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112 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What 2 portions are included in the respiratory system?
conducting and respiratory portions
Air is relatively what 2 things to all living things?
toxic and vital
What must happen to air during passage to the lungs so gas exchange can take place?
What are 2 funcitons of respiratory system.
olfaction-sense of smell
the function of the respiratory system warming, filtering and humidifying air is what?
conditioning of air
The funciton of the respiratory system that involves bringing air fromt the outside deep into the body to site of exchange is what?
conduction of air
The respiratory tree is ventilated by ______ ______ pf tje chest wall by muscles of he thoracic cage and diaphragm?
inspiratory movements
What is accomplished by elastic elements and mm of the air passage?
At the end of the respiratory tree what occurs?
gas exchage
The number of active capillaries in the lung must be ____ or _____ to those of the systemic circulaiton or cardiovascular failure will ensue.
equal or exceed
Which portion of the respiratory system moisten, warm, filter the air in prep for gas exchange.
conducting portion
What have been removed (ideally) by the time air reaches the alveolus
bacteria and infectious material
What do infectious agents that reach the damp vascular lungs cuase?
bronchitis, or pneumonia
What serves to warm, humidify and filter the air.
nasal cavity
a special region of the roof of the nasal cavity mediates what?
What is the anterior portion of the nasal cavity lined with skin (startified squamous epithelium)
the course hairs of the vestibule are called what>
the purpose of the hairs of vestibule of nasal cavity are to what?
filter out large particles
The hairs of the vestiuble of the nasal cavity create what
non-laminar air flow that help precipitate particulate matter
What lines the nasal caivty
respiratory epithelium, pseudostratified cilitated columnar epithelium
What cell is abundant in nasal cavity
goblet cells
What of the respiratory epithelium is highly vascularized to warm incoming air
lamina propria
The lamina propria has many what that aid in filtration
seromucous glands
dust and other particulate matter are trapped b mucus from what?
globlet cells, and mucous and serous secrtion of the glands
Ciliary action of the nasal epithelium does what?
carries mucous and particulate matter to pharynx to be swallowed or expectorated
the lamina propria contains abundant what?
lymphoid nodules
What in the lamina propria are active in combating antigens carried by the air?
lymphoid nodules
What is produced by plasma cells and what is it transported across?
plasma cells produce- secretory IgA
transported across- epithelium
Plasma cells produce IgE that binds to what>
mast cells
When challenged with antigen mast cells relaease what
mediators of inflammation
the release of histamine _______ permeabilit of small blood vessels cuase localized _______
What is in the nasal cavity warm inspired air and the nasal secretions begin the process of humidification
venous sinusoids
nasal secretions of the venous sinsoid begin the process of what?
What also help to disturb the flow of air and decreased particulate matter
What is a tall pseudostratified columnar epithelium located near the roof of the nasal cavity
olfactory epithelium
Olfacotry cells are _____ neurons with a modified dendrite region composed of _____ ______
olfacotry vesicle
How large are the non-motile cilia that lie on the epithelial surface?
What molecules are specific for receptors on the cilia cause depolarization of the olfacotry cells in olfactory epithelium?
odorant molecules
What 2 cells are contained inolfactory epithelium?
sustentacular and basal cells
the sustentacular or basal cell appear to support the epithelium and insulate the olfactory cells.
sustentacular cell
the sustentacular or basal cell are short pyramidal cells, their apical region does not reach the surface of the epithelium
basal cell
what replace both olfactory and sustentacular cells
basal cells
air moves from the nasal cavit to what?
what is the upper portion of and lower portion of the pharynx lined with?
upper-respiratory epithelium
lower-stratified squamous epithelium
In the pharynx what is loose to dense irregular connective tissue with seromucous glands and lymphoid aggregations (pharyngeal tonsils)
lamina prpria
Air goes from nasal cavity to pharynx to what?
describe the larynx
irregularly tubular and covered with pseudostratified epithelium
waht 2 things support the larynx
thyroid and cricoid hyaline cartilage
What protects the larynx from food inhalation
What is a flap of tissue supported internally by elastic cartilage
The tissue covers the lingual and laryngeal sides of the epiglottis
lingual- stratified squamous epithelium
laryngeal- pseudostratified ciliated epithelium (respiratory epithelium)
What project into the laryneal lumen?
false and true vocal cords
Do the true vocal cords lie below or above the false vocal cords
Which set of vocal cords consists of elastic ligaments connected to the striated vocalis mm
true vocal cords
what are the true vocal cords covered by?
stratified squamous epithelium
What is regulated by conrolled movement of air accross the true vocal chords
What are used to adjust the tenstion of the vocal ligament
vocalis and other laryngeal mm
air move from larynx to what?
