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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
motile processes found in the trachea
cilia
what structure or layer is present in thick skin and not in thin skin
stratum lucidum
secretion of small pieces of apical cytoplasm is called what?
apocrine secretion
what type of epithelium helps form a serosa?
simple squamous
A cell junction that has tonofilaments anchored into disc-like plaques of electron dense material and which serves for attachment is what?
macular adherens
what epithelia types line the small intestine?
simple columnar epithelium w/ microvilli
what epithelium lines blood and lymph vessels?
simple squamous ep.
What Ep. lines the trachea?
simple squamous ep.
what ep lines urinary bladder?
transitional ep so it can stretch
what ep lines epidiymis of the testes?
pseudostratified columnar ep w/stereocillia
a whole cell is secreted or destroyed in the process of secretion occurs in which of the following type of secretion?
holocrine
characteristics of ep tissue
a vascular

hi regererative power

covers surface

always rest on basement membrane w/underlying CT

gets oxygen and nutrients from BS in CT

exhibits polarity
3 major groupings of ep. tissue
1.surface
2.glandular
3.special (sensory/repo)
functions of ep. tissue
protection (skin)

absorption (columnar ep lining intestines)

secretion (sweat glands)
3 surfaces of epithelialium
1.apical surface-free surface faces air,fluid, or lumen.

2.basal-attached to surface like basal membrane then to CT

3.Lateral surface-attached to other ep. cells
2 ways to classify surface epithelium
number of cell layers

cell shape
ways to characterize surface ep. based on number of celll layers
simple
stratified
pseudostratified
simple ep.
single layer of cells
(one cell thick)
stratified ep.
2 or more cells thick
pseudostratified ep.
appears to be over 1 layer thick but actually each cell is touch basal surface
if ep is layered and contains cells of more than one shape, how is ep. named?
named based on cell shape of most superficial layer
way to characterize surface ep. based on cell shape
squamous
cuboidal
columnar
squamos ep.
flattened scale like cells w/ flattened n. looks like pancake much wider than hi
cuboidal ep.
cells as tall as they are wide (cube w/round n.)
columnar ep.
cells taller by 2x more than they are wide (oval n.)
type of ep. in lining of lumen of trachea
pseudostratified columnar ep. with cilia
type of ep. in secretory duct
strat cuboidal
Pap smear
easy fast way to detect atypical cervial ep cells that are associated w/cervial cander. they atypical (dysplastic) cells have an increased ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio
keratinized ep.
several layers of dead cells containing keratin on top layer to serve as protection

eg. skin. the upper laye rof squamous cells die and lose their n. and fill up w/keratohyalin to protect agains dehydration
nonkeratinized ep.
no keratin. the surface is live cells w/nucleus
endothelium
simple squamous ep that lines blood and lymph vessels

smallest vessels,caps consist only of endothelium
describe transitional ep
shown in two diff shapes (relaxed and distended) it is called this bc it can change its shape according to pressures exerted upon it
describe nonderatinized startified squamous tissue
small n. in center w/lots of cytoplasm

flattened cells w/low n. to cytoplasmic ratio

usually will see squamous cell in slie prep
mesothelium
simple squamous ep that line major body cavities and covers free ouside surface of organs
gernimal ep
ep that gives rise to spermatozoa
types of special ep
endothelium
mesothelium
neuroepithelium
germinal ep
transitional ep
transitional ep
stratified ep whose cells vary in form w/functional state of the organ. the cell have fusiform vessicles that become part of the apical membrane when stretchin occurs

multilayer; looks like cobble stone appearance when in relaxed state
metaplasia
cells change from one shape to another

eg. smoking induces squamous metaplais in pseudostratified columnar ep of resp tract so than now the cells properties differ from original ep.
what are components of serosa?
mesothelium and underlying conn tissue
what are in the insdie of basal infolding?
mitochondira
what surrounds microvillus
glycolcalyx
how do nonbasal cells get nutrients?
the get nutrients through conn tissue. so nutrients have to diffuse through all cell layers. theres is a limit as to how far these cells can get away from basement mem. before they die
describe dysplastic cells
cells have much less cytpolams and larger n.

larger n. to cytoplasm ratio and larger n.

