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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Microvilli- actin (microfilaments)
2. Stereocilia- actin (branched, long, uncommon)
3. Cilia- tubulin (microtubules)
Cilia Structural Modifications
- 9 + 2 pattern
- the basal body is the anchor- has nine triplets and no central pair
- nexin helps to link the doublets together
- the radial spoke is important
- dynein- motor proteins that "walk" along microtubules (contracts and pulls down neighboring tubule and causes cilia to bend)
Immotile Cilia Syndrome- a number of diseases (two examples:)
1. Kartagener's Syndrome- lacking dynein arms, so cilia can't move (symptoms: infertility in both men and women, respiratory problems)

2. Young's Syndrome- missing the radial spoke; similar symptoms

3. Situs inversus- organs are switched in the body- flipping of organs during embryonic development (cilia is used to move organs and doesn't in this disease)
Chlamydomonas reinhardii
- research on cilia and flagella is done on these
- FLA-10 gene- disrupts dynein if disturbed and causes hereditary defects in humans
Lateral Domain
- communicates with adjacent cells
- characterized by special attachment areas (adhesion molecules)
Terminal Bars
- dark bands along the tops of epithelium
- the junctional complex is present in terminal bars
Junctional Complex Components
1. Occluding junctions- keeps things out

2. Adhering junctions- adheres things

3. Communicating junctions- communication
Occluding Juctions (zonula occludens)
- found on the apical-most end of the cell
- there are strands all the way through (more strands create a more impermeable barrier; less strands create a more semipermeable barrier)
Occluding Junction proteins
1. Occludins- set up the barrier

2. Claudins- most significant
- occludins and claudins connect to themselves

3. JAM- junction adhesion molecule (IqSF)

4. Z01- binds to actin

5. Z02- involved in signaling

6. Z03- interacts with ZO1 and occludin
- Z01, Z02, and Z03 link the cytoskeleton to adhesion molecules
Transport of Occluding Junctions
- paracellular pathway (more like diffusion; goes in between the cells)
- transcellular pathway (involves active transport)
- channels are created by claudins
Anchoring Junctions
- found underneath occluding junctions
two types:

1. Zonula adherens
2. Macula adherens (desmosomes)- small spot-wells
Zonula adherens
- made of adhesion molecules (E cadherins) and hold cells together
- below occludens
- E cadherin (cell adhesion molecule that requires calcium- use cadherins instead of claudins and occludins)
- Fuzzy plaque
Macula adherens (desmosomes)
- Tight Junctions
- adhesion molecules linked to patch-structure on inside of cell
- link to intermediate filaments