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17 Cards in this Set

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What were the two main attack tactics planned on by the Turks?
1. Try to take the Suez Canal from the Brits.
2. An offensive against Russia
-Pasha leads offensive against Russians in the Caucasus
-Turks fear Armenians will join the invading Russians (both Christian), so Armenians are deported in winter (genocide, essentially)
Why did the Allies decide to invade Turkey (after great losses on the Western Front in 1915)?
1. It's Germany's weakest ally.
2. Capturing the Turkish straits would allow access to the Black Sea to supply the Russians.
What was the first British (mainly) and French plan of attack in Turkey in 1915?
To go through Dardenelles Strait, capture Constantinople, then gain access to the Black Sea.
This was to be a primarily naval attack (led by Sir Sackville Carden), even though the Turks held both shores.
Sir Ian Hamilton was to lead the combined water/land attack on the Gallipoli peninsula. The troops were composed of Brits, French, and ANZACs, and they lacked numerical superiority.
What was wrong with the Brit/French 1915 plan of attack in Turkey?
1. They lacked numerical superiority (were working from flawed intelligence), which is almost always necessary in an offensive attack.
2. It takes the Brits and the French a month to assemble their forces; this gives the Turks plenty of time to prepare for a defensive attack.
3. Brits land on very difficult terrain, encountering little resistance at first, but the slow advance allows Turks to gather forces for stronger attack.
4. ANZACs land at "ANZAC cove"
-v.rough terrain, landed in the wrong place
-initially no resistance, but v. slow advance allowed Turks to gather and use machine guns to mow down ANZACs as they climbed out of the cove. Huge losses.
How did the Italians justify entering WWI on the side of the Allies in 1915?
As a member of the Triple Alliance with Germany and AH, Italy said its commitment was void because it was strictly a defensive agreement, and Germany and AH were not fighting a defensive war.
Also, Italy wanted the Italia Irridenta, lands currently held by AH, and some lands being held by Turkey.
How did the Allies convince the Italians to enter the war on their side?
The Allies (mainly Britain and France) compromised with Italy in the Treaty of London in April 1915.
The treaty promised to give Italy Trentino and areas on the Adriatic Sea (Serbian lands) in exchange for joining the war on the Allied side.
The negotiations were secret; the Serbs did not know that the Brits and French were promising Serbian land.
In addition to the treaty, Italy was given a loan of $50,000 to support the war cause in Italy.
What was the condition of the Allies at the end of 1915?
Bad. Serbia had collapsed, Russia was on the verge of collapse, and the Western Front was at a stalemate (with heavy casualty rates).
Allied plan of attack for 1916?
Brits were still trying to prepare for war (Kitchener armies, artillery shortages).
An attack on the Somme was planned for summer 1916.
German plan of attack for 1916?
Falkenhayn realized there would be no decisive breakthrough on the Western Front. He decides the way to win was to wear the enemy down. He calculated that the German forces could withstand greater losses than the French forces simply because the Germans had numerical superiority.
Falkenhayn devised two strategies for 1916:
1. Proposed that German navy subs sink all supply ships going to Britain (try to starve the British).
2. Destroy England's "sword," the French army.
How does Falkenhayn propose to destroy the French army in 1916?
Decides to deprive France of its manpower - will force it to fight at a place the French must defend.
Plans an attack at Verdun, an old French fortress city along the Meuse River.
Falkenhayn calculates that German forces can withstand greater losses than the French troops.
Why did the French feel they must defend Verdun?
1. Gateway to French Briey coal field (industry).
2. Verdun is a symbol of French resistance (last stand for France in Franco-Prussian war).
3. Verdun essentially holds the Allied line.
What were some causes of the low morale in AH Imperial army in 1916?
1. Non-German speaking troops disliked being commanded and led by German speakers. This was especially problematic in the Czech troops, who shared cultural ties with the Slavs and would have preferred to be fighting for Russia if at all.
2. Food shortages in AH (near starvation by 1918)
3. Defeatism growing among AH military leaders.
What was Conrad von Hortenzendorff's plan for defeating the Italians in 1916?
Plans to engage the Italians on two fronts: in the Trentino and on the Isonzo River.
Conrad planned to surprise the Italians where they were weakest, in the Trentino, as most Italian forces were concentrated on the Isonzo. He plans to capture the great rail hub in Padua (which supplies the Italian troops), then push on to capture Venice.
What were the problems with von Hortenzendorff's plan for an AH offensive against the Italians in 1916?
1. Hortzendorff lacked the appropriate number of troops, so he took nine divisions from the Eastern front, weakening the offensive against Russia.
2. He didn't account for the weather. Winter set in, and the offensive was delayed until May. Therefore, many divisions of troops remained unused, waiting for the weather to change so they could mount an offensive.
What (mainly) encouraged the Italians to launch an offensive against the AH in the 6th Battle of the Isonzo?
The failed offensive by Hortenzendorff through the Trentino. Since von Hortenzendorff had put so many troops into breaking the Italian line in the Trentino, the Italians decided the AH must be weak on the Isonzo.
How did the Brits and Americans attempt to dismember Germany's submarine blockade?
1. Convoys
-covoys would be used to safely bring shipping into Britain.
2. Brits heavily mined the North Sea
-Germans only had two ways to get their subs out of the North Sea: through the English Channel (heavily guarded by the British) and through the minefield that was the North Sea (thanks to the Brits).
3. French invent asdic, a type of sonar that helped ships track submarines.
4. Brits begin using depth charges to blow up underwater subs.
What were some significant consequences of Europe's war spreading to the colonies?
1. Weakened the colonial governments.
-the natives saw their colonial rulers in battle, sometimes losing to the enemy. Nationalism among natives began to grow.
2. The war destroyed much of the landscape.
-decimated much farmland, affecting Africa's ability to feed itself