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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is blood?
A connective tissue with fluid extracellular matrix.
What is plasma? What are the parts?
Plasma is Matrix. Fibrinogen, albumin, hormones.
What part of plasma aids in clot formation?
What is albumin?
Made by liver. A colloidal protein that is carrier for hormones,it regulates osmotic pressure in blood.
What are blood cells involved in?
Maintaining adequate oxygen tension in tissues and homeostasis in of circulatory system. Host defense against microbes.
What happens to albumin in malnutrition?
Albumin production reduces, get pot belly because albumin isn't available to pull back fluid.
Describe erythrocytes.
(RBC)- bi concave discs with most surface area to volume to carry dissolved gases to body. Each about 8microns. No nucleus, sac of protein, terminally differentiated. Has enzymes in cytoplasm and rudimentary skeleton. Protein that gives color is hemoglobin, can reversibly bind oxygen. Live 120 days.
Describe RBC intravascularity funtion.
Work in circulatory system. Absorb high oxygen. Hemo binds 4 oxygen from lung and delivers oxygen to tissue. Oxygen releases and diffused to tissue
Describe carbon dioxide affinity.
Hemo has such high affinity to carbon dioxide that it is virtually irreversible and causes death b/c lack of oxygen.
How do you look at blood?
fill it in tube with non-clotting factor and centrifuge.
How do you measure hematocrit?
Measure before and after centrifuge. Low hematocrit = anemia, high hematocrit=
What causes anemia?
blood loss, low iron (dietary), blood cell production problem, sickle cell anemia.
What is sickle cell anemia?
RBC shaped like sickle instead of normal from mutation, causes low oxygen tension due to irreversible polykmerization of hemoglobin when deoxygenated. Problem of passage of RBC through spleen.
What are leukocytes? Main function?
White blood cells. Do work outside circulation
Describe Agranulocytes.
agranulocytes without granules. Lymphocytes and monocytes.
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells.
Describe the general properties of leukocytes.
They function extravascularly, categorized by presence or lack of granules, participate in immune response.
Name two agranular leukocytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes.
What are the three granular leukocytes?
neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
Visually how does one differentiate between lymphocytes and monocytes?
Monocytes have a higher proportion of visible cytoplasm.
How does Wright Stain appear of granulocytes?
Neutrophils- granules don't stain much, Eosinophils- granules stain red, Basophils- granules stain blue.
Describe neutrophils.
Nucleus is segmented (also called polymorphonuclear), granules contain degradative and bacteriocidal enzymes, live only a few days, function outside circulatory system, first line of defense, attracted to bacterial products, they crawl, they engulf bacteria then die, neutrophil debris is a major part of pus.
Describe eosinophils.
Live less than 2 weeks, extravascular function, not very phagocytic, degrade histamine, degrade antigen/antibody complexes, participate in elim of parasites
Describe basophils.
Distinct large granules, granules contain histamin and heparin. Not very phagocytic, related to mast cells.
Describe basophils role in allergic reactions.
Basophils have surface receptors for IgE antibody. Cells bind IgE antibodies made by immune system. This triggers release of granule contents. Histamine is responsible for allergy symptoms (increased permeability and gland secretion).
Describe monocytes.
Large, kidney shaped nucleus, abundant cytoplasm, not many granules in cyto, function extravascularly, circulate in blood for few days and then enter extravas. spaces. Give rise to macrophages. Very phagocytic, longer lifespan than neutrophils.
Describe lymphocytes.
small cells, mostly nucleus with thin rim of cytoplasm, condensed chromatin in nucleus, can undergo proliferation, functions extravascularly in the lymphatic tissue. they migrate into CT associate with epithelium.
What are platelets?
Small membrane bound cell fragments that function intravascularly. They are derived from megakaryocytes that reside in bone marrow, they possess protein granules for blood clotting, adhesion and repair of damaged vessels.
How are blood clots formed?
Blood clots are formed by aggregating platelets and fiber forming a thrombus which acts to seal a damaged portion of vessel.
What is hematopoieses?
Differentiation and production of blood cells.
Where does hematopoieses happen?
After birth, production of blood happens in the bone marrow of vertabrae, ribs, sternum, pelvis in adults and also in long bones in children.
How does hematopoieses change in development?
Starts yolk sac, then in fetal liver and finally in bone marrow.
What happens if bone marrow function is compromised?
Hematopsoieses occurs in the spleen.
What is a pluripotential hematopoietic stem cell?
A cell that is the pre-cursor to all blood cell types.
What are the 4 lineages formed from the pluripotential stem cell?
erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid, megakaryoctye.
Myeloid lineage gives rise to what?
Monocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil.
Name the soluble factor that supports hemosopoieses.
Erythropoietin in erythrocytes, M-CSF in monocytes, G-CSF in granulocytes, interleukin-7 in lymphocytes, and thrombopoietin in thrombocytes.
Name the 6 stages of development of the erythocyte.
Proerythrblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic erythroblast, normoblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte.
When would you see many reticulocytes in the body?
When there is a great need for erythrocytes, reticulocytes may be brought in before they are fully mature.
What are the first two stages of granulocyte development?
Myeoblast and promyelocyte.
Describe the appearance of a mature basophil?
Large, stains blue, apparent granules in cytoplasm.
Describe the appearance of a mature neutrophil.
Distinctive segmentation in nuclues. Polymorphonuclear.
Describe the appearance of a mature eosinophil.
Bi-lobed kidney shaped nucleus.