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86 Cards in this Set

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Fritz Fischer
Wrote a book in the 1960's about the goals of the warring powers in WWI.
The book was called "Germany's Grab for World Power," and it demonstrated that Germany had other goals in mind when it entered WWI. The book showed that Germany had imperialistic goals, as evidenced in Bethman-Holweg's September Program and HL's Kreuznach Program.
September Program
1914; a plan drafted by Bethman-Holweg that planned to keep Germany around forever and allow it to dominate the West.
The plan called for seizing French resources (such as Briey coal fields and the Belfort fortress), Belgium's industrial city of Liege, and turning Belgium into a vassal state.
Kreuznach Program
1916-17; a plan drafted by Ludendorff and Hindenburg that would allow for German domination in the West after achieving victory in WWI.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1918; treaty between Russia and Germany that brought Russia out of the war, negotiated by Leon Trotsky and German and Austrian representatives.
To be allowed to leave the war, Russia had to give up much of eastern Russia (the Ukraine, Finland, the Baltic provinces, and the Caucasus) and Poland.
Part of the German plan for domination in Europe: an area of Poland where the native people would be moved out and Germans would move in.
Another part of Germany's plan for domination in Europe: the creation of a "belt" of territories under German control that would separate Germany and Russia.
Mitteleuropa, Mittelafrika
"Mittel" = German domination of
Further evidence of Germany's desire for dominant power in Europe. Germany planned to exert its power in Europe and Africa (through colonization).
Part of AH's post-war plans.

AH planned to enlarge Galacia by seizing Polish territories from Russia in the event of a victory for the Central Powers. They planned on creating a "triple empire."
Straits Agreement
1915; agreement between Brits, French, and Russians.
The countries agree that in the event of an Allied victory, Russia would be given control of the Turkish straits and Armenia, a Catholic area of Turkey.
This was part of a 'web' of secret arrangements in which the Allied Powers divide and control post-WWI Europe.
David Lloyd George
Became prime minister of Britain in 1916.
Was critical of Asquith, Haig, and Robertson - disliked the costly battles on the Western Front that resulted in little or no real gains.
Upon becoming Prime Minister, forced Robertson to resign and keeps reserve troops in England to keep them out of the hands of Haig.
Lloyd George is part of the "Big Four" at Versailles that determines the terms of the peace treaties. Lloyd George is primarily concerned with the post-war world from a British perspective. He hopes to balance out the power between Germany and France (to avoid a powerful France), to strip Germany of its navy and overseas colonies, and to force Germany to pay reparations to the victorious powers, including paying the pensions of disabled veterans.
Georges Clemenceau
Became prime minister of France in 1916.

Was a critic of the war effort, was dismayed at public unrest, and called politicians advocating peace "traitors."
Deals with three big problems:
1. Morale: Clemenceau visits the front, increases troop wages, and dealt with restoring discipline after the army mutinies. On the homefront, enforced rigid policies in civilian life to bring the nation together for the cause of war.
2. Manpower: had to prepare for the German onslaught during the Russian Revolution. Extends military draft and drafts colonial troops with the promise of citizenship in exchange for service.
3. Leadership/Command: appoints Ferdinand Foch as overall Allied commander, creating a unified Allied command. Also reasserts civillian control of the government, the opposite of HL's takeover in Germany.
Hindenberg became Chief of the German General Staff in 1916, beginning a military takeover of the government in Germany.
HL calls for renewed submarine warfare, despite the fact that Bethman-Holweg knows that this will bring the Americans into the war.
Peace Resolution
July 1917; a resolution passed by the German Reichstag that called for peace without annexation, etc. The resolution was an attempt by the Reichstag to show that Germany entered the war in defense of her independence, freedom, etc, not with imperialistic aspirations. The Reichstag saw that violations of territory in post-war Europe were incompatible with peace.
Consequently, HL lobbied for Bethman-Holweg to be fired, because high command held him responsible for allowing the bill to pass.
Georg Michaelis
Took over as Chancellor in Germany after Bethman-Holweg in 1917.

Michaelis' appointment shows the increasing powerlessness of the emperor and civilian government, as HL convinced the emperor to appoint Michaelis, knowing he would go along with their policies.
1918; sailors march to protest the condition of the German High Seas Fleet.

Protesters were dealt with harshly, but the protest was evidence of Germany's weakening resolve to fight on in the war.
Independent Social Democrats were blamed for deliberate left-wing agitation of the sailors.
Friedrich Ebert
Defended the Independent Social Democrats after the Wilhelmshaven protest in 1918. Said the government is trying to eliminate freedom of speech.
Works for the end of the imperial regime and is the leader of the largest party in the Reichstag.
von Tirpitz
Official in the German navy; lobbied for no negotiations, only victory for Germany. This was the view of many military parties, and it made the possibility of negotiation nonexistent. The warring powers could only accept victory.
Russian Revolution
1917; revolution in Russia that resulted in the fall of the czar and the rise of a provisional government.
Several problems in Russia led to revolution:
1. Conditions of early industrialization caused labor unrest.
2. Peasant farmers resent not owning land - resent nobles.
3. War brought shortages, inflation, which were expounded when the transportation system broke down.
4. Huge civilian casualties with very few victories caused a general lack of support for the war and civilian unrest.
5. The German army now occupied a large part of Russia, angering civilians further.

