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144 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
fibrous triangle consisting of dense irregular CT
cats and pigs
fibrous triangle consisting of fibrocartilage
dogs
fibrous triangle consisting of hyaline cartilage
horses
fibrous triangle consisting of bone
large ruminants
vasa vasorum and nervi vasorum
tunica externa
continuous capillaries
muscles
fenestrated (visceral) capillaries
GIT
sinusoidal capillaries
endocrine glands
porous capillaries
kidney glomerulus
sinusoids
liver parenchyma
post-capillary venules have functional significance in
lymphoid organs
arteriovenous anastomoses
skin, lip, intestine, nasal mucosa, male & female reproductive tract
blood is stained by
Wright's stain
non-nucleated biconcave disc RBCs
most domestic animals
non-nucleated flattened disc RBCs
goats and pigs
non-nucleated elliptical shaped RBCs
camels & llamas
nucleated RBCs
birds
largest erythrocytes
dogs (7 microns)
smallest erythrocytes
goats (0.4 microns)
prominent rouleaux formation
horses & cats
intermediate rouleaux formation
dogs & pigs
rare rouleaux formation
ruminants
a few reticulocytes & Howell-jolly bodies
normal in dogs & cats (1-2%)
25-40% neutrophils, 50-65% lymphocytes (trend)
food animals
50-70% neutrophils, 20-40% lymphocytes (trend)
companion animals
10% monocytes, 3-8% eosinophils, 1-4% basophils
chickens
heterophils
the neutrophils of chickens
rod-shaped basophils
cats
play a major role in defending the body against bacteria
neutrophils
play a role in allergic & anaphylactic rxn and parasitic infestation
eosinophils
play a major role in mediating inflammatory rxns
basophils
protection against tumor cells
NK cells
produce antibodies and some memory cells
B-lymphocytes
participate in cell-mediated immunity
T-lymphocytes
hematopoisis in adults
bone marrow
hematopoisis in early embryonic life
wall of the yolk sac
hematopoisis in middle embryonic life
fetal liver
hematopoisis in late embryonic life
bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus
lymphoid stem cells and myeloid stem cells come from
pluripotent stem cells
T-cells, B-cells, and NK-cells come from
lymphoid stem cells
colony forming cells (CFCs) come from
myeloid stem cells
polymorphonuclear granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes come from
granulocyte and monocyte CFCs
macrophages come from
monocytes
platelets come from ______ which come from _______
mega-karyoblasts, platelet CFCs
erythrocytes come from _______ which come from _______
reticulocytes, erythrocyte CFCs
cortical & medullary tissues of lymph nodes are reversed
pigs
Hassal's corpuscles
medulla of thymus
sinusual spleen
dogs
nonsinusual spleen
cats, horses, pigs, and ruminants
MALT
digestive and respiratory system organs
GALT (Ileal Peyer's Patches)
distal jéjunum & ileum in young ruminants, pigs, and carnivores
GALT (solitary lymph nodules)
colon & rectum
tonsils in contact with stratified squamous epithelium
oropharynx
tonsils in contact with pseudostratified epithelium
nasopharynx
smooth tonsillar surface
palatine tonsil of cats & dogs
tonsillar fossulae
lingual tonsil in horses, palatine tonsil in horses & ruminants
hemal nodes
ruminants
cloacal bursa (bursa of Fabricius)
birds
propria submucosa
takes the place of the l. muscularis layer of mucosa in respiratory tubular organs
nasal diverticulum
horses
C or U shaped hyaline cartilage
trachea
thickest pulmonary pleura
ruminants
thinnest pulmonary pleura
dogs & cats
intrapulmonary conducting airways
bronchi & bronchioles
gas exchange area of lungs
respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, and alveoli
clara cells
bronchi and bronchioles
irregular hyaline cartilage
bronchi
focus of most lung disorders
respiratory bronchioles
extensive respiratory bronchioles
carnivores
short or absent respiratory bronchioles
horses, cows, and pigs
responsible for production of pulmonary surfactant
type II (granular) alveolar cell
complete hyaline cartilaginous rings
trachea and initial portion of bronchi in birds
syrinx
located at the junction of trachea and bronchi in birds
induced ovulators
cats & rabbits
polytocous animals
bitch, sow, cat, and small ruminants
sperm host glands
avian vagina
6-7 day sperm viability
dogs & horses
32 day sperm viability
fowl
70 day sperm viability
turkeys
fertilization in the infundibulum of the uterine tube
dogs
freemartin
cattle
polyspermy
pigs
superfecundation
cats & dogs
superfetation
pigs
isolecithal egg
mammals
polylecithal egg
birds
