male germ cells
• From Spermatogonium to spermatozoa
• Endocrine
o Make testosterone
• Regulates germ cell development and secondary sex characteristics
• Induces differentiation of the mesonephric duct (gives rise to genitals and other ducts)
o Anti-Mullerian Hormone
• Induces degeneration of the mullerian duct which normally gives rise to female parts
o Inhibin
• Inhibits FSH synthesis and secretion
What is the structure of the testes?
• Tunica vaginalis – covering of the testis
• Capsule
o Tunica albuginea- fibrous covering of the testes
o Tunica Vasculosa – plexus of blood vessels
• Hilum
o Mediastinum Testis – fibrous connective tissue
• Lobules
• Seminferous Tubules
o Rete Testis (tubules located in the hilum)
What cells are found in the seminiferous tubules?
• Myoid cells which are found in the tunica propria
• Sertoli cells which are nonproliferating support cells (found in germinal epithelium)
• Germ cells which are proliferative reproductive cells (found in germinal epithelium)
What are the phases of spermatogenesis?
• Spermatocytogenesis
o Spermatogonia → spermatocytes
• Meiosis
o Spermactocytes→ Spermatids
• Spermiogenesis
o Spermatids→ Spermatozoa
• Describes the sequence of development from diploid stem cell to haploid germ cell
What is the structure of sertoli cells?
• They are tall, columnar, nonproliferating cells
• Have an irregular shape
• Many functions regulated by FSH
What are the functions of sertoli cells?
• Provide support and nutrition of germ cells
• Convert steroids into testosterone
• Phagocytose Residual bodies
• Forms Blood-testis barrier
• Secrete bulk of testicular fluid
o Transferrin, Androgen-Binding Protein and Inhibin
What are spermatogonia?
• They are stem cell precursors found along the basement membrane
• They are diploid and divide mitotically
What are primary spermatocytes?
• Largest of the developing cells
• Live in the center of the germinal epithelium
• Initiate Meiosis
• They are diploid
What are secondary spermatocytes?
• They are in meiosis II
• Smaller than primary spermatocytes and paler with granular chromatin
• They are haploid
What are spermatids?
• Haploid cells that become spermatozoa
What occurs during spermiogenesis?
• When the spermatozoa becomes mature by :
o Elaboration of the acrosome
o Shed the excess cytoplasm (residual body)
o Formation of the flagellum
What are spermatozoa?
• Mature, male germ cells
• Released by sertoli cells into tubule lumen
• Not functionally mature
o Immotile and incapable of fertilizing an egg
o Capacitation occurs in female reproductive tract
What is normal range for sperm density?
• 20-250 million cells per ml
• Infertile male is less than 15 million per ml
• 3mm/min= swim rate
How do the testes stay cool?
• Descend into scrotum which is outside the body
o If not→ Cryptochidism
• Pampiniform Plexus
• Dartos Muscle: smooth muscle
• Cremaster Muscle: skeletal muscle
What are Leydig cells?
• Principle endocrine cells of the testis that secrete testosterone
• Regulated by LH (Binding of LH starts the synthesis and excretion of testosterone)
• Found outside the seminiferous tubules
How is testicular function regulated hormonally?
• FSH made in the anterior pituitary binds to Sertoli cells → Makes Androgen Binding Protein
• ABP binds to testosterone and keeps it high near developing germ cells
• LH is produced in the anterior pituitary→ LH activates synthesis of testosterone in Leydig cells
• LH in males is also known as ICSH