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28 Cards in this Set

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1201 Which common connective tissue components does blood exhibit?
Cells & amorphous ground substance (plasma/serum).
1202 Which common C.T. component is missing from blood?
Fibers
1203 What are the anuclear formed elements of blood?
Red blood cells and platelets
1204 Why doesn't an erythrocyte have a nucleus?
it doesn’t need one as it has a single function, carrying O2/CO2 around the blood vascular system. Once the manufacture of hemoglobin finished, so did the cell’s need for a nucleus.
1205 What is a reticulocyte and how prevalent are they in peripheral blood?
An immature r.b.c. one that exhibits traces of the rER required for manufacture of hemoglobin. They should comprise no more than 1-2% of peripheral blood
1206 How do platelets differ from erythrocytes?
Platelets are biconvex dics, they contain a marginal ring of microtubules and cytoplasmic granules that contain serotonin. While erythrocytes are biconcave disks.
1207 What do the granules of platelets contain?
Serotonin, a potent vasoconstrictor (constricts blood vessels)
1208 What is the function of platelets?
Platelets aid in clotting: they secrete serotonin to constrict blood vessels to lessen blood loss at a cut site as well as secrete fibrin to aid in thrombus (clot) formation. They also adhere to any non-endothelial-lined surfaces
1209 What are the two major subgroups of leukocytes?
Granular and agranular leukocytes
1210 What is meant by the term "specific granules"?
Granules that stain specifically (ie. red, blue) with a specific stain. Generally, they contain hydrolytic enzymes
1211 Know the characteristics of each type of granulocyte as well as their function.
Neutrophils: multilobed (3-5 lobes) nucleus with smallish purple-staining specific granules; eosinophils: bilobed nucleus with large eosinophilic (pink) granules; basophils: bilobed nucleus with large basophilic (blue) granules. These cells exhibit the majority of their functions once the leave the peripheral blood and enter C.T.
1212 What is a drumstick appendage (Barr body) ?
The inactive X chromosome of females
1213 Which blood cell will exhibit the Barr body?
It is a small drumstick-shaped appendage sticking out of one of the lobes of the nucleus of a neutrophil.
1214 Know the characteristics of each type of agranular leukocyte as well as their function.
Lymphocytes: ovoid nucleus with thin rim of slightly basophilic cytoplasm, large and small subdivisions differ with regard to the amount of cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus
Monocytes: large pale U-shaped nucleus and surrounding thin rim of cytoplasm
1215 Which blood cells leave the peripheral blood?
What do they become if they do?
What is the function of each once they enter connective tissue?
Basically, all Leucocytes.
Cell - new form - function:
neurophils - polymorphs - seek out and ingest bacteria;
eosinophils - eosinophils - ingest antigen/antibody complexes/larval stages of pararsites;
basophils - mast cells - secrete heparin/histamine;
lymphococytes - B cells become plasma cells - secrete humoral antibodies in response to antigens;
monocytes - monocytes - fuse to form osteocvlasts, become macrophages
1216 The specific granules of which granulocyte are not lysosomes?
Only the specific granules of the basophil are not specialized lysosomes - containing heparin and histamine
1217 The specific granules of which granulocyte are recognizable from all other cells of
the body with TEM? How?
The specific granules of eosinophils contain a charateristic crystalloid that distinguish this cell type from all others of the body under TEM
1218 A high level of circulating eosinophils reflects what condition?
Eosinophilia is indicative of a systemic allergic reaction
1219 List any blood cells/formed elements which should never leave circulating blood.
Red blood cells and platelets are formed elements that should never leave the peripheral blood under normal circumstances
1220 List the blood cell types in order of their relative abundance in a sample o f
peripheral blood.
Red blood cells, platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
1221 What are the two subtypes of lymphocytes?
Small and large lympohocytes, based on overall size of the cell
1222 What are the subtypes of small lymphocytes?
B (Bursa-derived) cells/lymphocytes and T (Thymus-derived) cells/lymphocytes
1223 What is a null lymphocyte and what is its function ?
Lymphocytes that do not exhibit surface marking antigens of either the B or T cell classifications. They represent about 5% of the lymphocyte population
1224 How do T cells differ from B-cells functionally?
T- cells have unique cell surface proteins and function as mediators of the cellular immune response. B-cells have intramembrane immunoglobulin molecules acting as antigen receptors. They mediate the humoral response
1225 What can happen when a B lymphocyte encounters an antigen?
The B-cell will divide several times and these cells will differentiate into plasma cells which secreted protein-based antibodies to the specific antigen
1226 What can happen when a T lymphocyte encounters an antigen?
T-cells will also divide but produce cells that differentiate into one of 3 subtypes: cytotoxic T cells (primary effectors in cell-mediated immunity that kill foreign cells); helper T cells (secrete lymphokinis that stimulate B cell participation); suppressor T cells (suppress activity of B cells as well as the immune response to self molecules)
1227 A 23 year old male, who recently moved to the U.S.A. from Africa, comes to your clinic with massive bilateral lower extremities, nearing 5X normal. Physical
examination reveals massive edema in both lower extremities and the diagnosis of elephantiasis is made. The causative agent is Wuchereria bancrofti, a roundworm
transmitted by the female mosquito.
What peripheral blood cell type is responsible to combating this parasite? What specific protein in this cell's specific granules attacks the parasite?
eosinophil; major basic protein
1228 A 1 month old infant presents to your clinic for the 4th time since birth. The infant has a fever and appears in obvious distress. Blood work and chart review show recurrent infections with S. aureus, Aspergillus, and E. Coli.
What blood cell type is defective in this case?
neutrophil