Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created a Supreme Court staffed by a chief justice and five associate justices. Set up 13 district courts to review decisions by state courts. It was primarily the work of Congressman Oliver Ellsworth from Connecticut. John Jay was first chief Justice.
Alexander Hamilton was Founding Father and political theorist. One of America's foremost constitutional lawyers, he was a leader in calling the U.S. Constitutional Convention in 1787; he was one of the two leading authors of the Federalist Papers, the most important interpretation of the United States Constitution.

Hamilton served chiefly as aide-de-camp to General George Washington. Under President Washington, Hamilton became the first Secretary of the Treasury; and had much influence over the rest of the government and the formation of policy, including foreign and military policy. Hamilton convinced Congress to use an elastic interpretation of the Constitution to pass far-reaching laws. They included: the funding of the national debt; federal assumption of the state debts; creation of a national bank; and a system of taxes through a tariff on imports and a tax on whiskey that would help pay for it. He admired the success of the British system, and opposed the excesses of the French Revolution.

Hamilton created the Federalist party, the first American political party, which he built up using Treasury department patronage, networks of elite leaders, and aggressive newspaper editors he subsidized both through Treasury patronage and by loans from his own pocket
Report on Public Credit
Hamilton's report that revealed the nation owed approx. 54 million in debt in foreign loans and loan certificates issued to soldiers and other citizens. The report also had two recommendations for funding and assumption of the debts.
Bank of the United States
National bank propsed by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and established in 1791. It served as a central depository for the US. government and had the authority to issue currency.
Report on Manufactures
Report in which Hamilton revealed the details for teh economic future of the U.S. It suggested ways by which the federal gov. might stimulate manufacturing.
Jay's Treaty
Controversial treaty with Britain negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay in 1794 to settle American grieviences and avert war. Though the British agreed to surrender forts on U.S. territory, the treaty failed to realize key diplomatic goals and provoked a storm of protest in America.
Pinckney's Treaty
Treaty of San Lorenzo signed by Thomas Pinckney opening the Mississippi, right to deposit goods in New Orleans without paying duties, a secure southern boundary, and a promise to stay out of Indian affairs. It was ratified by the Senate without a single dissenting vote. Pinckney, became the hero of the Federalist party.
Whiskey Rebellion
Protests in 1794 by western Pennsylvania farmers resisting payment of a federal tax on whiskey. The uprising was forcibly suppressed when President George Washington called an army of 15000 troops to the area, where they encountered almost no resistance.
John Adams
John Adams served as America's first Vice President and as its second President. He was defeated for re-election in the "Revolution of 1800" by Thomas Jefferson.

Adams was a sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and a diplomat in the 1770s. He was a driving force for independence in 1776; in fact, he was the "Colossus of Independence" in Jefferson's understanding. As a statesman and author, he helped define a set of core republican ideals that became central to America's political value system: the rejection of hereditary monarchy in favor of rule by the people, hatred of corruption, and devotion to civic duty.
XYZ Affair
A diplomatic i ncident in which American peace commissioners sent to France by President John Adams in 1797 were insulted with bribe demands from their French counterparts, dubbed X, Y, and Z, in American newspapers. The incident heightened war fever against France.
Alien & Sedition Acts
Collective name given to four laws passed in 1798 designed to suppress criticism of the federeral government and to curb liberties of foreigners living in the United States.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Protests written separately by Jefferson and Madison which vigorously defended the right of individual state assemblies to interpret the constitutionality of federal law.
Twelfth Amendment
Ammendment stating that the electoral college cast separate ballots for president and vice president
John Marshall
John Marshall was an American statesman and jurist who shaped American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court a center of power. Marshall was the fourth Chief Justice of the United States. He served in the United States House of Representatives and, under President John Adams, was Secretary of State. Marshall was a native of the Commonwealth of Virginia and a leader of the Federalist Party.

The longest serving Chief Justice in Supreme Court history, Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system. Most notably, he established that the courts are entitled to exercise judicial review, the power to strike down laws that violate the Constitution. Thus, Marshall has been credited with cementing the position of the judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government. Furthermore, Marshall made several important decisions relating to Federalism, shaping the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic. In particular, he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law, and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers.