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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the endothelium of capillaries.
Simple squamous epithelium
What is the origin of the adenohyphysis?
oral ectoderm
What part of the pituitary is highly cellular?
What cell types are located in the Pars Distalis? Which is most common?
Acidophils(most common), basophils(2nd most common), chromophobes
What hormones are produced by the acidophils?
GH and prolactin
What is the target of GH?
epiphyseal plate
What hormone causes milk production?
What are the basophilic cells? What hormones do they produce?
Thyrotrophs(TSH), Gonadotrophs(LH, FSH), Corticolipotrophs(ACTH)
What is the funtion of the chromophobes?
involved in holding acidophil and basophil cell clusters together and contributes to structual organization; folliculo-stellate cells
Approximately how much of each the pituitary does each part take up?
Pars Distalis - 75%; Pars Nervosa - 25%, Pars Intermedia - 5%
What do the epithelial lined lakes contain?
Where is MSH produced?
Pars Intermedia in the pituitary gland
Axons in the pars nervosa originate where?
In the hypothalamus.
What are the glial-like cells in the pars nervosa called and what is there function? What is this collection of fibers called? Where do they originate?
The pituicytes have a supportive function for the axons in the pars nervosa. Collection of axons is called the hypothalamohypophyseal tract. Originate from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei.
What two hormones travel through the hypothalamohypophyseal tract? What are their functions?
oxytocin causes uterin contraction, vasopressin causes increased water absorption in the collecint tubules of the kidney.
What is acromegaly?
increased size of hands, feet and mandible due to increase in GH.
Describe the cellular density of the pineal gland.
Mostly cellular with some brain sands.
What is the most abundant cell of the pineal gland called? What does It produce?
Pinealocytes make melatonin.
What are the pinealocytes responsive to? How do they respond and what is the overall effect?
environmental light. Melatonin production is low in light phase and high in dark phase. Melatonin inhibits gonadal activity.
What is the endocrine organ part of the Pancreas? What immediately surrounds them?
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans surrounded by reticular fibers and capillaries.
What are the two types of cells in the pancreatic islets? What does each produce?
Alpha cells produce glucagon and Beta cells produce insulin
Does the Thyroid gland have a c.t. capsule?
What is contained within the thyroid follicles? What makes up the container?
Colloid contained with in ring of follicular cells that rest on a basement membrane.
What is between the thyroid follicles and makes up the lesser part of the thyroid?
The c.t. w/ vessels and simple cuboidal epithelial Parafollicular cells
what is produced by parafollicular cells and what do they do?
calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels.
What is colloid?
glycoprotein that is made up mostly of thyroglobulin
TSH causes what to enter the thyroid folicular cells? What does this ultimately produce?
portions of the colloid enter the cells and produce thyroxin from thyroglobulin.
What is the general function of the thyroid?
regulates general body metabolism.
what are the affects Hypothyroidism?
delayed dental growth and mental development delay
What are the affects of hyperthyroidism?
can cause premature tooth eruption
Is the parathyroid gland encapsulated?
What are the cell types in the parathyroid gland? What is the main cell type?
Chief cells (main) and oxyphilic cells.
What do the chief cells do and how?
elevate blood calcium levels by production of parathyroid hormone
Which cells of the parathyroid gland are associated with blood vessels? Which are filled with mitochondria?
chief cells, oxyphilic cells
What is calciferol?
metabolite of vitamin D that lowers the blood calcium levels.
What does hyperparathyroidism do?
eliminates the Lamina dura aka bundle bone
Is the adrenal gland completely encapsulated?
Where does ACTH act?
adrenal cortex
What is the level closest to the renal capsule called?
Zona glomerulosa
What is the level just inside the zona glomerulosa? Function?
Zona fasiculata, cortisol production elevates blood SUGAR.
What is the level just inside the zona glomerulosa? Function?
Zona fasiculata, cortisol production elevates blood SUGAR.
What does aldosterone act on? What hormone regulates its release?
afferent arteriol cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, angiotensin
What are the cell types of the zona fasciculata?
Where are the cords and sinusoids located in the adrenal glands?
in the zona fasciculata
What are the functions of cortisol? What type of steroid hormone is this?
elevate blood sugar and anti-inflammatory; glucocorticoid
What kind of hormones are produced in the Zona reticularis?
SEX hormones
Adrenal medulla controls what basic response and through what hormones?
STRESS, through norepinephrine and epinephrine
Where are chromaffin cells located?
in the adrenal medulla
Classify the vessels in the zona glomerulosa.
fenestrated capillaries
what causes the release of renin, where is this sensed?
fall in arteriol blood pressure as sensed by the the afferent arteriol cells in juxtaglomerulosa cells
What occurs in the median eminence?
median eminence contains capillary beds where the releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus are stored.
hypothalamic regulatory factors regulare what?
Only the pars distalis, not the pars nervosa or intermedia.
The pineal gland is surrounded by ____? Pituitary?
pia, not dura. Pituitary is surrounded by dura.