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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where are testis located? Why?
-sit external to the body, in the scrotum
-are external to regulate temperature
What is the path of a sperm from beginning to ejaculatory duct?
tubuli recti
rete testis
ductus deferens
ejaculatory duct
What are the accessory organs of testes?
seminal vesicles
prostrate gland
bulbourethral glands
Are testis considered exocrine or endocrine?
-exocrine = germ cell-production of the gamete/sperm
-endocrine = sex steroids
What is the thick capsule that surrounds the testis?
tunica albuginia
What are CT bands that divide testes into lobules?
septulae testis
What is the posterior thickening of the tunica albuginia of the testes where vessels enter/exit and sperm exit?
Where are seminiferous tubules found?
-in the lobules of the testis
-are very coiled for compaction
What are modified smooth muscle cells that aid in contraction located outside of the basement membrane surrounding seminerferous tubules?
myoid cells
What is formed during cytogenesis?
the spermatogonium
What are some characteristics of the spermatogonium?
-early, most primitive germ cell
-is diploid
-survives the life of the male
-has the ability to divide and replicate many times
-only germ cell that sits on a basement membrane
-becomes the primary spermatocyte
What forms during chromosome reduction in the testis?
-primary spermatocytes
-secondary spermatocytes
What are primary spermatocytes?
-formed from the spermatogonium by simple mitotic division, meiosis I
-is large cell
What are secondary spermatocytes?
-formed from primary spermatocytes
-haploid cell
-formed by first mitotic division
-is smaller, found closer to the lumen
What is spermiogenesis?
-the final stage in the production of sperm
-spermatid becomes a spermatozoa
-takes 2 months to occur
What is the arrangement of flagella?
9 + 2
What do spermatocytes become after mitotic division?
Do sperm stop dividing at this stage?
What is the capsule around the head of the sperm called?
What does the acrosome contain?
enzymes to get the sperm through the cells surrounding the egg and enzymes to penetrate the egg
What is the cell called that holds the germ cells in place, sit on the basement membrane,and contain cytoplasmic arms that extand from the basement membrane to the lumen of the semineferous tubules?
sertoli cells
Is the sertoli cell post mitotic?
What hormone stimulates the sertoli cell to secrete inhibin and androgen-binding protein?
What type of barrier is formed by ther sertoli cell? What is the function of this barrier?
-blood testis barrier
-prevents vasculature from reaching anything but the spermatogonium
-the primary spermatocytes on up are not exposed to the blood vasculature so that they will not mutate
What does androgen binding protein do?
binds testosterone, stimulated by FSH
What does inhibin do?
hormone that feeds back to the pituitary and inhibits FSH
What are leydig cells?
-found in interstitial CT of the testis
-make testosterone
-are stimulated by LH
-are pink staining
Is testosterone used as a negative feedback mechanism by the leydig cells to inhibit LH?
What is the function of the tubuli recti/straight tubule?
-pathway between the seminiferous tubule and rete testis
Where are the rete testes located in the testes?
the mediastinum
What type of tissue lines the rete testis?
simple cuboidal epithelium
What part of the pitutiary secretes LH and FSH?
the basophils of the pars distalis
What are some general components of the female reproductive system?
ovaries, oviduct, uterus, cervix, vagina, mammary glands
Are germ cells in the female made throughout life or only in fetal life?
only in fetal life
Is the ovary an exocrine or endocrine organ?
-exocrine=produces egg
-endocrine=produces progesterone & estrogen
What is germinal epithelium in the ovary?
simple cuboidal epithelium on the surface of the ovary
What is the CT layer under the germinal epithelium?
tunica albuginea
Where is the cortex in the ovary?
What is deposited here?
-underneath the tunica albuginia
-eggs are deposited here
-contains ovarian follicles
Where is the medulla in the ovary?
What is found here?
-under the cortex, in the middle
-contains looser CT to allow growth of follicles to occur
-most of the major blood vessels are here
What does a follicle consist of?
the egg and its surrounding CT/follicular cells
What is a primordial follicle?
-an egg frozen in meiosis I
-has simple squamous/granulosal cells surrounding the egg
-basement membrane is next
-CT is next
Where are the blood vessels in the primordial follicle?
in the CT outside of the basement membrane
How does the primordial follicle recieve its nutrition since the blood vessels are on the outside of the basement membrane?
by diffussion
When do primordial follicles become primary follicles?
when the follicular cells divide and become a single layer of cuboidal epithelium, these cells still rest on a basement membrane and the egg increses in size
When do the primary follicles become secondary follicles?
when the egg increases some more in size, the granulosa cells become stratified,the theca interna forms, and the zona pellucida is present
What is the zona pellucida?
mucopolysaccharide layer in between the egg and the follicular cells
When does a secondary follicle become a vesicular follicle?
