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31 Cards in this Set

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highly condensed, darker staining, transcriptionally inactive
less condensed, ligheter staining, less tightly packed, transcriptionally active - contains genes transcribed into RNA in the cell
dark staining region, where ribosomal subunits assembled, prominent in cells making a lot of protein (ie. neurons)
Nuclear lamina
underlying inner membrane - intermediate fibers (nuclear lamins) that give shape to the nuclear enveolpe and bind DNA to the inner nuclear membrane
Perinuclear Cisterna
in between the inner and outer nuclear membrane
cytoplasm + nucleus
polyribosomes - clusters of ribosomes bound to mRNA
- electron dense because of the RNA
Smooth ER
- no ribosomes
synthesis of lipids, steroids
liver: enzymes for detoxification
muscle cells: sarcoplasmic reticulum for Ca2+ sequestering from cytosol
Rough ER
contigious with the outer nuclear envelope, - continuous with the perinuclear cisternae
- studded with ribosomes
-synthesizes transmembrane proteins and ones for secretion
Golgi Apparatus
composed of compartments called cisternae - NOT interconnected: transport via fusion of transport vesicles budding off the membranes
- cisternae: cis (convex), medial, trans (concave)
- site of protein glycosylation for transport
- contain hydrolytic enzymes - function at acidic pH (pH maintained by proton pumps on membrane)
- PRIMARY lysosome: proton pumps and hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases)
- SECONDARY: primary + vesicle containing the substance to be degraded
- responsible for autophagy - self eating of old organelles, digest cell debris and phagocytosed substances, and autolysis when the cell is programed to die
- hard to see in LM/EM: use cytochemical methods --> add phosphotase substrate that precipitates in presence of the acid phosphoates in the lysosome
Peroxisomes (microbodies)
- similar to lysosomes but with different enzymes
- degrades AA's and fatty acids
- oxidative reactions using oxidase and O2
- H2O2 a byproduct but maintained concentration by catalase
- H2O2 used for detoxifying alcohols and phenols
- Identify by cytochemical methods also!
- not visible in EM but freely floating in cytosol
- responsible for CYTOSOLIC PROTEIN turnover
- acts on proteins attached to a small protein: Ubiquitin
- no membrane
- large (40 x 10nm) cylindrical protein complexes around the cytosol
Nuclear Lamina
underlying inner membrane - responsible fore nuclear envelope shape and bind DNA to the inner nuclear membrane
- 2D network of intermediate fibers (nuclear lamins)
fluids, proteins (albumin), metabolites
maintains colloid osmotic pressure of blood
Cytoskeleton components of RBC
-Spectrin: network with actin
-Glycophorin and ankyrin - bind to spectrin cytoskeleton
give general types - all but basophil function NOT in blood but use the circulatory system for transportation
how leukocytes travel around - escape from postcapillary venules (in BV) into CT - squeezes between adjacent epithelial cells.
Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils
- 1st line of defense: 60-70%
- chemotactic agents bind receptors on neutrophil to initiate defense against infection
- granules specific for batericidal actions via reactive oxygen compounds (superoxide, h2o2, hypochlorous acid)
- stain azurophilic!
- less than a week lifespan: die after phagocytosis --> PUS
Neutrophil Granules
- Primary: nonspecific granules - lysosomes containing acid hydrolases
- Tertiary: have enzymes facilitating movement of neutrophils through CT
- Specific: kill bacteria
band form
immature form of neutrophil - non segmented U shaped nucleus
- 0-2% of leukocytes
- 7 days to mature into granulocyte: mostly stored in bone marrow and not released yet
Marginal Pool
storage form of neutrophils in blood vessels
- contain equal amount to neutrophils in circulation
- lies out of the main flow of blood - marginated against vessel wall (caps, pulm vessels) as a ready reservoir
- DEmargination: stimulated by acute infection, exercise, and epinephrine
Primary function of neutrophils
- die after job is done! even if job isn't done, neutrophils die after 1-4 days in CT
go in and out of circulation looking for antigenic stimulation
1. T Cells - cell-mediated
2. B Cells - humoroal immunity: antibodies and memory cells
3. Null Cells: circulating hemopoietic stem cells and Natural T-Killer Cells
platelets (thrombocytes)
megakaryoctyes - give rise to platelets in bone marrow
- 8 day lifespan
1) glycocalyx: roll in adhesion
2) Hyalomere
3) Granulomere
parasitic infections, hypersensitivity, and allergies
1) Internum: cationic protein and neurotoxin to destroy bacteria
2) Externum: variety of enzymes that dampen down mast cells/basophils inflammatory response
3) azurophilic granules: lysosomes
allergies & hypersensitivity
- release granules when allergens attach IgE antibodies that are on its' plasma membrane
- circulatory shock from granule release
- similar to mast cells in CT
- largest cells in circulation
- turn into macrophages
- part of MPS
1) Marginal Bundle: actin and myosin
2) surface opening system
3) dense tubular system
1) alpha: Fibrinogen, clotting factors
2) gamma: lysosomes - hydrolytic enzymes
3) Lambda: ADP, ATP, Ca2+, serotonin