The Czar is at the front, having taken control of the army, and the Czar's government was unprepared to put down a rebellion - loyal veteran troops had been killed at the front, and the green troops in Russia refused to fire on the civilians, joining them instead.
After the Czar is overthrown, members of the Duma form a provisional government, which is quickly overthrown by the communists in the Communist Revolution (Nov. 1917).
Provisional government
Formed in 1917 after the Russian czar is overthrown. Consisted of members of the Duma and was led by Prince Lvov and Alexander Kerensky.

The provisional government knew its role was only temporary, planning to keep order in Russia until elections could be held. Striving for more democratic processes, the provisional government realized it had limited power, and decided to focus on restoring peace. They gave equal rights to men and women and legalized unions and the 8-hour workday.
Made the mistake of continuing to fight in the war (respecting Russia's treaties). Russian citizens were war-weary and believed they were fighting for a lost cause. May be one of the reasons it became so easy for the communists to take over in November.
Vladimir Ilych Ulianov (Lenin)
Leader of the Bolsheviks, sent to Russia in 1917 by the Germans, in effort to cause further revolution in Russia.

Lenin promises "Bread, Peace, and Land" and becomes increasingly influential among the Russian public.

During the invasion by Russian General Kornilov's troops (conservatives attempting to restore the czar to power), Kerensky armed the Bolsheviks. After the Germans captured Riga, Lenin and Trotsky invaded St. Petersburg. Kerensky fled to Palo Alto, CA, and Lenin took over with the promise of peace with Germany.

Negotiates the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Germans in 1918. The treaty ends Russian involvement in WWI. Additionally, Germany had to garrison the territories it gained, so some of the troops that could've been transferred to the Western front had to be stationed in Russia.
Kerensky offensive
29 June 1917; Russian offensive planned with the provisional government in power.

Brusilov leads Russian armies on an offensive into Poland, which fails to make any major gains when German troops arrive to strenghten the AH lines.
Loyal veteran troops are put into the offensive and are decimated, removing more of the army that remained loyal to the Russian czar.
Murmansk, Archangel, Siberia
After the Russian communist government negotiated peace with the Germans in 1918, the Allies began to fear that the supplies they stored in Russian ports would fall into the hands of the Germans.
As a result, the Brits land in Murmansk, the Americans in Archangel, and the Japanese in Siberia in order to secure those Russian ports.
Lenin feared invasion and ordered Russian troops to fire on the Allied troops.
General Robert Nivelle
Takes over as commander in France after Joffre is fired in 1917. Speaks French and English and had great success at Verdun (retook Forts Vaux and Douaumont) using "deceptive barrages."

Proposes using the same techniques as were successful at Verdun (sending men out in small squads instead of large, ordered ranks).
Didn't account for the difficulty of retraining all the Allied troops or the fact that this type of attack was much more difficult on a scale as large as that of the Western front.
Proposes offensive in which the French (mainly) launch an attack that requires them to cross the Aisne River and land on the Chemin-des-Dames (a high plateau where Germans were already entrenched). After taking that plateau, the Allied troops have to ford the Ailette River and take more high ground held by the Germans. Nivelle's plan is very time constrained and doesn't account for the difficulty of taking the high ground with Germans already entrenched.
Operation Alberich
1917; German plan in response to Nivelle's planned attack on German lines at the Chemin-des-Dames and Ailette River bank.

The Germans had aerial surveillance and French troop movement plans (from captured French general), giving them prior knowledge of Nivelle's attack plan.
The Germans eliminated the bulge in their line, which would be more vunerable to an attack, and retreated to the Siegfried (Hindenburg) Line. As German troops retreated, they destroyed French lands in order to make them as inhospitable as possible to the oncoming French soldiers.
The Hindenburg line was extremely well-fortified, with concrete machine gun implacements, and lots of barbed wire arranged in a way that 'funnels' attackers into machine gun fire. In addition, the Germans held the high ground and had bombproof bunkers for the troops.
Nivelle's Offensive Plan 1917
1917; Carried out against the advice of military officials, including Petain.