-the entire follicle is growing
-the egg is displaced from the center to the corner
-a cavity forms, called the antrum
-the theca folliculi is present
What makes up the theca folliculi?
-theca interna
-theca externa
What does the theca interna look like?
-is located next to the basement membrane
-3-4 layers of cuboidal like cells
What does the theca interna produce?
What type of receptors does it contain?
-LH receptors
What is the antrum of the vesicular follicle?
is a fluid filled cavity that pushes follicular cells an egg to the edge of the structure
How can you tell when a vesicular follicle becomes a mature follicle?
When it contains a corona radiata and cumulus oophorus
What is a corona radiata?
A concentrated groop of granulosa cells aroun the egg of the mature follicle
What is the cumulus oophorus?
a mound of granulosa cells under the egg in a mature follice
What is the progression of a female egg?
-primordial follicle
-primary follicle
-secondary follicle
-vesicular follicle
-mature follicle
What occurs at ovulation?
-one egg is released from the follicle into the oviduct
-meiosis I is completed
-the leftover follicle becomes highly vascularized and forms the corpus luteum
What does the corpus luteum consist of?
-granulosa cells that become granulosa lutein cells
-theca interna cells that become theca lutein cells
Is the corpus luteum a temorary endocrine gland?
What does the granulosa luten cells and theca lutein cells of the corpus luteum secrete?
estrogen and progesterone
What hormone stimulates the corpul luteum to form?
LH hormone that is released before ovulation
What hormone stimulates the the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone?
What happens to the corpus luteum if there is not a successful fertilization?
it dies
What is the hormone that signals the corpus luteum to live and is produced by the trophoblast cells?
human chorionic gonadotrophin
What is the corpus albicans?
is a scar of dense CT left over from the corpus luteum, contains a lot of collagen and is white
What is the breakdown of eggs before they reach maturity called?
follicular atresia
What is the follicular phase?
-when the follicle is developing inside the ovary
-day 1-14
What is the luteal phase?
-phase after ovulation
-day 14-28
is there a high rise of LH and FSH during ovulation?
What day does ovulation occur in the menustration cycle?
day 14
What is the general flow of estrogen in the menustration cycle?
-rises during the follicular phase
-peaks right before ovulation
-falls and slowly raises during the luteal phase again
In what phase does progesterone rise?
luteal phase only
If fertilization does not occur, the corpus luteum dies, progesterone is not made and what happens?
What hormones activate the growth of the follicles?
What hormones produced by the follicles inhibit these hormones?
-estrogen and inhibin
In addition to stimulating follicle growth, what else does LH stimulate?
What inhibits this LF function?
-ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum
-estrogen and progesterone
Does the uterus have LH or FSH receptors?
What regulates the uterus?
the ovaries
What are the layers of the body and fundus of the uterus?
endometrium = inner layer
myometrium = middle layer
perimetrium = outer layer
What makes up the endometrium?
-simple columnar epithelium
-lamina propria
What are the spaces seen in the endometrial epithelium?
Do the glands of the endometrium extend all the way through to the basal layer of the lamina propria?
What are the two layers of the lamina propria of the endometrium?
-functional layer
-basal layer
What is the functional layer of the lamina propria in the endometrium?
-layer that grows from the basal layer
-this layer is shed during the menstal cylcle
What is the basal layer of the lamina propria of the endometrium?
-layer closest to the myometrium
-is dense
What are the arteries in the lamina propria of the endometrium?
-coiled arteries, are shed with functional layer
-straight arteries, supply the basal layer
Describe the myometrium.
-smooth muscle layer with CT
-is the target for oxytocin
-contains receptors for estrogen
-is the thickest layer
What are the three phases for the menstrual cycle?
-proliferation cycle
-secretory cycle
-menstrual cylce
What occurs suring the proliferation phase?
-day 5-14
-only the basal layer present at first
-functional layer grows due to estrogen
What occurs duing the secretory phase?
-day 15-28
-post-ovulation phase
-functional layer continues to grow
-coiled arteries and glands grow due to influence of estrogen and progesterone
What happens during the menstrual phase?
-day 1-4
-death of large functional layer due to the shutdown of the coiled artery
-eventually basal layer only layer left
The menustral cycle is controled by hormones from where?
the ovary
What is in birth control pills?
-estrogen and progesterone
-the concentration is strong enough to shut down the pituitary by negative feedback and the ovary does not produce
What hormone do pregnancy tests test for?
Human chorion gonadotrophin