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109 Cards in this Set

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Are periodontal ligaments mineralized or non-mineralized?
Non-mineralized
How do periodontal ligaments show up on radiographs?
Radiolucent, space between roots, the larger the space the more inflammation.
What does the periodontal ligament consist of?
Cells
Ground & fibrous types of intercellular substance
Tissue fluid
What type of intercellular substance forms the periodontal ligament?
Fibrous
What is the type of tissue that makes up the periodontal ligament?
Connective tissue
Where are periodontal ligaments located?
Surrounds the root of the tooth from the cementum to the bone of the tooth socket.
Periodontal ligaments are attached on both ends by?
Sharpey's fibers
Part of the periodontium
List 6 things that are found among periodontal fibers?
Fibroblasts
Blood Vessels
Nerves
Cementoblasts
Osteoblasts
Mesenchymal cells such as macrophages and lymphocytes.
Cells whose function is formative and have a Tension or pulling effect are?
Fibroblasts
Cementoblasts
Osteoblasts
Cells whoe function is resorption and have a Pressure effect are?
Fibroclasts
Cementoclasts
Osteoclasts
List the 7 principal fibers of the Periodontal ligament.
Free gingival fibers
Transseptal fibers
Alveolar crest fibers
Horizontal fibers
Oblique fibers
Apical fibers
Interradicular fibers
The width of the periodontal ligament ranges from?
.12 to .33 mm
How are function of tooth and width of periodontal ligament related?
Decrease in function of tooth appears to be accompanied by decreased width of periodontal ligament.
Fibers that are located around the cervical part of the rooth; extend from cementum into the gingiva that surrounds the neck of the tooth.
Free gingival fibers
Fibers found only on the mesial and distal sides of the tooth; extend from cementum of one tooth into the cememtum of another tooth.
Transseptal fibers
Fibers that are located at the margin of the bone that surrounds to tooth root and they extend through periodontal ligaments to cementum from margin of bone.
Alveolar crest fibers
Fibers located immediatly below the horizontal group, middle of root and run in a diagonal direction.
Oblique fibers
Fibers that radiate around the apex of the tooth; from cementum to bottom of alveolar bone.
Apical Fibers
Fibers found in the root furcations
Interradicular fibers
Which fibers ensure proper relationship of the teeth to one another?
Transseptal fibers
Where do periodontal ligaments get their blood supply from?
Superior and inferior alveolar arteries.
Where do periodontal ligaments get their nerve supply from and what type of nerve transmission?
Trigeminal nerve:
2nd division for maxilla
3rd division for mandible
Sensory only
Do periodontal ligaments have lymphatic vessels?
Yes
These types of cells derive from the enamel organ which produces enamel and they may lead to tumors or cysts.
Rests of Malassez
Hertwig's epithelial root sheath
Small, round groups of epithelial cells are called?
Rests of Malassez
Strings of epithilial cells are called?
Hertwig's epithelial rooth sheath
Microscopic calcified bodies that are spherical, may be attached to the cementum, found in Peridontal Ligaments of older individuals and are not clinically important.
Cementicles
What are the four functions of Periodontal ligament?
Supportive
Formative
Resorptive
Nutritive
What is the supportive function of periodontal ligaments?
Arranged so that they withstand occlusal pressure and distribute the pressure in all directions.
What is the formative function of periodontal ligaments?
They produce cementum of the root and bone of the tooth socket.
What is the resorptive function of periodontal ligaments?
Pull causes bone formation
Pressure stimulates bone resorption.
Without Periodontal ligaments, can a tooth be retained in its socket?
No
Can Periodontal ligaments be repaired?
Yes, after destruction cause has been removed.
What is the percentage of inorganic minerals found in bone and what are they?
50%, similar to cementum
Hydroxyapatite
Calcium and phosphorous
What is the percentage of organic mucopolysaccharides found in bone and what are they?
50%
Collagen and proteins
Is bone as hard as cementum?
Yes
What type of tissue makes up bone?
Connective tissue
What type of cells are found in bone?
Osteocytes
What is considered an organ and is composed of bone tissue?
Mandible
What does bone tissue contain in it's center?
Bone marrow
What cells create osteocytes which produce bone?
Osteoblasts
What cells cause bone resorption?
Osteoclasts
Can bones remodel and change? Are they in a state of constant change?
Yes
In growing bone, new bone is added to either the outside or inside of the organ. If it is added to the outside it involves? If it is added to the inside it involves?
Outside - periosteum
Inside - endosteum
What must be present in primary teeth in order for exfoliation to occur?
Clast cells
Tension of ligament will cause?
Bone formation
Pressure on ligament will cause?
Bone resorption
Osteocytes form the bone and are found where?
Lacuna
The cytoplasma of the osteocyte is found where?
Canaliculi - Volkmann's canal
Osteocytes connect with other osteocytes in the lacuna through?
Canaliculi
Is bone a vascular tissue?
Yes
What are the 3 diffirent functions of bone?
Surrounds every tooth
Supports every tooth
Part of periodontium
What are the 2 diffirent bone types?
Compact bone
Trabecular bone
The outside surface of all bones is covered by a thin connective tissue membrane called?
Periosteum
The inside surfaces of bones are covered with a much more delicate connective tissue membrane called?