Brits attack at Arras on April 9th and take Vimy Ridge. However, the Germans hold the last line of defenses, so there is no big breakthrough.
French attack the Siegfried Line on April 5th, but achieve no breakthrough and gain 30,000 dead soldiers.
The failure of this plan takes a heavy toll on French army morale. Nivelle had led the infantry to believe that this attack was going to bring the big breakthrough.
On April 29, 1917, the French army mutinied. Through April and May, men refused to fight, and military discipline broke down. Eventually, men would go to the front (if only to relieve the men at the front), but they would refuse to attack and would only defend. The mutiny affects about half of the French army, and augmented the manpower shortages. This resulted in veteran troops being called right back up to front just as they had been allowed on leave, although many of those units had suffered heavy casualties after the Chemin-des-Dames offensive.
Petain was called in to take over for Nivelle, and he was able to restore military discipline.
Takes over as commander in France after Nivelle's Chemin-des-Dames operation fails.

Restores the French army in two ways:
1. Concilliatory - promises not to engage in wasteful offensives and travels to the lines to encourage the men.
2. Councils of War - Petain met with French commanders and promised to support those that took a strong stance on military discipline. He also promised not to disclose their discipline methods to the public.

Eventually, Petain's methods resulted in the reordering of the French army.
Sir Douglas Haig (and Messines and Passchendaele)
British commander; realizes the need for the Brits to play a larger role in the war during the French army mutinies (1917), so plans major offensive in the Ypres Salient.

1. Messines Ridge (Flanders "high" ground, held by the Germans). The Germans were able to observe the British troops and fire on them from the hill. Sir Plumer was assigned this objective, and in an effort not to waste soldiers' lives, enlisted ANZAC miners to dig tunnels under the hill. The tunnels were filled with explosives, and upon detonation, 10,000 Germans are killed. The Brits easily take what's left of the hill with little cost to their army.
2. Passchendaele: Brits take seven weeks to launch the attack, and end up attacking in the rain. High Command continues to send in troops, even though advancing soldiers were getting stuck in the mud. By the time Brit Staff Officer Kiggell finally arrived, saw the conditions, and called a retreat, there were 300,000 British casualties.
10th battle of the Isonzo
12-18 May 1917; Italian offensive orchestrated by Count Cadorna in early spring.

The Italians were able to strengthen their artillery during the winter and had airplanes that could be used to drop bombs on the AH troops, giving them control in the skies.
The battle is very costly, but the Italians manage a minor breakthrough. This leads Cadorna to believe the AH are being worn down, giving him confidence in launching the 11th Battle of the Isonzo.
11th Battle of the Isonzo
18 Aug.-15 Sept. 1917; Italian offensive against AH forces on the Isonzo River

Battle showcased the biggest development in tactical technique in the war in an expert coordination of land and air forces. The Italians achieved the biggest advance by any Allied army up to that point in the war.
After this attack, AH is on the verge of collapse. As Cadorna plans another offensive, German General von Below begins to plan an offensive to knock Italy out of the war and save AH in that sector.
12th Battle of the Isonzo *Caporetto*
24 Oct. - 25 Dec. 1917; German attack on Italian forces on the Isonzo.

Part of German plan to knock Italy out of the war and save AH in that sector. The Germans plan to use "Hutier tactics" that were introduced at Riga. These tactics involved using small squads of stormtroopers to go out first and disrupt the enemy lines, then sending out the main infantry attack.
The Germans have an advantage before the battle begins. The weather prevents the Italians from launching aircrafts for aerial surveillance of the German movements. In addition, the Italians misinterpret the intelligence they recieve, believing the Germans are using the Isonzo attack as a diversion, and the main attack will actually come through the Trentino. The placement of most of the troops on the Trentino allows the Germans to vastly outnumber the Italians.
During the attack, the Germans blow up Monte Rosso, killing many Italian troops. In addition, Italian communication lines are cut and the army begins to collapse. This collapse becomes evident when German General Rommel, commanding an elite stormtrooper unit, captured vast numbers of Italian military personnel.
The Italians are forced to retreat across the Tagliamento River, where they burn the bridges after them to prevent the Germans and AHs from following. However, the Germans/AHs ford the river and force the Italians to retreat to the Piave River, where they are finally reinforced by Brit and French troops.
After the Battle of Caporetto, the Italian army is on the verge of collapse. Cadorna is fired and replaced by General Armando Diaz. Diaz brings the army back under control by increasing rations, providing insurance for enlisted men, and giving better leave (rebuilds morale). Vittorio Orlando becomes Prime Minister and convinces the country to fight on (sees Italian independence at stake).
Battle of Cambrai
1917; British offensive against German troops at Cambrai in an effort to head off a major German offensive.

