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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
basic type of tissue that provides structural and metabolic support for other tissues and organs throughout the body
connective tissue
continuum based on the relative concentration of cells and fibers
connective tissue proper
loose CT is a.k.a.
areolar CT
6 types of specialized CT
adipose tissue
hematopoieic tissue
regular CT (ligaments and tendons)
basic function of CT proper
bind together and compartmentalize other tissues and organs
principle cell native to connective tissue
role of fibroblasts
produce and degrade both fibers and ground substance of the matrix
basic morphology of fibroblasts
spindle or stellate shape and has a tendency to send out protoplasmic branching processes
active fibroblasts have what type of cytoplasm?
active fibroblasts are abundant in what?
inactive fibroblasts are abundant in what?
what are the differences in nuclei between active and inactive fibroblasts?
active - ovoid, pale staining
inactive - small, spindle shaped, dark staining
the principle and most abundant fibers of CT are?
collagen fibers
collagen fibers are made of what?
polymerized tropocollagen molecules
basic characteristics of collagen fibers
flexible, high tensile strength, occur with variable forms and molecular structures, consist of bundles of collagen fibrils
Type I collagen
most abundant
widespread distribution
forms dermis, organ capsules, bone, dentin, tendons, ligaments
Type II collagen is mainly found where?
found mainly in cartilage
Type III collagen
found associated with Type I and is the collagenous component of RETICULAR fibers
Type IV collagen is present in...
present in basal lamina
What type of stain is used to view reticular fibers?
PAS rxn and silver treatment
NOT H&E stain
What type of collagen are reticular fibers?
type III
Elastic fibers consist of what?
elastin (amorphous protein) and microfibrils/fibrillin (fibrillar component
What type of stain is used to view elastic fibers?
special stains i.e. Verhoeff's stain
what forms do elastic fibers occur in?
fibers, membranes, or sheets
the cellular and fibrous components of connective tissue are surrounded by materials called what?
ground substance
what is the consistency of ground substance?
varies from semifluid to colloidal jelly
principle components of ground substance
glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, glycoproteins
what do you stain GAGs with and why?
stain with basic dyes due to the presence of anionic sulfate groups
major kinds of GAGs
hyaluronic acid
chondroitin sulfate
dermatan sulfate
karatan sulfate
heparan sulfate
how do GAGs normally occur?
extracellularly linked to proteins
macromolecules composed of GAG chains covalently bound to a core protein
macromolecules composed of proteins associated with a relatively low content of covalently bound carbohydrate units
procollagens, collagens and the microfibrillar protein of elastic fibers are all examples of what?
a surface molecule that mediates cell adhesion, motility and growth
a constituent of basememt membranes
what is the relative ratio of hydrostatic/osmotic pressure from arterial side to venous end of blood capillaries?
decrease in hydrostatic pressure and increase in osmotic pressure as you go from arterial side to venous side
cells that provide for repair and scar formation
cells that provide immunosurveillance
cells that initiate inflammatory response
mast cells
cells that are constantly present in various types of normal adult CT
resident cells
fibroblasts and adipocytes are derived from what type of cells? and are considered what type of cells?
mesenchymal --- native
mesenchymal cells are the ancestors of which native cells of adult CT?
fibroblasts, chondroblast, osteoblast, reticular cell and adipocyte
how can macrophages be recognized?
by their content of digestive vacuoles
basic characteristics of macrophages
phagocytic cells
retain capacity for cell division
produce antimicrobial agents
digest foreign matter using lysosomal enzymes
act as antigen-presenting cells to stimulate lymphocytes
mononuclear cell that is an end-stage antibody producing cell derived from a B-lymphocyte
plasma cell
plasma cells are most commonly seen where?
lymph node, spleen and connective tissue but can be found in bone marrow

not normally found in blood stream
appearance of plasma cell nucleus
nuclear heterochromatin cendensed to give it a cartwheel appearance
appearance of Golgi in plasma cells
enlarged, so it displaces nucleus to an eccentric position which makes the cell easily recognizable in tissue sections stained by histological or blood stains
large cell with oval nucleus
metachromatic granules
characteristic surface projections from cell membrane
mast cell
mast cells develop from what?
they develop slowly from lymphocyte-like precursors
mast cells are considered to be similar to what?
basophils bc of similarities in the staining of their granules
typical location for mast cell action
along the arterial side of small blood vessels
trama or antigen-mediated rxns can lead to release of mast cell granules such as:
glucosaminidase, alkaline proteases, heparin, histamine, and eosinophil chemotaxic factor
exposure to allergen, basophils and mast cells degranulate, which results in widespread vasoconstriction and sweeping reduction in blood volume which leads to circulatory shock
anaphylactic shock
what do unilocular adipose cells look like?
large, usually spherical cells with nucleus flattened and displaced to one side
what is different about mitochondria in multilocular adipose cells?
energy production is not coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, and energy production is produced to make heat, not ATP
cells that appear transitorily in connective tissues as part of the inflammatory reaction to cell injury
immigrant cells
morphological appearance of lymphocyte
unspecialized: small cells with a dark spheroid nucleus and little cytoplasm
cell that is a short-lived granulocyte, commonly found in both blood and CT
cell functions of eosinophils
effector of the immune system and has an anti-inflammatory action
when do eosinophil levels increase?
in response to allergies and parasitic infections
what is the most abundant granulocyte?
first line of defense against infection is
when are neutrophils found in tissues?
during the acute phase of an infection (pus)
why is a neutrophil called a kamikaze-cell?
bc it cannot divide
process where neutrophils leave the circulation, in reponse to injury, and enter the injured site by squeezing their way into the connective tissue bw the endothelial cells of the post capillary venules
Tendon, ligament, aponeurosis, and fascia are all what type of CT?
dense regular CT
lamina propria, submucosa, in glands supporting secretory cells, serosal linings of peritoneal cavity, and papillary layer of dermis are what kind of CT?
reticular layer of dermis, capsule and trabeculae of some organs, tunica adventitia of bv's, epimysium, sclera of eye, perichondrium, periosteum, PDL, and epineurium are what type of CT?
dense irregular CT
adipose, bone, cartilage, and hematopoietic tissue are all what type of tissue?
special CT
what is formed by alpha chain triple helix?
triple helix formation is dependent upon what?
alpha chain hydroxylation
what must be cleaved to yield active tropocollagen?
registration peptides
tropocollagen aggregates to form what?
collagen fibrils
mast cells are long-lived and are usually located near what?
blood vessels
lymphocytes that deal w/ cell-mediated immunity
structure that differentiates into plasma cells to produce antibody
small cell with dark spheroid nucleus and little cytoplasm
basophils are found only in what?
peripheral circulation