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31 Cards in this Set

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Heterochromatin
highly condensed, darker staining, transcriptionally inactive
Euchromatin
less condensed, ligheter staining, less tightly packed, transcriptionally active - contains genes transcribed into RNA in the cell
Nucleolus
dark staining region, where ribosomal subunits assembled, prominent in cells making a lot of protein (ie. neurons)
Nuclear lamina
underlying inner membrane - intermediate fibers (nuclear lamins) that give shape to the nuclear enveolpe and bind DNA to the inner nuclear membrane
Perinuclear Cisterna
in between the inner and outer nuclear membrane
Protoplasm
cytoplasm + nucleus
Polysomes
polyribosomes - clusters of ribosomes bound to mRNA
- electron dense because of the RNA
Smooth ER
- no ribosomes
synthesis of lipids, steroids
liver: enzymes for detoxification
muscle cells: sarcoplasmic reticulum for Ca2+ sequestering from cytosol
Rough ER
contigious with the outer nuclear envelope, - continuous with the perinuclear cisternae
- studded with ribosomes
-synthesizes transmembrane proteins and ones for secretion
Golgi Apparatus
composed of compartments called cisternae - NOT interconnected: transport via fusion of transport vesicles budding off the membranes
- cisternae: cis (convex), medial, trans (concave)
- site of protein glycosylation for transport
Lysosomes
- contain hydrolytic enzymes - function at acidic pH (pH maintained by proton pumps on membrane)
- PRIMARY lysosome: proton pumps and hydrolytic enzymes (acid hydrolases)
- SECONDARY: primary + vesicle containing the substance to be degraded
- responsible for autophagy - self eating of old organelles, digest cell debris and phagocytosed substances, and autolysis when the cell is programed to die
- hard to see in LM/EM: use cytochemical methods --> add phosphotase substrate that precipitates in presence of the acid phosphoates in the lysosome
Peroxisomes (microbodies)
- similar to lysosomes but with different enzymes
- degrades AA's and fatty acids
- oxidative reactions using oxidase and O2
- H2O2 a byproduct but maintained concentration by catalase
- H2O2 used for detoxifying alcohols and phenols
- Identify by cytochemical methods also!
Proteosomes
- not visible in EM but freely floating in cytosol
- responsible for CYTOSOLIC PROTEIN turnover
- acts on proteins attached to a small protein: Ubiquitin
- no membrane
- large (40 x 10nm) cylindrical protein complexes around the cytosol
Nuclear Lamina
underlying inner membrane - responsible fore nuclear envelope shape and bind DNA to the inner nuclear membrane
- 2D network of intermediate fibers (nuclear lamins)
Plasma
fluids, proteins (albumin), metabolites
Album
maintains colloid osmotic pressure of blood
Cytoskeleton components of RBC
-Spectrin: network with actin
-Glycophorin and ankyrin - bind to spectrin cytoskeleton
Leukocytes
give general types - all but basophil function NOT in blood but use the circulatory system for transportation
Diapedesis
how leukocytes travel around - escape from postcapillary venules (in BV) into CT - squeezes between adjacent epithelial cells.
Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils
- 1st line of defense: 60-70%
- chemotactic agents bind receptors on neutrophil to initiate defense against infection
- granules specific for batericidal actions via reactive oxygen compounds (superoxide, h2o2, hypochlorous acid)
- stain azurophilic!
- less than a week lifespan: die after phagocytosis --> PUS
Neutrophil Granules
- Primary: nonspecific granules - lysosomes containing acid hydrolases
- Tertiary: have enzymes facilitating movement of neutrophils through CT
- Specific: kill bacteria
band form
immature form of neutrophil - non segmented U shaped nucleus
- 0-2% of leukocytes
- 7 days to mature into granulocyte: mostly stored in bone marrow and not released yet
Marginal Pool
storage form of neutrophils in blood vessels
- contain equal amount to neutrophils in circulation
- lies out of the main flow of blood - marginated against vessel wall (caps, pulm vessels) as a ready reservoir
- DEmargination: stimulated by acute infection, exercise, and epinephrine
Phagocytosis
Primary function of neutrophils
- die after job is done! even if job isn't done, neutrophils die after 1-4 days in CT
lymphocytes
go in and out of circulation looking for antigenic stimulation
1. T Cells - cell-mediated
2. B Cells - humoroal immunity: antibodies and memory cells
3. Null Cells: circulating hemopoietic stem cells and Natural T-Killer Cells
platelets (thrombocytes)
megakaryoctyes - give rise to platelets in bone marrow
- 8 day lifespan
1) glycocalyx: roll in adhesion
2) Hyalomere
3) Granulomere
eosinophils
parasitic infections, hypersensitivity, and allergies
SPECIFIC GRANULES
1) Internum: cationic protein and neurotoxin to destroy bacteria
2) Externum: variety of enzymes that dampen down mast cells/basophils inflammatory response
NONSPECIFIC
3) azurophilic granules: lysosomes
basophils
allergies & hypersensitivity
- release granules when allergens attach IgE antibodies that are on its' plasma membrane
- circulatory shock from granule release
- similar to mast cells in CT
monocytes
- largest cells in circulation
- turn into macrophages
- part of MPS
Hyalomere
1) Marginal Bundle: actin and myosin
2) surface opening system
3) dense tubular system
Granulomere
-Mitochondria
-Glycogen
-Granules
1) alpha: Fibrinogen, clotting factors
2) gamma: lysosomes - hydrolytic enzymes
3) Lambda: ADP, ATP, Ca2+, serotonin