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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
General characteristics of cartilage
Avascular
Nourished by diffusion of nutrients from adjacent connective tissue or synovial fluid from joint cavities
Contains no lymph or nerves
Types of Cartilage
Hyaline
Elastic
Fibrocartilage
Surface Covering of Cartilage
Perichondrium
Sheath of Dense Irregular CT, surrounds cartilage (Except Fibrocartilage and Hyaline Cartilage on Articular Surfaces)
Outer fibrous layer contains fibroblasts
Inner chondrogenic later contains chondroblasts
Contents of Perichondrium
Blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves (reason for pain in joints)
Function of Perichondrium
Growth and mainenance of cartilage
Chondroblasts
Originate from mesenchymal cells
Appear similar to fibroblasts
Located in chondrogenic layer of perichondrium
"Secrete intercellular matrix around themselves, thereby becoming chondrocytes"
Chondrocytes
Condroblasts surrounded by intercellular matrix
Lie in potential cavities (lacunae)
Individual chondrocytes divide to form clusters of chondrocytes, (Isogenous groups)
Appear similar to fibroblasts
Secrete intercellular matrix
Extracellular Matrix (Extensive) - Contents and Function
Fibers - Collagen (3 cartilage types) & Elastic (Elastic Cartilage)
Ground Substance - Proteoglycans (Chondroitin Sulfate), Non-sulfated Glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic acid), Glycoproteins
Water - Bound to GAG's
Physical Properties of Cartilage
Firm gel-like consistency
Bears mechanical stresses (compressive and tensile) w/o permanent distortion
Function of Cartilage (3)
Provides light, flexible support
Shock absorber (resists pressure) and sliding area (smooth surface) for joints
Development and growth of long bones before and after birth (hyaline cartilage)
Hyaline Cartilage - Definition
Possesses perichondrium (except articular surfaces).
Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage w/o perichondrium
(Most Common)
Hyaline Cartilage - Fiber Component and Interterritorial Matrix
Primarily collagen type II fibrils
Interterritorial Matrix - region between lacunae/isogenous groups of chondrocytes rich in fibers
Hyaline Cartilage - Ground Substance (3) and Territorial Matrix
Proteoglycans contain chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate
Hyaluronic acid present, forming proteoglycan aggregates
Glycoprotein chondronectin binds GAGs to collagen type II
Territorial Matrix - Region surrounding each chondrocyte rich in ground substance
Hyaline Cartilage - Water
Most abundant component of articular cartilage. 65-80% of wet weight of tissue
Hyaline Cartilage - Distribution
Fetal Skeleton
Articular Surface (no perichondrium) of movable joints
Walls of large respiratory passages
Ventral ends of ribs
Epiphysial plates of growing long bones
Elastic Cartilage - Fiber Component
Primarily elastic fibers with some collagen type II fibrils
Elastic Cartilage - Distribution
External Ear (pinna)
Epiglottis
Parts of Larynx
Fibrocartilage - Cells
Chondrocytes usually arranged in long rows
Fibrocartilage - Fiber Component
Rich in collagen type I fibers
Regular Arrangement - Tensile Strength
Irregular Arrangement - Resists Compression
Fibrocartilage - Ground Substance
Minimal, only around chondrocytes
Fibrocartilage
Transition between dense CT and hyaline cartilage.
Does not possess a perichondrium
Fibrocartilage - Regular Fiber Arrangement Distribution
Insertions of certain ligaments and tendons to bone
Fibrocartilage - Irregular Fiber Arrangement Distribution
Menisci of Knee
Annulus Fibrosus of IVD
Pubic Symphysis
Aging: Articular Cartilage - Possible Structural Changes
Reduced proteoglycan aggregation
Smaller proteoglycans synthesized
Decreased ability to hold water in extracellular matrix
Aging: Articular Cartilage - Functional Changes
Reduced ability to dissipate forces across the joint