What is the most prominent characterist of the tracheA
reinforcements of C-shaped hyaline cartilage rings
What is the purpose of hyaline cartilage rings
maintian open airway
which direction do the open portion of teh c-shaped hyaline cart face
rearward to the esophagus
The opening of the c-shaped hyaline cart is bridged by what?
fibroelastic ligament and smooth mm
Contration of the smooth mm of the hyaline cart does what?
narrows the passageway for increase force during coughing
What lines the trachesa
respiratory epithelium
What is present just beneath the tracheal epithelium
band of elastic fibers
beneath the tracheal epithelium is elastic fibers then what
glands and blood vessels
The trachea bifurcates into 2 ____ ____ that connect to the _____
primary bronchi
Prior to entering the lung the histology of the primary bronchus is similar to what
trachea with cartilage rings
The diameter of the primary bronchus is SMALLER OR LARGER and the walls are THINNER OR THICKER than the trachea
what happens to the arrangement of the cartilage in the pimary bronchus after entering the lung?
plates of cartilage surround subsequent segemnts of bronchi
Which segment of bronchi reach major lobes of the lungs
secondary bronchi
What completely surround the lumina of intrapulmonary bronchi
irregular plates of cartilage
What becomes more prominant are is present as 2 layers spiraling in opp direction in secondary and tertiary bronchi
smooth mm
in the secondary and tertiary bronchi what occurs in the lamina propria and submucosa of the larger bronchi
seromucous glands and lymphoid aggregations
What epithelium is in secondary and tertiary bronchi
respiratory epithelium
What accompanies each secondary and tertiary bronchi?
arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels
What are distinguished by their lack of cartilage
What line bronchioles
cuboidal epithelium
Bronchioles contain few ____ _____ and many ___ ____
few goblet cells
many ciliated cells
in bronchioles which cell type is find at deeper leves than are goblet cells
ciliated cells
In bronchioles what moves mucous toward throat
ciliated cells
What are the non-ciliated bronchilar cells contained in bronchioles
clara cells
Which type of cell acts a serous grandular cells but also appear to act as stem cells to replace other cell types in epithelium
clara cells
Which type of cell can aid in detoxifying noxious gases
clara cells
Does the lamina propria of the bronchioles have glands
What are important in shortening of bronchioles and reduciton of the dead-air space during exhalation
smooth mm and subepithelial elastic fibers
in some forms of severe asthma ___ ____ of mm can close off the bronchioles inducing suffocation
spastic contraction
Chronic respiratory exposure to tobacco smoke can compromise what leading to what
bronchial and bronchiolar elastic tissue leading to pulmonary emphysema
What extend from fibroelastic connective tissue that is outside the smooth mm
elastic fibers
What do elastic fiber do during inhalation
maintain open airways
Which portion of the respiratory tract is highly vascularized, thin alveoli at the termination of the airways in the lungs, allow diffusion of gasses b/t air and blood
respiratory portion
What lead to the first level of respiratory protion of the lung
terminal (conducting) bronchioles
What are the first level of respiratory portion
respiratiory bronchioles
What have outpockets of alveoli
respitory bronchiole
waht are small sac like structures where gas exchange occurs
What happen to the number of alveoli and width of bronchioles as the respiratory bronchioles extend deeper
alveoli increase
broncioles narrow
What branch from the respiratory bronchioles
alveolar ducts
Alveolar duct have what type of walls
alveolar ducts are ____ air passages lined by alveoli
What is the diameter of alveoli
What are the primary site for gas exchange
Capillary networks composed of large diameter capiliaries com in ____ _____ to air
close proximity
What seperate blood from air
capillary endothelium, the alveolar epitheliuma nd the thin fused basal lamina between them
What is the total thickness b/t air and blood
What is the total # of alveoli in adult humans and the gas exchange area
300 million
140 m^2
Which type of cells are very thin cells that make up most of the alveolar surface
Type I cells squamous alveolar cells
Waht type of cells are cuboidal and secre surfactant
Type II cells
What is a detergent like material consisting of phospholipids and lecithins
Surfactant ___ surface tension at the alveolar surface and _____ the work required to inflat alveoli
Type II cells can differient into what
Type I cells
Alveoli contain large number of active
pulmonary macrophages
What protect the alveoli by ingesting inhaled bacteria and other particles
pulmonary macrophages