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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the cell membrane or plasmalemma.
8 to 10 nm in width, it is trilaminar
It consist of two leaflets of phospholipid molecules.
Proteins associated with the lipid bilayer may be:
integral transmembrane protein or peripheral membrane protein.
The --------- is present in the external leaflet of the cell membrane, which protects the cell from mechanical and chemical damage.
glycocalyx coat (glycolipid and glycoprotein)
What are some functions of cell membranes?
Selectively permeable, antigen receptor sites
receptor sites for hormone activated cellular events.
Nucleus is bounded by the -------- and contains what?
nuclear envelope

chromatin, nucleolus or nucleoli and a nuclear matrix.
Normally cells contain one nucleus, but_______ and ______ have several nuclei.
skeletal muscle cells and osteoclasts
What do Mammalian erythrocytes lack?
Nuclear envelope consist of what?
two concentric membranes
Inner-membrane proteins
What is chromatin composed of?
(DNA), proteins, histones and nonhistone chromosomal proteins.
Chromatin occurs in two forms, what are they?
Heterochromatin in basophilic clumps predominant in relatively inactive cells.

Euchromatin particularly abundant in active cells, lightly stained and uniformly dispersed.
_________ Chromatin occurs in basophilic clumps predominant in relatively _________ cells.
Heterochromatin, inactive
_________ Chromatin is particularly abundant in active cells
What chromatin is prominent in neutrophilic leucocytes in females ?
sex chromatin (Barr body)
Where are nucleolus prominent?
In cells that are actively synthesizing protein.
What is the nucleolus responsible for doing?
Involved in the synthesis of rRNA and its packaging into precursor of ribosomes.
All cells except __________ contain ribosomes.
mature mammalian erythrocytes
What are the function of ribosomes?
protein synthesis
What are ribosomes mainly associated with?
Rough E.R
Aggregates of roughER appear as basophilic and are involved in what ?
protein synthesis.
Smooth ER is abundant in cells involved in ________.
lipid metabolism (synthesis of steroid hormones).
The enzymes for synthesis of _________ are located on the membranes of smooth ER.
steroid hormones
Smooth ER is also involved in __________ and release and recapture of __________ during contraction and relaxation of muscle tissue.
drug detoxification, calcium ion
Golgi complex can be stained with _________ and appears as a black network of cisternae.
silver salt or osmium
What is the function of the Golgi complex?
Site for the packaging of proteins
Biosynthesis of glycoprotein
What are lysosomes?
membrane-bounded vesicles that contain hydrolytic enzymes (kills Microorganisms)
Where are lysosomes synthesized and where are they transferred?
synthesized in the rER and transferred to the golgi complex-enzymes are packaged as primary lysosomes.
What are the differences between primary lysosomes and secondary lysosomes?
The primary lysosomes fuse with the phagocytosed material autophagy); to become secondary lysosomes.
What happens to secondary lysosomes after digestion?
retained as residual bodies or lipofuscin (age pigment).
What are peroxisomes?
organelles, that have oxidase and catalase enzymes which synthesize and destroy hydrogen peroxide.
Where are peroxisomes abundant?
proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney.
What is the major function of peroxisomes?
detoxify certain substances e.g. ethanol and play a role in gluconeogenesis.
Mitochondria is stained with _________ in living cells.
Janus Green B
What is the function of the mitochondria?
metabolic activity in the cell
chief source of energy.
What are the inner membranes of the mitochondria composed of?
folds (cristae) contain enzymes for oxidative phosphorylation.
Which energy cycle is the mitochondria involved in.
oxidative phosphorylation
The mitochondrial matrix contains ___________.
DNA and ribosomes
What is the only cell organelle outside the nucleus that contains DNA?
What is the cytoskeleton composed of?
microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
What are microfilaments?
made of actin and myosin filaments
used for muscle contraction
__________ are present in almost all cells - abundant in cells subject to mechanical stress.
Intermediate filaments
________ filaments provide mechanical stability by formation of desmosomes. Also present in keratinized epithelium for protection
Keratin filaments (Tonofilaments)
________ filaments support muscle cells.
Desmin filaments
_______ filaments support nerve cells.
__________ filaments support astrocytes and neurolemmocytes (Schwann cells).
Glial filaments
What are microtubules and what major role do they play in the cell?
They are tubular structures that help w/ the maintenance of cell.
_________ play an essential role in cell division and are the major component of the centriole.
___________play an essential role in cell division and are the major component in the maintenance of the cell.
What are cytoplasmic inclusions? Give 5 examples.
non-living material

Glycogen, Lipid, melanin, Hemosiderin, Lipofuscin
___________ is a cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell and muscle, can be demonstrated by PAS reaction.
_________ is a cytoplasmic inclusion in adipose cells.
_________ is a cytoplasmic inclusion in skin, pigment epithelium of retina.
_________ is a cytoplasmic inclusion that is a result of hemoglobin degradation.
Which cytoplasmic inclusion increases with age?
What is Lipofuscin and where is it found?
It is indigestible residue of phagocytosis, commonly found in cardiac muscle, liver and nerve cells.
What are intercellular junctions and give 3 examples.
They help keep cells together.
tight junction, adhering (anchoring) junctions, gap junction
What are tight junctions and where are they found?
epithelial cells and consist of (transmembrane proteins) that seal neighboring cells together.
Describe the function of a tight junction.
barrier that prevents the passage of water soluble molecules from the lumen to intercellular space and vice versa.
What are the 3 types of adhering (anchoring) junctions?
Zonula adherens, Desmosomes, Hemidesmosomes
_________ are intercellular junctions prominent in the lining cells of the intestine.
Zonula adherens
Intermediate filaments are attached to __________ forming a hairpin loop
They connect the cells from extracellular matrix protein (similar to the half desmosome).
__________ are required when passing something from one cell to another.
Communicating (gap) junction
What are communicating (gap) junctions?
Permits the direct passage of inorganic ions and other water-soluble molecules from cell to cell.
A single long cilium is reffered to as a __________.
flagellum, e.g., spermatozoon
__________ are cytoplasmic evagination to increase the free surface for absorption, e.g., small intestine
__________ are long, rigid microvilli. e.g., hair cells of the spiral organ (corti) of the inner ear.