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45 Cards in this Set

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Obstacles to Italian Unification
1.) Austrian occupation of northern Italian states (Lombardy, venetia)
a. Austria refuses to give up control
2.) Independent rule of the pope
a. Refused to give up power
3.) Existence of independent Italian states
a. Unification meant they would no longer be in control
Camillo Cavour
named prime minister of Sardinia-Piedmont
very pro-unification convinced Napoleon III (France) to help secretly lure Austria into war
built up troops on border of Lombardy
Austrian Emperor told him “Disarm or else!!!”
he refused
Austria invaded Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont
kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont
gained control of Lombardy
Northern States except Venetia voted to join the
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Italian Nationalist
1854- formed alliance with Kingdom of SP
1860
invades and conquers Kingdom of Two Sicilies
kingdom of Italy
Garibaldi invades and conquers Kingdom of Two Sicilies


1861:
Handed over kingdom of Two Sicilies to Kingdom of SP
Venetia (1866)
Austria defeated by Prussia (7 weeks war)
result: kingdom of Italy gained control
Rome (1870)
France pulled troops out of here(Franco-Prussian War)
Papal States added to Kingdom of Italy
German Unification
Otto Von Bismark “Iron Chancellor” appointed Prime Minister of Prussia
Goal- unified Germany
Problem: Austria still powerful
Strategy for unification: WAR!!!
The 7 weeks war- 1866
Prussia vs Austria
Southearn states allied with Austria
Prussia defeated Austria
Results of the 7 weeks war
Weakened Austrian power and influence over Germanic states
Prussia became most powerful Germanic state
Got rid of German Confederation
North German Confederation
Prussia and Northern Germanic States
1867- Germany still not unified
Southern States
Bismark’s Plan
Create nationalism among southern states
How?- Go 2 war
Against who?- Common enemy- France!
Franco Prussian War- 1870
Prussia vs France (Emp. Napoleon III)
Bismark provoked France into war
France declared war on Prussia
Result: Great feeling of Nationalism among Germanic States
Southern States joined in the fight
Prussia won the war
Southern Germanic states
asked Prussian King Wilhelm I to accept title of a unified Germany (Northern and Southern states)
Jan. 1871 German states were united as the German Empire
Prussian King Wilhelm I (Hohenzollern became Kaiser Wilhelm I of the German Empire (Kaiser = Emperor)
conservative government
France and the Third Republic
French fighting Prussians (Franco- Prussian War)
Prussians captured Napoleon III
Result: Revolution in Paris
French Empire replaced with: Govt of National Defense
Jan 1871:
French National Assembly and Prussians sign armistic (suspension of fighting)
Result- Prussians allowed to occupy Paris
Parisians (people of Paris) upset with National Assembly
Result-
Prisians form:
“National Guard”- armed citizens of Paris and against National Assembly
March 1871- “National Guard” forced National Assembly and army out of Paris
Parris Commune:
March 18, 1871- Paris ruled separate from rest of France
April 1871- National Assembly sent army into Paris
May 1871- Paris Commune defeated and National Assembly back in power
New question: What would new gov be like?
Most of French National Assembly wanted Constitutional Monarchy?
Problem: descendants of Charles X or Louis Philippe?