Endosteum
The bone type that is found on the outside and is harder is?
Compact bone
The bone type that is spongy and cancellous is mostly found on the inside?
Trabecular
What projects into the bone marrow cavity and multiplies with use and diminishes without use?
Trabeculae
The greater the functional activity the greater or lesser number of trabeculae?
Greater
Occupies the center of bone in spaces around the trabeculae?
Bone Marrow
Bone marrow found in childhood that produces red and white blood cells and if soft and spongy is?
Red Bone Marrow
Bone marrow found in adults made of fat and has no blood-producing function.
Yellow bone marrow
What converts into what, red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow?
Red bone marrow converts into yellow bone marrow.
Which canal found in bone is in charge of nutrition and is known as the "master canal" with lots of blood supply?
Volkmann's canal
Which canal found in bone runs vertically and which runs horizontally?
Vertically- Haversian
Horizontally - Volkmann
Which membrane undergoes both formation and resorption, periosteum or endosteum?
Both
Cartilage structure precedes the development of bone tissue; mineralized cartilage resorbs and bone tissue forms to replace it.
Endochondral formation
Bone tissue is formed without a preceding cartilage structure.
Intramembranous formation
Give two examples of bone which form without preceding cartilage structure.
Maxilla and Mandible
Mature bone is formed in thin layers called?
Lamellae
Lamellae of bone have two patterns and they are?
Haversian system bone
Lamellar bone
Haversian bone is composed of?
Concentric lamellae and haversian canal
How many concentric circles are around a small central haversian canal?
4-20
Makes up the outside surface of most bones and follow the surface of the bone instead of being in concentric circles.
Lamellar Bone
Lamellar bone is also known as?
Circumferential bone
Subperiosteal bone
Bone between two roots of a permanent molar.
Interradicular bone
The bone of our jaws which contains the sockets for the teeth.
Alveolar process
The alveolar process cinsists of?
Outer cortical plates
Central spongy bone
Bundle bone (lines socket)
The bone lining the socket is specifically known as?
Bundle bone
Bone that provides attachment for ligament fibers which is perforated and nerves and vessels are transmitted through and is also known as?
Bundle bone
Cribiform plate
What are the advantages of trabecular (spongy) bone?
Lighter weight and bone marrow provides nutrition from both inside and outside the bone.
What is the tooth eruption process?
Teeth emerge through the soft tissue of the jaws and enter the oral cavity, contact the teeth of opposing arch, and function in mastication.
Is tooth eruption a continuous process?
Yes
What are the three phases of eruption?
Preeruptive phase
Eruptive phase
Posteruptive phase
Phase during eruption where only the crown is completed; phase that starts with tooth germ and ends with crown completion.
Preeruptive phase
Phase during eruption where initiation of root formation starts and teeth move from within bone to functional position in occlusion.
Eruptive phase
Phase during eruption where root has been completed, and tooth has erupted until it comes into contact with opposing tooth.
Posteruptive phase
At what age do we see a mixed dentition?
6 to 12 years old
What are the 3 main differences in primary and permanent dentitions?
Primary dentition is smaller and fewer in numbers and it is also whiter in color.
During which phase of eruption are crowns in constant movement?
Preeruptive phase
What is the position of the permanent teeth to primary teeth before eruption in anteriors?
Lingual
What is the position of permanent teeth to primary teeth before shedding and eruption in posteriors?
Apical 3rd of primary roots.
What are the 4 major events of tooth eruptions?
1. Root formation
2. Movement incisally/occlusally
3. Penetration of crown tip through epithelial layer.
4. Intraoral incisal or occlusal movement continuing till tooth occludes with opposing tooth.
Crown that extends from the cusp tip to the area of gingival attachment.
Clinical crown
Crown that extends from the cusp tip to the CEJ
Anatomic crown
What causes primary teeth to exfoliate?
Osteoclasts and pressure from successional teeth.
When a tooth moves occlusally it creates a space underneath for what?
Root formation
These are found around the root apex and they form collagen that attach to the newly formed cementum.
Fibroblasts
What is the rule used for primary tooth eruption?
6/4 rule, every six months 4 teeth erupt.
Primary tooth eruption.
6 M: Mand & Max centrals
12 M: Max & Mand laterals
18 M: Max & Mand 1st molars
24 M: Max & Mand canines
30 M: Mand & Max 2nd molars
When do all primary crowns start calcifying?
5 months in utero
When do all primary crowns complete formation?
1 years old
When do all primary teeth erupt?
2.5 years old
When do all primary teeth complete root formation?
4 years old
The rule of fours for permanent tooth development.
Birth - 4 1st molars initiated calcification
4 yrs. - all crowns have initiated calcification
8 yrs. - all crowns completed
12 yrs. - all crown emerge
16 yrs. - all roots are complete
The rule of six for dental development.
6 wks. in utero - beginning of dental development
6 m. - emergence of 1st primary tooth
6 yrs. - emergence of 1st permanent tooth
Apical migration of the junctional epithelium is called?
Gingival recession
Lateral bodily movement of the teeth on both sides of the mouth toward the midline of the arch.
Mesial drift
What is mesial drift caused by?
Worn proximal surfaces, transseptal fibers become shorter, teeth shift mesially to maintain contact.