The Allies are preparing for the inevitable German onslaught as German troops are transferred from the Russian front to the Western Front (after Russia falls out of the war). Haig decides to try to achieve the breakthrough first by using tanks to help the Brit infantry take Bourlon Ridge.
Modern armoured warfare is used on a large scale for the first time: 374 tanks are sent out, followed by infantry. The Brits manage to open an 8 mile gap in the German lines, but the Germans hold on to Bourlon Ridge. As the tanks begin to break down, the Brits are again forced to send infantry into machine gun fire, and the Germans regain much of what they lost.
Woodrow Wilson
U.S. President during WWI

At first, declares US neutral, but as war begins to appear inevitable, attempts to prepare nation. In 1916, National Defense Act is passed, which expands the army, creates the ROTC, and brings the National Guard under government control. He expands the navy with a bill that passes both houses of Congress (US is the second greatest seapower in the world in number of battleships).
Eventually brings US into war when Germany renews unrestricted submarine warfare in 1916. Issues Fourteen Points, which emphasize making WWI the "war to end all wars," and calls for the formation of a League of Nations. Takes part in the Council of Ten and the Council of Four during the Paris Peace Conference in 1919.
Zimmerman Telegram
1917; telegram sent from German foreign minister Zimmerman to the President of Mexico.
Mexico and US already suffered from bad relations, as the US troops sent over the border to Mexico to catch Pancho Villa were still occupying the area.
Zimmerman sent a telegram in which he offered Mexico German financial aid and the territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona (in the event of a German victory) if Mexico joined the war on the side of Germany and AH.
The telegram is encoded and sent over American telegram lines. British Room 40 Admirality decodes the message, and waits for the opportune moment to show it to the Americans. When the US breaks diplomatic relations with Germany in Feb. 1917, the Brits release the telegram.
Wilson goes to Congress to ask for the arming of merchant vessels (held up by isolationist faction led by Robert La Follette). After Zimmerman stupidly confirms that yes, he wrote the telegram, Congress agrees with Wilson. In March 1917, the US declares war on Germany.
Fourteen Points
Announced in Wilson's State of the Union address in 1918.

Called for the end of secret treaties, freedom in the seas, free trade between countries (no tarriffs), reduction in armaments, reduction in European colonial empires overseas (wanted recognition of the nationalist movements in the colonies), self-determination of peoples, and the formation of a League of Nations.
General Ludendorff, 1918
Plans to win the war for Germany before the Americans become problematic in 1919. Decides to launch several offensives (five) in spring of 1918, and goes ahead despite other officers' misgivings about using Germany's last resources and giving the war to the Allies.
Ludendorff plans to rely on Germany's numerical superiority (despite a complete lack of reserves) and the use of Hutier tactics (v. effective at Riga and Caporetto).
However, Ludendorff doesn't acknowledge Germany's disadvantages:
1. The Germans lack material superiority.
2. They no longer dominate the sky.
3. They have no reserve troops - soldiers being killed at the front are irreplaceable.

Ludendorff's offensives consist of Operation Michael, Operation Georgette, Operation Blucher, Operation Gneisenau, and Operation Friedensturm.
After his operations fail and the Allies begin to decimate the German lines, Ludendorff had a breakdown and told Hindenburg to seek an armistice immediately.
After Prince Max of Baden was named Chancellor, Ludendorff concedes that the war is lost on the battlefield. However, angered by the U.S.'s request for Germany to demilitarize, Ludendorff acts insuboordiately, sending a message to the troops to keep on fighting in October 1918. Prince Baden learns of the message and fires Ludendorff, ending his military career.
Operation Michael
Mar.21-Apr.15, 1918; German offensive on Allied lines, part of Ludendorff's plan to defeat the Allies in spring 1918.

Ludendorff has no real strategic objectives for the attack; he just wants to punch a hole in the Allied lines, believing one hole will cause the whole line to disintegrate. Launches the largest artillery bombardment of the war on an Allied sector defended by Brit General Gough and the British 5th army.
The Brit 5th army was weak, having been badly mauled at Passchendale = lots of green replacements. In addition, there was a shortage of men because Lloyd George was holding reserves back in England. The Germans had great numerical superiority (42 divisions against the British 14).
After bombardment, Hutier led stormtrooper groups out, followed by the main infantry attack. 20,000 Brit prisoners were taken in the first mass taking of British prisoners. This showed that the enemy tactics were working and that British army morale was failing (like the Italian army at Caporetto).
After Operation Michael, Haig asks Petain for reinforcements and is refused, so he goes to the British government for help (Conference in Doullens).
1918; conference held to determine Allied plans to fend off the German attacks. Those in attendence include Haig, Petain, Lloyd George, Foch, Poincare, and Clemenceau.
Clemenceau convinces the powers to come together under a unified Allied command, and Foch is named Marshall of France and Commander of the unified Allied forces.
Ferdinand Foch
Became Marshall of France and Commander of Allied forces in 1918. Foch was able to hold together diverse allies in the pursuit of a common goal: victory against Germany and its allies. He contacts Pershing and convinces him to bring the American troops to fight with the Brits and the French under mainly French control.
Worked with Haig, Petain, and Pershing to plan a series of attacks that will keep the Germans constantly fighting. These attacks eventually lead to the breakdown of the German army and the armistice in 1918.
Operation Georgette
9 Apr.-29 Apr. 1918; second German offensive in Ludendorff's final offensives.