Solution: 3rd French Republic
2 house parliament and ruled by a president
3rd French Republic ruled til WW2 (1940s)
Imperialism
policy of extending a nations rule by territorial acquisitions or by the establishment of economic and political rule over other nations
Suez Canal
1869
connected Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
made trade routes from the Europe to Africa/Asia quicker and cheaper
Three Emperor’s League
German Chancellor Bismark worried France would make alliances against Germany
Germany, Austria-Hungarym Russia
Main Goal: Preserve conservative powers of Europe
Keep peacfule relations with…
The Balkan Peninsula
Occupied by Ottomans since 1300s
surrounded by 3 major Empires
1870s Ottomans having trouble with revolts in Balkans
Austria and Russia interested n Balkans
Russo-Turkish War- 1877-1878
Russia vs Ottoman Empire
Russians: “fighting to liberate the Balkans”
Russia won
Treaty of Stefano-1878
ends Russo-Turkish War
results of russo-turkish war
Serbia, Montenegro, Romania given Independence
Ottomans kept Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosporous Straits and Dardanelles open to neutral ships
Rest of the world: -Nervous over Russia’s new power
Congress of Berlin-1878
Meeting to discuss terms of Treaty of San Stefano
Germany, England, Austria-Hungary, France, Italy, Russia, Ottoman Empire
1.) Officially recognized independence of Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania
2.) Bosnia to be “occupied and administered” by Austria-Hungary
Slavic states not happy ab occupation of Bosnia
Russia negatively affected
Triple Alliance
Defense alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
1904: France formed alliance with England
Triple Entente
Defense alliance
France, Russia, England
Road to WWI
Bosnian Crisis
1908: Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina
Serbia and Montenegro unhappy
Sarajevo
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand
(heir to Austrian throne) visited Sarajevo (Bosnian Capital)
June 28, 1914: Serbian Terrorist group, The Black Hand, assassinated the Archduke
Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia
July 29, 1914
Austria declared war on Serbia
Beginning of WWI
Central Powers
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Allied powers
England
France
Russia
Central Powers
Germany
Austria-Hungary
Ottoman Empire
Allied powers
England
France
Russia
Schleieffen Plan
German plan to prevent war on two fronts
invade and sweep through France before Russia could mobilize
it failed
Schlieffen Plan
Result
2major fronts
Western Front (France)
Eastern Front (Russia)
Trench Warfare
War fought in the trenches
“No Man’s Land”- area between two trenches
front lines don’t move much
Indurstial War
New Type of War
New, bigger, more powerful weapons
Battle of Verdun
Feb 1916-Dec 1916
Major German offensive
biggest battle of the war
French held off Germans
Bloodiest battle of the war (250,000 deaths, 450,000 injured)
US enters war
1914- declared Neutrality
1915: British passenger ship Lusitania sunk by German U-boat
Over 100 US passengers killed
President Woodrow Wilson convinced Germans to stop sinking Merchant/passenger ships
Treaty of Versailles
the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany.
results of war
Austria-Hungary Empire split into 2 separate nations: republic of Austria and Republic of Hungary
New nation of Czechoslovakia formed out of old Austrian land
new nation of Yugoslavia formed out of Slavic states (Serbia, Bosnia,, Montnegro)
Ottoman Empire divided up
became the Republic of Turkey (Asia Minor and Istanbul)
League of Nations
Part of Trety of Versailles
Idea of US President Woodrow Wilson
Body of states from around the world who would try and keep peace
Prevent another major war!!!
US did not join
why? Ready to go back to being neutral
Ottoman Empire and the Middle East after WWI
Early 1900s
Great economic potential in the middle east
During WWI Engalnd supported revolts in Middle East
Sykes Picot Agreement- 1916
Secret agreement between England and France
Ottoman Empire divided into English and French zones of occupation when WWI ends
Zionism
: popular movement during the late 1800s and early 19002 for the creation of an independent Jewish nation
Jews and Palestine
1906- Zionist decided new Jewish homeland should be in Palestine
Result: began to migrate to Palestine
Balfour Declaration- 1917
England promised to support the Jews in the establishment of an independent Jewish Nation in Palestine
San Remo Conference-1920
Meeting between numerous countries
Goal: decided to do with for,er colonial possessions of Germany and the Ottoman Empire
Resulted in division of the Middle East (former Ottoman land)
France got control of Syria and Lebanon
England got control of Palestine and Iraq
Division of Palestine 1920-1922
1920-1922 England divided Palestine
East of Jordan River- Transjordan-area closed to Jewish settlement
West of Jordan River- Palestine- designated for future Jewish Nation