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60 Cards in this Set

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Define: Law of Mass Action
The efficiency of learning is a function of the total mass of cortical tissue.
Define: Principle of equipotentiality.
The idea that one part of the cerebral cortex is essentially equal too another in its contribution to learning.
Define: Operationism.
The doctrine that a physical concept can be defined in precise terms relating to the set of operations or procedures by which it is determined.
Define: purposive behaviorism
tolman's system combining the objective study of behavior w/ the consideration of purposiveness or goal orientation in behavior.
Define: Intervening Variable.
Unobserved & inferred factors w/i the organism that are the actual determinants of behavior.
Define: Hypothetico-deductive method.
Hull's method for establishing postulates from which experimentally testable conclusions can be deduced.
Define: Law of primary reinforcement.
When a stimulus-response relationship is followed by a reduction in a bodily need, the probability increases that on subsequent occasions the same stimulus will evoke the same response.
Define: Habit Strength
The strength of the stimulus-response connection, which is a function of the number of reinforcements.
Define: Operant Conditioning.
A learning situation that involves behavior emitted by an organism rather than elicited by a detectable stimulus.
Define: Law of acquisition
The strength of an operant behavior is increased when it is followed by the presentation of a reinforcing stimulus.
Define: Reinforcement schedules
Conditions involving various rates & times of reinforcement.
define: behavior modification
the use of positive reinforcement to control or modify the behavior of individuals or groups.
define: vicarious reinforcement
Bandura's notion that learning can occur by observing the behavior of other people and the consequences of their behavior, rather than by always experiencing reinforcement personally.
define: self-efficacy
one's sense of self-esteem & competence in dealing w/ life's problems
define: locus of control
Rotter's idea about the source of reinforcement. Internal locus of control is the belief that reinforcement depends on one's own behavior external locus of control is the belief that reinforcement depends on outside forces.
define: phenomenology
An approach to knowledge based on an unbiased description of immediate experience as it occurs, not analyzed or reduced to it's elements.
define: fields of force
regions or spaces traversed by lines of force, such as of a magnet or electric current.
define: phi phenomenon
the illusion that two stationary flashing lights are moving from one place to another.
define: perceptual constancy
a quality of wholeness or completeness in perceptual experience that does not vary even when the sensory elements change.
define: insight
immediate apprehension or cognition
define: isomorphism
the doctrine that there is a correspondence between psychological or conscious experience and the underlying brain experience.
define: field theory
lewin's system using the concept of fields of force to explain behavior in terms of one's field of social influence.
define: zeigarnik effect
The tendency to recall uncompleted tasks more easily than completed tasks.
define: monadology
leibnitz's theory of psychic entities, called monads, which are similar to perceptions.
define: catharsis
The process of reducing or eliminating a complex by recalling it to conscious awareness and allowing it to be expressed.
define: transference
the process by which a patient responds to the therapist as if the therapist were a significant person (such as a parent) in the patients life
define: free association
a psychotheraputic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind
define: dream analysis
a psychotheraputic technique involving interpreting dreams to uncover unconscious conflicts.
define: freudian slip
an act of forgetting or a lapse in speech that reflexts unconscious motives or anxieties
define: resistance
a blockage or refusal to disclose painful memories during a free association session.
define: repression
the process of barring unacceptable ideas, memories, or desires from conscious awareness, leaving them to operate in the unconscious mind
define: instincts
to freud, mental representations of internal stimuli (such as hunger), that motivate personality and behavior.
define: libido
to freud, the psychic energy that drives a person toward pleasureable thoughts and behaviors
define: id
the source of psychic energy and the aspect of personality allied w/ the instincts.
define: ego
the rational aspect of personality responsible for controlling the instincts
define: superego
the moral aspect of personality derived from internalizing parental and societal values and standards
define: defense mechanism
behaviors that represent unconscious denials or distortions of reality but which are adopted to protect the ego against anxiety.
define: psychosexual stages
in psychoanalytic theory, the developmental stages of childhood centering on erogenous zones
define: oedipus complex
at ages 4-5, the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother and the desire to replace or destroy his father.
Who came up w/ Law of Mass Action?
Karl Lashley
Who was Watson's biggest critic?
William McDougall
What is the Instinct Theory of Beh?
Human beh derives from innate tendancies to thought & action
Who came up w/ purposive beh'ism?
Edward Tolman
Who came up w/ intervening variables?
Edward Tolman.
What is Edward Tolman's (Cog Exp) of learning theory?
repeated performance of a task strengthens the learned relationship between environmental cues and the O's expectations. O gets to know environment.
What is a "sign Gestalt"?
the relationship built by continued performance of a task
Who's Beh'istic approach was more sophisticated & complex than Watson's?
Clark Leonard Hull
Who dominated psych from the '40's - '60's?
Clark Leonard Hull
Who came up w/ "sign Gestalts"?
Edward Tolman
Who came up w/ a cognitive explanation learning theory?
Edward Tolman
What are the Intervening Variables
Physiological Drives
Heredity
Enivoronmental Stim
Age
Previous Training
What did William McDougall support?
Free Will, nordic superiority, & psychic research
Known for his theory of instincts.
William McDougall
Who came up w/ principle of equipotentiality?
Karl Lashley
What 17th cent idea influence Clark Leonard Hull?
The Spirit of Mechanism.
Hypothetico-Deductive Method
= Hull's method for estb'ing postulates from which experimentall testable concls can be deduced; if aren't supported by exp evidence, must be revised
What are primary drives?
drives assoc'd w/ innate bio'ical need states & are vital to the O's survival: eating etc
What are secondary drives?
drives that become related to primary drives.
What did Clark Leonard Hull think about drives?
reduction or satisfaction of a drive is the sole basis for reinforcement
What did Clark Leonard Hull say were the 4 useful methods of study?
Simple Observation
Systematic Controlled Observation
Experimental Testing of Hypotheses.
Hypothetico-Deductive Method = Hull's method for estb'ing postulates from which experimentall testable concls can be deduced; if aren't supported by exp evidence, must be revised