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75 Cards in this Set

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FRENCH REVOLUTION

Major causes
Resentment of absolute rule
People want a say so in government
New ideas in the world (democracy, republics)
France is in debt as a result of war and spending by the royal family.
They tax the people
Lack of food and jobs
France cant take care of its people
Estates General
Advisory board for the king
Made up of 3 estates representing French Population
problem: each estate only had one vote
1st estate (1%)
- clergy (Lower, Higher Clergy)
2nd estate (1%)
- Nobility (aristocrats)
3rd estate (98%)
- Middle class , working class, peasants
National Assembly
- members of 3rd estate and lower clergy from 1st estate go off and form the

- vow to write a constitution for France
Tennis court oath
- swear not to leave the court they are meeting a till they have a constitution
Bastille Day
- large crowd gathered outside the bastille (old fortress, now prison and armory)
- They demand entrance into the bastille so they can get weapons for protection
- The people stormed the bastille
Result
- allowed national assembly to write a constitution
Declaration of rights of man and citizen
N.A. issued the civil constitution for the clergy
- put the roman catholic clergy in France under control of the French civil government
French government would elect clergy and pay their salary
constitution of 1791
- National Assembly was established as the legislative body of france
- Kings power is limited
- End of the absolute monarchy and beginning of constitutional monarchy
2nd FRENCH REVOLUTION
- mob of radical revolutionaries raided the royal palace and arrested king Louis the 16th
September massacres
a wave of violence which overtook Paris in late summer 1792, during the French Revolution. over 1200
Sans – Culottes
- nickname for the radical revolutionaries
- refers to the long pants the working class wore
French First Republic
proclaimed the (First) Republic on 21 September 1792 as a result of the French Revolution and of the abolition of the French monarchy. This presaged a new era of republican government(s) in Europe
Reign of Terror
- anyone suspected of being an enemy to the republic was arrested and beheaded
- autumn of 1793 and summer of 1794
Guillotine
- Instrument of decapitation
The Committee of public safety
- 12 men led by maximillien Robespierre
- Determined who is an enemy of the republic

 Reign of terror and the committee are responsible in 40,000 deaths in a short time.
maximillien Robespierre
leader of comittee of public safety
maximillien Robespierre
had gone too far and was arrested as an enemy of the republic and was beheaded
- Thermidorean Reaction
- 3rd phase
- Reaction to the violence
- Driven by moderate middle class
The Constitution of 1795
- all adult males who could read and write were allowed to vote
- 2nd house legislative system
- The directory served as Executive body of France
- 5 members elected by legislative Assembly
directory
served as Executive body of France
result of Constitution of 1795
- people are upset and they begin to protest and gather in the streets
- French military marches to meet people
- Crowd got out of hand and a young general ordered cannons to fire into the crowd
- The young general was Napolean Bonaparte
Napolean Bonaparte
- Born 1769 in Corsica
- Became General at age 26
- Very popular among his troops
- Married Josephine
First Consul (Ruler of France)
- 1799 Napoleon overthrew the Directory
- Declared himself this
Consul for life
- 1802 Napoleon declared himself
Emperor of France
- 1804 Napolean declares himself
Josephine
Napolean's wife
- Third Coalition
- England, Austria. Russia alliance to stopping Napoleon
confederation of the Rhine
after - Napoleon defeated Austrian and Russian armies

Result:
- Napoleon in control of central Europe
- Created this
consisted of the Germanic territories formerly ruled by the Holy Roman Empire
- Did away with the Holy Roman Emperor
- Ruled by Napoleon
Treaty of Tilsit
after defeating prussia n 3 weeks - Napoleon needed an ally in Europe
- Russia help
- 1807 alliance between France (Napoleon) and Russia (Alexander I)
- Napoleon agreed not to take Russian land
- Russia agreed to enforce a continental Blockade (refuse trade with England)
Marie Louise
Napoleon divorced Josephine
Napoleon married

Daughter for Austrian Emperor Francis I (Former H.R.E.)
which - Gave Napoleon’s children connection to royal family
Alexander I
- Czar who began to ignore the Treaty of Tilsit
- Napoleon was not happy and he began to plan an invasion of Russia
BATTLE OF BORODINO
- 1812
- West of Moscow (Russian capital)
- Very Bloody Battle
- Battle was a draw
Elba
after - European allies invaded France
- Napoleon surrendered
-he was Exiled to island
THE HUNDRED DAYS war
- Feb. 1815
- Napoleon escaped from Elba
- Took control of French Army
- England and Prussia joined forces
battle of Waterloo
- napoleon was defeated here by Eng, Duke of Wellington
Island of St. Helena
- Napoleon was exiled here and stayed till his death 1821
Congress of Vienna
- October 1814 – June 1815
- England, Austria, Russia, Prussia
- Reaction to Napoleon’s dominance of Europe

Austria given control of Northern Italian States
- Lombardy and Venetia

Prussia given new territory
- Half of Saxony and Rhineland (near French Border

Russia gained control of kingdom of Poland





Congress of Vienna
- Creation of the German Confederation
- Replaced the Holy Roman Empire and confederation of the Rhine
- 39 Germanic States
- Prussia and Austria: Two dominant states
- Assembly met in Frankfurt
- Constitutional Monarchy restored to power in France
- King Louis 18th (Bourbon)
Nationalism
belief that people in one area or nation are connected by a common language, history, customs, and culture.
Treaty of Tilsit
after defeating prussia n 3 weeks - Napoleon needed an ally in Europe
- Russia help
- 1807 alliance between France (Napoleon) and Russia (Alexander I)
- Napoleon agreed not to take Russian land
- Russia agreed to enforce a continental Blockade (refuse trade with England)
Marie Louise
Napoleon divorced Josephine
Napoleon married