holoblastic (total) cleavage
mammals
meroblastic (partial) cleavage
birds
335-345 day gestation
mare
60 day gestation
queen
279-282 day gestation
cow
60-65 day gestation
bitch
148-150 day gestation
ewe
114-120 day gestation
sow
160 day RBC life span
cow
75 day RBC life span
cats
150 day RBC life span
horse & sheep
85 day RBC life span
pigs
120 day RBC life span
dogs
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium w/ ciliated cells, secretory cells, brush cells, basal cells, and the propria-submucosa is cavernous stratum
respiratory region of the nasal cavity
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium w/ neurosensory (bipolar) cells, sustentacular cells, and basal cells
olfactory region of the nasal cavity
conducting portion of the lungs (intrapulmonary conducting airways)
bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
respiratory portion of the lungs (gas exchange area)
RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
external smooth muscle bridge over tracheal cartilage
carnivores (dogs & cats)
internal smooth muscle bridge over tracheal cartilage
domestic animals (other than dogs & cats)
within alveolar epithelium, a squamous epithelial cell w/ a central nucleus where gas exchange occurs
Type 1 Pneumocyte (95%)
within alveolar epithelium, a cuboidal cell with microvilli that produces pulmonary surfactant
Type 2 Pneumocyte (5%), also called granular alveolar cell
pulmonary macrophages
present in the alveolar lumen
in birds, the syrinx is similar in structure/function to the _______ in mammals
larynx
in birds, the primary bronchi are similar in structure/function to the _______ in mammals
bronchi
in birds, the secondary bronchi are similar in structure/function to the _______ in mammals
bronchioles
in birds, the parabronchi are similar in structure/function to the _______ in mammals
gas exchange area (respiratory portion)
the prenatal period up to implantation
pre-embryonic period
the prenatal period from implantation to origin of the primordia of the organs
embryonic period
the prenatal period of growth and maturation of the organ systems
fetal period
monotocous animals
cows & horses
reversed sex determination system (females have XY, males have XX)
birds
twins: each embryo has its own placenta, amniotic cavity, and chorionic cavity
monozygous where splitting occurred at the two-cell stage, or normal dizygous twinning
twins: each embryo has its own amniotic cavity, but share a common placenta and chorionic sac
monozygous where splitting occurred at the inner cell mass in an early stage of development
twins: embryos share a common placenta, amniotic cavity, and chorionic cavity
monozygous where splitting occurred at the inner cell mass in a late stage of development
twins: fusion of placenta and chorion
occasionally occurs in dizygous twinning
somites which constitute the vertebral column
sclerotomes
somites which constitute the muscles associated with the vertebral column
myotomes
somites which constitute the connective tissue associated with the vertebral column
dermatomes
somatic mesoderm + ectoderm
somatopleure
splanchnic mesoderm + endoderm
splanchnopleure
cavity between somatic & splanchnic mesoderm
coelom
chorionic epithelium is in contact with uterine epithelium // 6 layers present
epitheliochorial histological classification of placenta
chorionic epithelium is in contact with uterine connective tissue // 5 layers present
syndesmochorial histological classification of placenta
chorionic epithelium is in contact with the endothelium of uterine blood vessels // 4 layers are present
endotheliochorial histological classification of placenta
chorionic epithelium is in contact with uterine blood // 3 layers are present
hemochorial histological classification of placenta
diffuse, villous, nondeciduate, and epitheliochorical placental classification
sow & mare
cotyledonary, villous, nondeciduate, and syndesmochorial placental classification
cow, sheep & goat
zonary, labyrinthine, deciduate, and endotheliochorial placental classification
dogs & cats
7-10% of causes of teratology
environmental agents
7-8% of causes of teratology
mutant genes
6-7% of causes of teratology
chromosomal abnormalities
20-25% of causes of teratology
multifactorial inheritance
50-60% of causes of teratology
unknown etiology
physical teratogens
x-rays
chemical teratogens
vitamin A deficiency
drug teratogens
thalidomide in pups
infectious teratogens
panleukopenia virus in kittens
period of maximum sensitivity to abnormal development
embryonic period