Ludendorff planned to exploit the bulge created in the Allied line and break through at Flanders (cutting off British supply ports). He believed that attacking the Brits will cause the French to break.
However, the Brits have occupied Flanders since 1914, and the Germans plan to attack between Amentieres and La Bassee, areas heavily defended by the Brits. The German armies manage to attack areas defended by Portuguese units, who break and run, and the Brits are pressed again.
Foch sends in four divisions of French and some Belgian troops to fill the hole. As a result, the Allies are able to hold Ypres, and the Germans created another salient that requires defending.
The offensive is especially costly for the Germans. They lose irreplaceable men, time (Americans are arriving quickly), morale (begins to crumble, units refuse to attack).
Operation Blucher aka Third Battle of the Aisne
27 May-6 June 1918; third German offensive planned by Ludendorff in 1918

Plan to attack out of the salient created by Operation Michael that proposes a quick strike down the Oise Valley in the hope that the Allies will send troops to defend Paris. Then, the Germans will switch course and go north to take the English Channel. The plan forces the Germans to fight on the Chemin-des-Dames.
The Germans launch a successful artillery barrage, then break across the Aisne River and take an important railhead. Emboldened by his success, Ludendorff changes the plan and continues the drive into Paris. Because Foch had correctly deduced the Germans original plan, Paris' defense was undermanned. American troops are sent in to aid in the defense of Paris, and General Henri Gourand led American and French troops in a successful defense of the Marne.
General Henri Gouraud
1918; French commander that led American and French troops in a successful defense of the Marne during Operation Blucher (the Third Battle of the Aisne).
Belleau Wood
1918; American offensive to take back Belleau Wood from the German forces when the Germans attempted to take the railhead at Rhiems.
The Americans were successful but suffered heavy casualties. The casualties mainly resulted from sending men out over open fields being riddled with machine gun fire. The battle showed American resilience, but also the greenness of the American army, who were making the same mistakes the European armies had made in 1914 and 1915.

"Leave? We just got here!"
Operation Gneisenau
7-24 June 1918; fourth German offensive during the final offensives of 1918

Plan to even out the German line, making it less costly to defend. The operation was planned very quickly, and the French were able to observe and anticipate the attack.
During the battle, the Germans were able to knock out three French divisions, but the French held the area.
The Germans were losing manpower, resources, and especially, time; by June 1918, the Americans were arriving in waves of 200,000 servicemen per month.
Operation Friedensturm (aka 2nd Battle of the Marne)
15-18 July 1918; the fifth and last major German offensive in 1918

The German army was suffering from low morale and were being hit especially hard by the Spanish flu, which decreased manpower and impacted morale still further. Despite that, Ludendorff went ahead with the attack.
The plan was to use a double envelopment of Rheims in order to take the railhead.
The Allies were able to use aerial surveillance to observe German preparations for the attack. General Foch decides to take the offensive and uses tanks, Hutier tactics, air strikes, and infantrymen to attack the German lines.
The Allied offensive blunts the German attack and breaks down through the German lines.
This battle turned the tide of the war in definite favor of the Allies. By summer 1918, the Germans had used their last reserves and are unable to make up for the losses being suffered on the battlefield.
8-12 Aug. 1918; First of a series of Allied attacks designed by Foch to keep the German army constantly fighting until they broke down.
The Allies attack at Amiens and surprise the Germans using rolling barrages and tanks. The German lines break and run, suffering from a complete breakdown of morale, and open an 11 mile hole. Eventually, the Allied armies run out of artillery and supplies, and the big breakthrough doesn't occur.
However, Amiens is described as the 'Black Day' for the German army. After the near complete defeat, Ludendorff told William II that Germany could not win the war and encourages seeking negotiation with the Allies.
Oise-Aisne Campaign
18-31 Aug. 1918; Brit/French armies (with US and Aussie contingents) push the Germans back to the Hindenburg line.
Saint Mihiel
1918; German salient attacked in a distinctly American attack

This was the first American offensive carried out under under solely American control. General Pershing commanded the offensive, sending out over 200 tanks (commanded by General Patton), and the German lines collapsed.
American soldiers took many German prisoners, but the Americans still suffered heavy casualties. The attack showed that the Americans were still green, underestimating the enemy firepower and sending out troops in ordered ranks.
Meuse-Argonne Campaign
26 Sept.-16 Oct. 1918; American offensive against German forces in the Argonne Forest

Offensive was planned as part of Foch's series of offensives to keep the Germans fighting to the point of exhaustion. The Americans had to attack in one of the most heavily defended areas of the German line, where some bunkers were so well protected that the Germans had installed running water. The defenses included miles of barbed wire, sometimes hidden in the underbrush and around tree trunks. There were high concrete walls to stop the progress of tanks and deep pit traps into which they might fall. And machine guns were everywhere.
The Americans were still green, suffering from the difficult terrain and logistics problems. In one instance, the "Lost Battalion" was separated and surrounded by German troops. The regiment lost 350 out of 550 men.
However, the Americans were successful. Corporal York took many German prisoners nearly singlehandedly, showing the cracking German morale. The Americans are able to capture Sedan and successfully complete their part of the Allied offensives.
Cambrai (1918)
Sept. 27, 1918; Brits attack the Germans at Cambrai as part of Foch's plan to keep the Germans fighting until they can't continue.