white blood cells come to area
apical surface specializations
microvilli
stereocillia
cilia
components of basement mem
basal lamina
reicular lamina
where are hemidesmosomes located?
on basal lamina
microvilli of apical surface of ep cell
non motile approx 1um in l

aborbptive properties

core of actin

striated border of int. ep

brush border of kidney

used on increase SA
stereocillia of apical surface of ep cells
ultrastructrually like microvilli

approx 20-50 um in length

in epididymis
cilia of apical surface of ep cells
motile processes 10um long

9+2 arangement of microtubuls

coordinated movements aid in luminal transport of materials like mucus

found in trachea
lateral surface specializations in ep cell
junctional complexes

zonula occludens
zonula adherens
macula adherens
gap junction
adhesion belt w/cadherens interconnecting mats of actin in cytoplasm
zonula adherens
macula adherens
spot welds w/keratin intermediate filaments attached to them to provide structural support
basement membrane
sheetlike substrate upon which all ep rest. basement mem is seen with PAS staining which stains the glycoprotiens to see two component layers in EM

1.basal lamina
2.reticular lamina
what is on basal surface of ep cells
hemidesmosomes to allow cells to attach to basement mem via integrins

when cell does transporting on basal surface it has basal infolding to increase SA of basal mem for transport and since so much NRG is need the mitochondia are in the basal foldings
what allow hemidesmosomes to attach to basement mem?
integrins
basal lamina of basement mem
produced by epithelium

composed mostely of type 4 collagen and laminin
what is basal lamina made of?
type 4 collagen and laminin
reticular lamina of basement mem
made by fibroblasts in conn tissue and type 3 collagen (reticular fibers) and laminin
terminal bar
junctional complex as seen in lt microscope as darkly stained lines near apical surface of ep cells in intestine. composed of three seperate junctions; a zonula occludens, zonula adherens, and desmosome

mostly zonula adherens
-actin adhesion belt that
wraps around cell
-2x denser where cell are
in contact bc each cell
has a zonula adherens
2 types of glandular epithelium
endocrine

exocrine
glandular epithelium
glands are organs that secrete substances into ep surface or into duct leading to surface(exocrine) or BS (endocrine)
2 major types of exocrine glands
1. single cell exocrine

2. multicellurlar exocrine
single cell exocrine
goblet cells lining respiratory and digestive tracts that are parallel to columnar ep cells

contains secretory granules in apical cytoplams and are waiting for strimulus to release mucus contents by exocytosis

Use PAS to show mucus of mucus cells
only single cell exocrine gland
goblet cells lining resp and digestive tract
multicelluar exocrine glands
many categories

ex are salivary galnds and exocrine part of pancrease

may have mixture of mucous and serous secreting cells
myoepitelial cells
modified ep cells for contraction. share basal lamina of acinar cells. myopep cells exhibit fibrillar cytoplsmaic processes that radiate from cell body and wrap around acini and some small ducts. their contraction assist in expressing secretions from acini and from small ducts

looks like tentacles
acinus
secreting cells that discharge into a duct
describe serous acinus
pyramidal shaped cells

cell boundary indistinct

spherical centered nucleus

apical secretory granuals

basophilic cytoplasm around nucleus bc lots of rough ER

proteinaceous secretion w/enzymes
2 places serous acinus are found
exocrine pancrease

salivary gland
mucuous acinus characteristics
pyramidal cell shape

cell boundary distinct

nucleus flat and at base of cell

secretory product (mucus) lost during tissue prep so apical part of cell is clear

only slight basophilia arnd n.

viscous secretion
serous demilune
crescent shaped serous cells overying basal part of mucous acinous

channels between mucous cells so that the serous cells can secrete their producet between the mucous cells into the duct
relationship of mucous and serous cells after rapid freezing methoud
serous cells extend from basal lamina to lumen of acinus. the serous cells occupy the periphery of the acinus to form the serous demilune. this si an artifact of immerision fixation. the swollen mucous cells have forced out the secous cells leaving small remnant of cytoplasm between mucous cells
3 types of exocrine secretion
1.merocrine (exocytosis)

2.apocrine

3.holocrine
merocrine
no loss of celluar content. the material fuses w/cell membrane and contents are released into lumen of the duct

most common in sweat glands and salivary glands
apocrine
apical membrane is pinched off during secretion so the cytoplasm,product, and membrane is secreted
holocrine secretion
whole cells is secreting or destroyed

seen in sebaceous gland