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147 Cards in this Set

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What is filtered as blood flows through the kidney
serum
Water, ions, and molecules (that are small) move from the ______ space into the _______ __________ space where most are recoved though ____________
vascular space
renal tubular space
reabsorbed
Some waste products are secreted into the __________ tubule for ____________
renal tubule for excretion
The renal tubule is subjected to HIGH OR LOW osmotic pressure to concentrate urine
HIGH
After urine leaves the renal tubule it is conducted to the bladder through what?
ureter
What are 3 functions of the urinary system?
elimination of toxic metabolic by products to the outside
conservation of salts, a.a, glucose, small proteins and water
regulation of metabolism through endocrin functions
How much blood is filtered per min and per day
120 ml/min
180 I/day
Filtration of the blood plasma is equivalent to the ____ ______ ______ in the body about ___ time per day
total extracellular fluid
16
How much extracellular fluid is in the body
11 L
How many times is the extracellular fluid filtered
16X
What is an active process of moving N wastes, some salts, and some drugs from the serum into the renal tubule by the cells of the kidney
secretion
What is reabosrved 99%
glucose, a.a, residual protien, most water and salt
What controls blood pressure, blood volume, and acid-base balance
regulation of metabolism through endocrine funtions
What are a few endocrine funcitons
renin, erythropoietin, prostaglandin, processing of vit D
What is the shape of the kidney
bean
Which direction does the hilum face
medially toward the aorta and IVC
What penetrate the hilum
renal AA, renal VV, lymph vessels, and ureter
What is key to the function of the kidney
extensive penetration of the blood supply
How much of cardiac output is normally directed through the kidney?
25%
how often does blood travel through the kidney
every 5 min
What is arranged in a peripheral cortex that narrows to a pyramidal shaped medulla
kidney parenchyma
What tissue is organized into cortical areas over 6 to 12 renal pyramids
peripheral parenchymal tissue
Another name for longitudinal striations
medullary rays
what extend within the renal pyramids from the medullar into the cortex of the kidney
longitudinal striation, medullary rays
What collect urine from the renal papilla and coalesce to form the renal pelvis
cup-like calyces
What mees the central portion of the kidney and is continuous iwht the ureter
renal pelvis
What are the kidneys coved by
a dense connective tissue capsule
What consists of the nephron and the collecting tubule (duct)
uriniferous tubule
What does the nephron begin with
the renal corpusle
Where is blood plasma filtered?
renal corpusle
Where does the filtrate pass to from the renal corpuscle
renal tubule
What modifies the filtrate, concentrates it and removes certain components to be recycled
nepheron
How many nepherons in each kidney
1.3 million
What is the sequential series of specialization of the tubule?
1) prox convoluted tubule
2) thin loop of henle
3) thick loop of henle
4) distal convoluted tubule
from the renel tubule where does filtrate move to?
collecting duct (tubule)
What are the 2 types of nephrons
juxamedullary nephron
cortical nephron
What nephrons originate near the medulla and have long thin loops of henle that extend to near the of the renal papilla
juxamedullary nephrons
Juxamecullary nephrons account for what % of nephrons
~15
What nephron originates more superficially in the cortex and have shorter loops a shorter distance into the medulla
cortical (more numerous)
What is the blood flow in kidney
renal AA--> interlobar AA--> arcuate AA--> interlobular AA--> afferent arteriole --> glomerulus--> efferent arteriole--> peritubular cap network
--> vasa recta--> interlobular VV--> arcuate VV--> interlobar VV--> renal VV
What AA enters the hilum
renal A
What AA runs between lobes
interlobar AA
What AA turn and run along the junction b/t the medulla and cortex
arcuate AA
What arterioles enter the renal corpusle at the vascular pole to form glomerulus
afferent arteriole
What is a globular collection of capillary loops
glomerulus
What is formed from capillary loops that exits the renal corpuscle at the vascular pole
efferent arteriole
efferent arterioles of the cortical nephrons gibe rise to
peritubular cap network
efferent arteriole of the juxamedullary nephron give rise to
vasa recta
What is a looped capillary network surrounding the loops of Henle
vasa recta
What 2 capillaries pour into interlobular VV
pertublar cap and vasa recta
what 2 thing compose the renal corpuscle
glomerulus, and bowman capsule
What is a pouch like sac bounded by squamous epithelium that comprises the beginning of the nephron
bowmans capsule
What are the 2 poles of the renal corpuscle
vascular and urinary poles
this describes Which pole, the afferent arteriole carries the blood into the glomerulus where filtration occurs
vascular pole
How does blood exit the glomerulus
efferent arteriole
the filtrate is colleted into ______ _______ between bowmans capsule and glomerular tuft
bowmans space
What pole is the site where the filtrate moves from bowmans space into the prox convoluted tubule
urinary pole
describe the orientation of the urinary and vascular poles
opposite each other
What cells are specialized connective tissue cells that support the glomerulus and act as phagocytic cells?