The Brits have better terrain to work with than the Americans in the Argonne Forest, but have to cross two canals under German fire.
The Brits are successful, but suffer heavy casualties.
Flanders Army Group
Sept 28, 1918; offensive against the Germans by the Flanders Army Group in Ypres (part of Foch's series of 1918 offensives)

Albert I commanded the Flanders Army Group, made up of Belgian, French, American, and British forces, in an attack against the Germans in Ypres. They are successful, eliminating the German 'bulge' on the Ypres salient.
Sept 29, 1918; successful attack by the French against the Germans at Peronne. This was one of the last big offensive in a series of Allied attacks intended to exhaust the German armies.
On Sept. 29, Ludendorff had a breakdown (surprise, surprise) and told Hindenburg to seek an armistice immediately. This shows that even the high command in Germany was breaking down.
General Franchet d’Esperey
1918; French general in charge of French, Czech and Italian forces in Salonika, Greece

d'Esperey moved his forces up from Greece on September 30, 1918, and attacked Bulgaria. Eventually, Bulgaria was forced to drop out of the war.
On the same day, civilian and military leaders of Germany met to determine a strategy for the rest of the war. They decide to become more democratic to please the Americans.
After the fall of AH in November 1918, d'Esperey was able to move his troops right through AH to attack Germany from the east.
Prince Max of Baden
Becomes Chancellor of Germany in September 1918, in an effort to make Germany more democratic to please the Americans.
After becoming Chancellor, Badan get Ludendorff to admit that the war was lost on the battlefield, then begins sending messages to Wilson asking for him to be lenient in the peace accords.
After receiving a message proving Ludendorff's insuboordination, Baden fired Ludendorff.
Enver Pasha
Leader of armies in Turkey; goes into exile after Turkey is forced to sign an armistice with the Brits in 1918.
AH disasters: the Trentino and Piave River
In June 1918, the AH army plans one last attack, use two approaches: the Trentino and the Piave River.
The Italians learn about the AH plans in advance and are able to prepare. When the AH armies attack, the Italians are able to drive the AH armies back, with huge casualty rates. General d'Esperey's troops moving up from Salonika also aid the Italians.
On Oct. 24, the Italians counterattack with 56 full divisions, and the victory (under Armando Diaz), annihilates the AH army.
Dr. Thomas Masaryk
1918; led the Czechoslovak National Council, who wanted independence from AH

This movement showed the political breakdown that was occurring in AH in the last months of the war. In addition to the Czech National Council, other nationalist groups formed, including the Yugoslav National Council (Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes). In addition, Hungary broke away from the empire and ordered its troops to come home.
Adm. Hipper
1918; German admiral that attempts one last attack against the Brits but cannot motivate the fleet

von Hipper is unable to get his fleet to engage the Brits in battle. Instead, mutinies break out in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel, showing the complete breakdown of military discipline and troop morale.
General Groener
1918; meets with Emperor William II, who asks him if the men at the front will follow the emperor back to Germany to restore order (after the democratic takeover). Groener informed him that the troops were no longer loyal to the emperor and would not follow him back.
Frederich Ebert
Leader of the Social Democrats; took control of the German government when William II retreated to Holland in 1918.
Compiegne Forest/Armistice
Nov. 9, 1918; Germans receive the armistice terms in a railcar in the Campiegne Forest (where they meet with Foch).

