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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
- flexible but strong
- wavy, eosin-staining structures
- TEM- bundles of fibrils with distinct banding
- collagen is synthesized in the ER (the initial process is inside the cell but the final assembly is outside of the cell)
- collagen is produced by fibroblasts
Structure of collagen
- every third amino acid is a glycine, and preceding that is either hydroxyproline or hydroxylysine
- there are 3 intertwined alpha helixes
- collagen is technically a glycoprotein
- carbohydrates are also associated with it
- the binding of one collagen to the next gives it its strength
Main type of collagen
- type I (makes up 90%)
- made of 2 of 1 alpha, 1 of 2 alpha
Reticular Fibers
- type III collagen fibers
- don't form thick fibers
- threadlike appearance
- mesh-like pattern
- epithelia/CT boundary in loose CT is found here
- reticular fibers are produced by reticular cells
Elastin Fibers
- thinner than collagen
- branching, 3D pattern
- 2 components:
1. elastin (bulk core)
2. fibrillin

- produced by fibroblasts (like collagen)
- microfibrils are made of fibrillin
- elastin fibers are found in: larynx, around arteries (allows them to stretch and contract), and ligaments of vertebral column
Function of Elastin
- has the ability to stretch
- has a highly coiled shape
- Desmosine and Isodesmosine= special amino acids in elastin (they play a key role in the connection between the elastin molecules)
Marfan's Syndrome
- elastin fibers don't function as properly
- there is a disruption in the gene of a particular fibrillin
- it is an autosomal dominant disease
- symptoms: elongated skeleton, higher flexibility, lung problems, scoliosis, arteries more prone to rupture
- famous victims: Ab Lincoln, etc.
Extracellular Matrix
- collagen
- noncollagen glycoproteins
- proteoglycans (ground substance)
- blood and lymphatic vessels
Ground substance
- fills in the space between fibers
- it is a viscous, clear substance
- high water content (hydrophilic)
- lost in preparation
- Composed of:
1. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
2. Proteoglycans
3. Multiadhesive glycoproteins
Proteoglycan structure
- central core protein + GAGs
- the GAGs are highly charged so they draw in water
- hyaluronic acid
Carcinoma invasion
- it reduces the amount of cadherins
- it breaksdown plasma membrane by releasing enzymes (collagenase- breaks down collagen)
- it binds to integrins
- it promotes angiogenesis
Cell types in CT
- fibroblasts and myofibroblasts
- macrophages
- mast cells
- undifferentiated mesenchyme

- plasma cells
- basophils
- lymphocyte
- other immune cells (neurophils, eosinophils, monocytes)
- synthesize extracellular matrix
- only nucleus is typically visible
- produce and remodel collagen
- metabolically active
- help produce scar tissue
- the most abundant cells in CT
- fibrocytes are more spindle-shaped
- have the ability to contract (like smooth muscle contraction)
- differentiate from monocytes
- difficult to ID
- numerous folds and lysosomes
- involved in defense (immune response)
Mast cells
- large, ovoid (20-30 um)
- numerous basophilic granules
- ID requires granules preserved
- located in vicinity of small blood vessels
- also involved in immune response
Plasma Cells
-regions of invasion
- produce antibodies
- cartwheel nucleus
- also involved in immune response