Mesangial cells
What are mesangial cells richly endowed with
actin microfilaments and may contract under hormonal stimulaiton
What layer of bowmans cap is composed of simple squamous epithelium
parietal layer
What layer is contiguous wth the parietal layer
viscerial layer
the visceral layer is composed of what that envelop the capillaries of the glomerulus
podocytes
The podocytes extend foot-like process called what around the glomerular capillaries
pedicels
The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate leaving narrow (20-40 rm) of what
filtration slits
What are the filtration slits covered by
6nm slit diaphragm
Plasma is forced though the ____ _____ of the glomerulus
fenestrated capillaries
What appears to be the primary site of filtration between the endothelium and the podocytes
basal lamina
the densest part of the basal lamina is a meshwork of what?
Type IV collagen
What are other components of the basal lamina
fibronectin, laminin, and polyanionic proteoglycan rich in heparin sulfate
What traps larch molecules such as large proteins
collagen network
What impede the passage of negatively charged molecules
polyanions
The basal lamina is continuously reabsorbed by ____ ____ and replaced by the ____ and the _____
mesangial cells
podocytes
endothelium
What is the longest segment of the nephron, mostly coiled
prox (convoluted) tubutle
What is composed to large epithelial cells with promoninent apical brush border and extensive lateral interdigitations with neighboring cells
prox (convoluted) tubule
Basal membrane of prox tubule is rich in?
Na/K ATPase
where is the main site of the nephron for reabsorption of porteins, metabolites, ions, and water
prox tubule
what % of filtered water is reabsorbed by prox tubule
70%
What is the driving force for water reabsorption across tight junctions and prox tubular cells
glucose and NaCl
What enables the passage of glucose
transporter
what internalize peptides to be degraded by lysomes
apical tubulovesicles
The kidney of animals and humans are different how?
animal- unilobar
human- multilobar
The uriniferous tubule consists of what 2 components of different embryologic orgion
nephron and collecting tubule/duct
What is composed of renal corpuscle, prox convoluted tubule, and loop of henle, and the distal convoluted tubule
nephron
Describe the loop of henle
cuboidal epithelium abrutl charges to squamous
describe the loops of henle of cortical nephrons
very short and thin
Describe the loop of henle of juxtamedullary npthrons
long thin segments, fun in maintaining medullary osmotic gradient
Describe the epithelium of thick ascending limb and distal (convoluted) tubule)
cuboidal epithelium with tight juctions
Describe the permeability of the thick ascending limb and distal (convoluted) tubule)
low water permeability but active salt uptake
Each distal convoluted tubule contacts _________ glomerulus
its own
What provides a feedback mechanism to control activity of the renal corpuscle?
each distal convoluted tubule contacting its own glomerulus
What apparatus is involved in regulating activity of hormones such as ADH to maintain fluid balance and renal activity in response to changes in the blood
juxtaglomerular apparatus
What consists of sensory and hormonal regulatory mechanisms that support and effect glomerular filtration
juxtaglomerular apparatus
What connects different cellular elements of juxtaglomerular apparatus?
gap junctions
What are epithelial cells in the walls of the distal convoluted tubule that contact the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle
macula densa
Macula densa are sensitive to ___ concentrations
Na+
What are specialized smooth mm cells in the wall of the afferent (and sometimes efferent) arterioles that secrete renin to act on adrenal medulla to release aldosterone?
juxtaglomerular cells
Juxtaglomerular cells secrete what?
renin
Renin acts on adrenal medulla to release what?
aldersterone
Renin acts to increase the resorption of ____ by ________ and conerts angiotensinogen to ___________
Na+ by aldosterone
angiotension I
Angiotensin I is converted by angiotensin conveting enzyme to ________ by a potent ____________
angiotension II by a potent vasoconstrictor
Does angiotensin II increase or decrease BP
increase
Extraglomerular mesangial cells consist of what?
intervening connective tissue cells
Where is Erythropoietin produced?
interstital (mesangial) cells of kidney
What stimulates the production of RBC formation in response to anemia?