The terms of the armistice include the evacuation of German forces from all Belgian and French territories, allowing the Allies to occupy the west bank of the Rhine and 25 miles on the east bank (to give them access to Germany), and sending the High Seas Fleet to Scapa Flow. In addition, the Germans must evacuate Russia and return the Allied POWs.
The terms are aimed at crippling Germany's war-making capacity. The blockade around Germany would remain until the peace treaty was signed in June 1919.
Foch says the terms are non-negotiable, and the Germans sign the treaty at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month (some guy thought it would be fun to do that).
Dolchstoss - Frontstoss
Mid-1918; Hindenburg and the other German generals realized they were going to lose the war and had to find someone to blame besides themselves.
They claimed that the German army had been victorious at the front, but was defeated by a 'stab in the back' on the homefront. They blamed many, including socialists, liberals, democrats, Jews (because many were leaders of socialist parties), and communists.
In reality, the defeat was a frontstoss - the German army was defeated on the front.
Capital of Austria; after the war, Austria became a separate country, much smaller than it had previously been. Sixty percent of the country's population resided in the capital city of Vienna.
1919; leader of communist party that came to power in Hungary after WWI. Shows the complete dismemberment of the AH empire.
Mustafa Kemal
1919ish; Kemal leads nationalist revolution in Turkey and sets up a republic in modern-day Turkey. In addition, many other Turk territories are lost, most gaining their independence, and Turkey becomes largely what it is in the modern day.
Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lituania, Poland
Russian territories that gain and preserve their independence after WWI. Show the strength of nationalist movements and the breakdown of empires in the defeated countries after the war.
Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia
Territories in the southern Russian empire that gained their independence briefly after WWI, but were reconquered by the Russian communists.
Paris peace conference
Spring 1919; attended by the Allied countries, but none of the defeated countries are invited (neither is Russia).

Begins negotiations with a Council of Ten (US, Britain, France, Italy, and Japan), which is reduced to "Big Four" (US, Britain, France, Italy).

Wilson wants "peace without victory." He wants no reparations and the creation of a League of Nations.

Clemenceau is mainly concerned with French security. He wants to weaken Germany's ability to make war and to keep France's alliances intact.

Lloyd George is a slimy political opportunist who tends to mediate between Clemenceau and Wilson. He is interested in ending Germany's naval power and stripping Germany of its overseas colonies. In addition, Lloyd George is the main proponent for reparations - he wants Germany to pay the war debt, to pay for soldiers' pensions.
Vittorio Orlando demands territories promised in the Treaty of London, but Wilson refuses many of them on the principle of self-determination.
League of Nations
Promoted by Wilson in his Fourteen Points as a way for countries to negotiate in an effort to prevent war.

The League of Nations covenant during the Paris Peace Conference. It includes that there be a two-house legislature: the Assembly (lower house) and Council (upper house). In addition, the members must pledge to pursue disarmament and to respect the borders of other member nations.
The covenant also provides for the League to take action against aggression. France (thinking of security) lobbied for an international army for the League, but Wilson and Lloyd George refused. Therefore, the League can't do much except impose economic sanctions.
The covenant includes that countries must submit treaties for arbitration by the League (no secret treaties). A system of mandates was also set up, which allowed the victorious countries to "help" colonies of the defeated countries work towards independence.

The League was able to negotiate disputes between smaller countries, but was unable to do much when it came to the major world powers.
Treaty of Versailles
1919 Peace treaty with Germany.

Treaty terms:
-French recieve Alsace-Lorraine.
-Germany has to keep a demilitarized zone on the border between France and Germany (between the Rhine river and France and 30 miles east of the Rhine, into Germany).
-France is allowed to administer the Saar basin (German industrial area) for 15 years (after 15 years, German people get to vote to be German or to remain French).
-Belgium receives German territories of Eupen and Malmedy.
-Denmark receives German territories of Schlesurg and Holstein (mostly Danish anyway - 2/3 vote to go to Denmark).
-Poland receives land from Germany, AH, and Russia. Germany territory is taken to give to give Poland a sea port (Danzig) on the Baltic Sea (called the Polish Corridor - made up of West Prussia, Poznan). Poland also receives Silesia (Polish area taken by the Germans).
-Germany is forced to pay 33 million dollars in reparations to the victorious countries.
Under the Treaty of Versailles, Germany lost 13% of its land (in Europe), 6 million people, and lots of resources. Germany was also stripped of its overseas colonies. The German army was reduced to 100,000 men, the draft was abolished, and Germany lost its weapons of offensive war. Finally, Germany was forced to give its fleet to Britain and was not allowed to produce more submarines.
An inter-Allied military commission was formed to supervise Germany's adherence to the terms of the treaty.
The treaty removed Germany's ability to launch an offensive war, stripped Germany of its territories, and forced it to pay reparations.
John Foster Dulles
Wrote article in Versailles Treaty that made Germany claim responsibility for the war.
Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye
1919; Allied peace treaty with Austria

Terms of the treaty:
-Austria lost great amounts of territory
-Galacia, the Trentino, and the Istria peninsula went to Italy
-Bosnia-Herzegovina and Slovenia (?) went to Yugoslavia
-the loss of territory causes Austria's population to go from 55 million to 8 million and makes the country landlocked.
-Austria is forbidden from unifying with Germany (Anschluss)

The Austrians are embittered by the treaty.
Treaty of Trianon
1919; Allied treaty with Hungary

Terms of the treaty:
-Hungary loses 2/3 of its territory and 58% of its population.
-The territories are given to Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, etc.
Treaty of Neully
1919; Allied treaty with Bulgaria

In the treaty, Bulgaria lost its southern territory of Thrace, which had given Bulgaria access to the sea coast. It was now restricted to the Black Sea. Bulgaria also lost numerous other territories.
Treaty of Sevres
1919; Allied peace treaty with Turkey

Terms of the Treaty:
-essentially, the old Turkish empire disappears and becomes Saudi Arabia (ruled by Hussein), and Iraq and Trans-Jordan (British mandates).
-Syria and Lebanon become French mandates, and Smyrna goes to Greece.
-Armenia and Kundistan become independent.
-Turkey gets to keep Constantinople and some of Anatolia (Turkish homeland).
-Turkey's armed forces are limited to 50,000 men.