Daughter for Austrian Emperor Francis I (Former H.R.E.)
which - Gave Napoleon’s children connection to royal family
Alexander I
- Czar who began to ignore the Treaty of Tilsit
- Napoleon was not happy and he began to plan an invasion of Russia
BATTLE OF BORODINO
- 1812
- West of Moscow (Russian capital)
- Very Bloody Battle
- Battle was a draw
Elba
after - European allies invaded France
- Napoleon surrendered
-he was Exiled to island
THE HUNDRED DAYS war
- Feb. 1815
- Napoleon escaped from Elba
- Took control of French Army
- England and Prussia joined forces
battle of Waterloo
- napoleon was defeated here by Eng, Duke of Wellington
Island of St. Helena
- Napoleon was exiled here and stayed till his death 1821
Congress of Vienna
- October 1814 – June 1815
- England, Austria, Russia, Prussia
- Reaction to Napoleon’s dominance of Europe

Austria given control of Northern Italian States
- Lombardy and Venetia

Prussia given new territory
- Half of Saxony and Rhineland (near French Border

Russia gained control of kingdom of Poland





Congress of Vienna
- Creation of the German Confederation
- Replaced the Holy Roman Empire and confederation of the Rhine
- 39 Germanic States
- Prussia and Austria: Two dominant states
- Assembly met in Frankfurt
- Constitutional Monarchy restored to power in France
- King Louis 18th (Bourbon)
Nationalism
belief that people in one area or nation are connected by a common language, history, customs, and culture.
Liberalism
a nation could best serve the people with an elected body of representatives or parliament.
- against the idea of absolute rule
Conservatism
people were best represented by a king or Emperor.
- against rule by elected body.
July revolution – 1830
the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch due to his abuse of power
king Louis XVIII
- 1814-1824- king who ruled France
- 1824- died and Replaced by Charles x
King CHarles X
replaced Louis xviii and issude the July Ordinances
july ordinances
issued by king Charles x. It brought back ideas of absolute rule
restricted freedom of press
witted elections to wealthy
people began to riot
Charles x abdictaded (gave up power) and throne and fled france
July 1830 French liberals look for a new king
King Louis Phillipe
Liberal bourbon popular among people – supported a constitutional monarchy
industrialization
the process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant.
Proletarianization
the entry of workers into a wage economy and their gradual loss of significant ownership of the means of production, such as tools and equipment and their loss of specialization.
Karl Marx
born in Prussia from middle class family
exiled from Berlin because of his radical views.
Freidrich Engels
met Karl Marx in London and wrote communist manifesto
communist manifesto
- written by Marx and Engels in 1848
expressed ideas against capitalism
for the rise of communism
Capitalism
economy is driven by private ownership and competition
Socialism
no private ownership, goods are distributed to the people by the work done by each individual
Communism
no private ownership, goods are distributed equally to the people
Marx and Engels stage theory of history
- Barbarism to Feudalism to capitalism to socialism to communism.
- Socialism = transition from capitalism to communism
- Communism = ultimate stage of society
- Capitalism = struggle between classes
France- 1848- year of revolution
France in economic trouble.
Liberaly claimed Philippe wasn’t liberal enough

Result
people revolted
Philippe left his throne
End of constitutional monarchy in France
Second French republic
elected Louis Napoleon president
Louis napoleon took control of govt. and declared himself Emperor Napoleon III
End of 2nd French republic beginning of the 2nd French empire ( 1852-1870)
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
president of second french republic
took control of govt. and declared himself Emperor
Italian states and Liberal Revolution
- Italian peninsula divided into various independent kingdoms- ruled by absolute monarchies.
- Nationals and unification popular
- 1848 King Charles Albert of Sardinia- piedmont attempted to unify italy
- Defeated by Antriaus
Roman Republic
Papal States
central italy
ruled by pope (absolute power)
capital is Rome

created by liberals in Rome
ruled by elected assembly
constitution to be used as a model fro future Italian unification

1848 popes prime minister is assassinated
Pope leaves Rome
pope regained power in papal states
Liberal efforts at reform and unification had failed in the Italian Kingdoms
france and defeated Roman Republic
Friedrich Wilhiem IV
Prussian king pressured by liberals
Called for national assembly and constitution
Dec 1848, grew tired of liberals and got rid of assembly
Frankfurt Parliament (1848)
- National Assembly representing states of the German confed.
Goal
- constitution for a unified Germany
Problem: caught in power between Prussia and Austria
- March 1849 – constitution passed by Frankfurt parl.
- Govt. of unified Germany would be a Constitutional monarchy.
- German emperor would come from Prussia
- April 1849: Frankfurt Parl Offers crown of a unified Germany to Prussian king Friedrich Wilheim IV.
- Friedrich refused crown

Why?
- does not want to be a part of a liberal govt.

Result
- Liberal efforts at reform and unification had failed in Germanic states.