Erythropoietin
What is an issue in chronic renal failure?
Erythropoietin must be supplied exogenously
What span between loops of henle and adjacent vasa recta like the rungs of a ladder
interstitial cells
Are there red blood cells inside the thin limbs of teh loop of henle?
NO
What is a coupled transport of 2 or more solutes in the same direction that enable the reabsorption of NaCl?
symport mechanism
describe the permeability of distal tubule?
impermeabile to water
What has short microvilli and abundant basal mitochondria, but lysosomes and tubulovesicular structures are not prominent?
distal convoluted tubule
What is the relation of prox convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule to renal corpuscles
both adjacent
prox or distal convoluted tubules contain cells with abundant lysosomes
prox convoluted tubule
The apical domain of ______ has prominant brush boarder micorvilli and vesicles, In contrast the apical domain of ___ has sparce microvilli and vesicle
prox convoluted tubule
distal convoluted tubule
Cell containing prox and distal convoluted tubules contain abundant basally located ____
mitochondria
After distal convoluted tubule filtrate passes to what?
collecting duct
The collecting duct doalesce into the what?
straight collecting ducts
Are the collecting duct and tubule considered part of the nephron?
NO, they have distinct embryological orgions
Describe the epitelium of collecting tubules and ducts.
tighly packed, cuboidal (sometimes columnar) cells with few organelles
Whaht increaese water permeability of collecting ducts
ADH, antidiuretic hormone
ADH causes water moves into the kidney tissue resulting in MORE OR LESS concentreated uringe and GREATER OR LESS water retention in the body
MORE (hyperosmotic)
Greater
this prevents dehydration
Where do collecting ducts lead to?
papillary ducts of Bellini
What do papillary ducts of Bellini do?
increase diameter as they approach the calyces
The calyces, renal pelvis, and bladder are all lined with what?
transitional epithelium
describe premeability of transitional epithelium.
highly impermeable to salts and water
How does transitional epithelium respond to distension?
flattening and rearranging to decrease the apparent number of cell layers in epithelium
the what of transitional epithelia is a mosaic of specailized thickened regions, plaques, interspersed with normal membrane, inter plaque regions?
plasma membrane
Describe the plaque regions when relaxed.
folded into the cell interior
What is the columnar-like epithelium can stretch and resemble a stratified squamous epithelium when urine is present in the bladder
urothelium
What generate a thickened domain able to adjust to large changes in surface areas?
apical plaques
Describe the mucosa of the ureter when relaxed and under pressure
infolded when relaxes
infoldings flatten when pressure
How does urine move through the ureter?
peristalsis due to smooth mm
How many layers does smooth mm form in the upper part and in the lower part of the ureter
upper- 2 layers
lower- 3 layers
What is triangularly shaped vesical that collects urine and contracts during micturition to void the urnine
urinary bladder
What forms the valve like flap at the entrance to the bladder?
oblique penetration by the ureter
What happens to the mucosa of the bladder folds when full
they disappear
What happens to rounded cells of the transition epithelium during distension
become flattened
Describe the muscular layer of the bladder
interwoven smooth mm w/o clear orientation
What conducts urine from the neck of the bladder to the exterior of the body
urethra
how long is the urethra in men and women
men- 15-20 cm
women 4-5 cm
Male or female urethra is lined with transitional epithelium near the bladder near the bladder and stratified squamous epithelium along the remainder
female
What are the glands that runt he length of the urethra in women?
glands of Littre
How many segments and what are the segments in the male urethra?
3
prostatic, membranous, penile urethra
in the male urethra, which segment lies within the prostate gland, contains transitional epithelium.
prostatic urethra
What segment in the male urethra, passes through the perineal membrane (body wall), stratified columnar and pseustrafified columnar epithelium
membranous urethra
What segment of the male urethra passes through the penis where the epithelium changes to stratified squamous, and has glands of Littre
penile urethra
What is permited when the urethra passes through the perineum, skeletal mm fibers form the external sphincter mm that surrounds the urethra?
voluntary urination