In response, Mustafa Kemal led a military revolution, became president, and allied with the Soviet Union. He eventually forced the Allies to draw a new treaty, the Treaty of Lausonne (1921), in which Turkey regained some its lost territories.
John Maynard Keynes
Part of the British delegation at Versailles and critic of the peace settlement.

Keynes quit his job in protest of the treaty, arguing that Germany could not be expected to pay that which the Allies demanded.
Kenyes focused on two points:
1. The Versailles treaty terms were so harsh that they are primarily responsible for Hitler coming to power.
2. Why was the treaty so harsh? Keynes claimed it was because Clemenceau and Lloyd George pushed Wilson to accept the terms.
Ray Stannard Baker
Wilson's press secretary

Wrote several volumes that gave Wilson's view of the Versailles proceedings. He depicts Wilson as the good guy among the Europeans.
Harold Nicolson
1919; part of British delegation at Versailles.

Criticizes the technical aspects of the peace negotiations. Says the Big Four were badly informed, not prepared to draw borders that would satisfy the countries.
Arno Mayer
1960's; American author that wrote "Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking"

Argues that the Big Four wanted to wrap up the war quickly in order to deal with the Communist threat spreading in Europe.
Arthur Link
1980's; American author that published nearly everything written by Wilson

His writings included translations of Paul Mantoux's notes from the Versailles peace conference. Mantoux was the translator for Vittorio Orlando at Versailles.
Link's book showed that the French were not necessarily the "bad guys." Clemenceau came to the conference with a much more open mind than was previously believed.
Arthur Walworth
Author that wrote "American Diplomacy at the Peace Conference 1919."

Walworth's book pointed out that Wilson did not make any promises about Germany's borders in his Fourteen Points speech. He argues that it was difficult to draw borders that satisfied everyone (ie: Germany, Poland, and the Polish Corridor).
Walter Mcdougall
Showed that French came to the peace conference with a much more open mind than was previously thought. France was concerned with its security, but it was primarily concerned with preserving Allied unity. Clemenceau was v. open to negotiations.
The British were the biggest problem. They were concerned with the post-war war world from a British perspective. Therefore, Britain feared a powerful France, instead wanting to balance out the power between France and Germany. In addition, Lloyd George was dead-set on the Germans paying reparations, soldiers' pensions. Clemenceau was hoping to negotiate, to possibly have the Allies share the war debt, but this didn't happen.
Wilson's idealism was lost while trying to make workable borders.
Results of the Peace Treaties of 1919
The peace settlements only lasted 20 years, but had some significant results.

The borders of Europe were fundamentally changed, all the defeated governments underwent a revolution, and women in Western democracies received universal suffrage (except in France).
Germany post-WWI
After the revolution, the Weimer Republic took power. They adopted proportional representation, which led to a multi-party system, where no party held the majority.

In 1929, the German economy tanked, and people searched for a "quick fix," which led to communism. The Nazi party came to power, and in 1933, Hitler became chancellor of Germany. And we all know what happened after that...
Italy post-WWI
Italy had lost half a million men, felt cheated out of the Treaty of London (1915), and were angered by the belief that Wilson had blocked Italy's colonial endeavors, which he wouldn't have done to France and Britain.

The post-war economy was bad, and there abundant labor unrest. Industrial strikes often took the form of sit-ins, where workers would occupy the factories but refuse to work. This gave the appearance of a communist revolution. Additionally, peasant farmers were angry that wealthy landowners still owned the majority of the southern Italian farmland.

Mussolini argued for nationalist authoritarian rule as a way to fix the problems in Italy, and the Fascists rose to power.
Hitler's "Road to war"
After coming to power by feeding on the dismay over the peace treaty, Hitler began to systematically negate the terms of the Versailles treaty.
The general response to Hitler's aggression was a policy of appeasement. This was because France knew it faced Germany alone, and with the lack of manpower still present from WWI (couldn't meet peacetime manpower quota), they knew that conflict with Germany would end badly for France.
Doumergue Agreement
1917; secret agreement between the Russians and France.

Russia asks for and is granted a free hand in Poland in exchange for letting France take the Rhineland (in the event of an Allied victory).