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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blood consists of ____ suspended in a fluid called _____.
blood cells
What are the major functions of blood?
1) Transport of O2, CO2 and hormones.
2) Maintenance of acid-base balance.
3) Removal of waste products of cellular metabolism.
4) Temperature control of the body.
5) Defense against infection.
What percent of total blood volume is formed by plasma?
about 55%
What is the ECM of blood?
Plasma (= ground substance plus fibers)
What are the five main constituents of plasma?
1) Water
2) Plasma Proteins
3) Inorganic Substances
4) Dissolved gases
5) Horomones and enzymes
What percent of plasma volume is water?
What percent of plasma is made up of proteins?
What proteins are contained in plasma?
Where are plasma proteins made?
made in the liver, except for the gamma globulins which are made by plasma cells
These proteins are very large molecules and under normal conditions do not escape from the Cardiovascular system.
Plasma Proteins
What are the functions of plasma proteins?
1) Exertion of osmotic pressure which helps drive tissue fluid back into the venous system.
2) Participation in blood clotting.
3) Participation in the immune reaction to infection and foreign proteins.
What inorganic substances are contained in blood plasma?
Plasma from which the protein fibrinogen has been removed by clotting.
What is the common stain used for blood?
Wright's Stain
Formed elements make up what percent of total blood volume?
What types of formed elements are contained in blood?
1) Erythrocytes
2) Leukocytes
3) Platelets
The precentage of blood volume that is RBC's
What is a normal hematocrit?
Men- 40-45
Women- 35-40
What is the diameter of a RBC?
7.2 um
How many RBC's do you have per cubic millimenter?
about 5 million
What is it?
What causes it?
A decrease in hemoglobin.
May be due to a decrease in the number or erythrocytes or to a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the erythrocytes.
Sickle cell anemia
Caused by the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Under conditions of low oxygen, the hemoglobin becomes elongated, giving the red blood cell a sickle shape. The cell is rigid and cannot deform to pass through the capillaries. These cells also have a shorter life span than normal.
Hereditary Spherocytosis is an inherited disorder of ___. This defect in the RBC membrane makes them less ___.
What does Spherocytosis look like histologicall?
RBC's lack central pale zone in blood smears and appear instead as smooth or spiky balls.
What is crenation?
If RBC's are placed in a solution of higher osmotic pressure (hypertonic solution) water will move out of the cells and they will shrink and collapse.
What are the two types of Leukocytes?
How do Leukocytes reach the sites where they are needed?
They use the blood stream to reach the tissues where they are needed. They leave the blood capillaries by squeezing between the endothelial cells of the capillary.
The process by which leukocytes leave the blood capillaries by squeezing between the endothelial cells of the capillary.
Types of Granulocytes?
These phagocytic cells are the bodies first line of defense against microorganisms.
Neutrophils make up what percent of leukocytes?
The nucleus has 2-5 lobes.
Stains somewhat lilac to pink in a Wright's stain.
What is contained in the granules of Neutrophils?
Enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase, lactoferrin (binds iron), and lysozyme (damages the cell wall of some bacteria).
Eosinophils make up what percent of leukocytes?
What do eosinophils resond to and how?
They increase in number in allergic reactions and in parasitic infections.
Eosinohpils are about the same size as ____?
Nucleus is bi-lobed.
Cytoplasm is filled with eosinophilic granules.
What is contained in the granules of Eosinophils?
contain several enzymes that are commonly found in lysosomes
Basophils make up what percent of leukocytes?
less than 1%
What is the function of Basophils?
Play a role in some types of hypersensitivity reactions
Bi-lobed nucleus, usually obscured by the deeply basophilic granules in the cytoplasm.
What is contained in the granules of basophils?
histamine and heparin
What are the types of Agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes and Monocytes
What are the types of Lymphocytes?
B Lymphocytes and T Lymphocytes
What percent of a normal lood smear is made up of Lymphocytes?
What is the normal size of a lymphocyte?
Their size varies from 6-8 um (small lymphocyte) to 9-18 um (large lymphocyte)
What is the appearance of the nucleus and cytoplasm of a lymphocyte?
Round, deeply basophilic nucleus and a small amount of lightly basophilic cytoplasm. (Large lymphocytes have more cytoplasm than small lymphocytes.)
How can you distinguish B and T lymphocytes under a light microscope?
You cant.
B Lymphocytes develop into ___ cells in the CT and produce ___.
Immunoglobulins (Antibodies)
How many antigens does a plasma cell produce antibodies for?
Only one.
What are the functions of a T Lymphocyte?
1) aid the B cells in their response to an antigen (Helper T Cells)
2) help regulate the immune response (Suppressor T Cells)
3) kill other cells (Cytotoxic T Cells)
Where do T Cells develop?
in the thymus
What type of cells are involved in the rejection of tissue grafts and organ transplants?
T Cells
Monocytes make up what percent of leukocytes in a normal blood smear?
What is usually the largest cell type in a blood smear?
The nucleus is oval and is often bean shaped and off to one side.
The cytoplasm is more abundant than in lymphocytes.
In the CT, ____ develop into different types of macrophages.
cell fragments that are involved in blood clotting
There are about _____ to ____ platelets per cubic millimeter.
200,000 to 400,000
From what and where do platelets arise?
Arise from very large cells called megakaryocytes in the bone marrow.
These cells have a large, lobulated nucleus. Platelets are fragments of their cytoplasm.
What types of granules are found in platelets?
Alpha granules- contain numerous molecules that facilitate vessel repair, platelet aggregation, and coagulation of blood.
Delta Granules- Electron dense granules that contain ADP, ATP, serotonin, and histamine.
These play a role in vasoconstriction and platelet adhesion.
Delta Granules
Lysosomes containing hydrolytic enzymes probably aid in ____?
clot retraction
what is it?
The formation of new blood cells.
Where does hematopoiesis occur in the fetus?
Yolk sac, Liver, Spleen, Bone Marrow
Where does hematopoiesis occur in an adult?
Bone Marrow
Why is the earliest stem cell for blood described as pluripotent?
Because it can differentiate into any cell type in the blood.
What are the pluripotent stem cells daughter cells called?
Unipotent because they are more restricted in their capacities to differentiate.
Differentiation of stem cells into mature red cells
What happens in Erythropoiesis?
1) Decreasing cell size
2) Hemoglobin production
3) Gradual decrease and eventual loss of all cell organelles.
4) Changing cytoplasmic staining from intensely basophilic due to the large number of ribosomes, to eosinophilic due to hemoglobin.
5) Condensation and eventual extrusion of the nucleus.
Stage in RBC development just before you have a complete RBC. Very close to the size of mature RBC. The nucleus is absent. A few organelles remain and appear as blue reticular strands, hence the name.
THe stages of development of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
What are the stages of Granulopoiesis?
Mature Cells