Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/122

Click to flip

122 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Drew heavily from St Augustine
Good to have faith of god, but need reason, will not get knowledge of god with out reason
St. Anselm
Blvd, if we think of god god must be causing our thought, therefore it must be there
St. Anselm
What is Reification
Logic to justify Faith
St. Anselm
What is Peter Abelards dialectic Method
2 sides of argument on a page
Sought to eliminate contradictions in theological questions and define what doctrines we hold
* universals (ties to Platos theory of forms)
Universals looking at forms, e.g., catness, sweetness, humanness
PETER ABLEARD
Capable
What was the philosophical Battle in Middle Ages
·REALISTS Vs. NOMINALISTS
Who believed realists and nominalists are confusing words with things. logic/words to describe and understand universals; it doesn’t follow that they exist. Logic an physics are 2 different disciplines
William of Campeaux
What was conceptualism
compromise; universal essences do not exist but similarities among categories of experiences do
Who believed that concepts summarize individual experiences (nominalism) but once formed concepts exist apart from the individual experiences (realism)
Ableard
What is William Ockham famous for?
Ockham's Razor, the law of parsimonhy
Who is famous for School of Theological Thought: Scholasticism = a synthesis of Aristotle’s thought with Christian theology
Thomas Aquinas
Who were considered the humanists of the Renaissance?
Petrach, Erasmus, Luther
o AntiAristotle, believed should look at
- Religion based on the individual, read the Bible
- Church was making faith too rational
Petrach
- Life in the present is important vs. living for the afterlife
- To glorify God one must use all of our abilities that God gave us
- Influences others into scientific thought through his skeptism
Petrach
- Anything created by humans has error bcs. humans are flawed
- To live right use Jesus as role model for life, don’t need ritual of organized church
- believed in educating women
Erasmus
Wrote in 1512: Praise of Folly
§ attacked everyone; church, popes, intellectuals, and nobility
- The fool has it/lives it best, ignorance is bliss
- Thought Alchemy was nonsense
Erasmus
- Put Christianity on philosophical basis Some people say he founded it
- Took from Plato, knowledge true nature can only be obtained from getting away from sensory influence
- Questions regarding the existence of evil, free will, & human reason
- glorified celibacy
St. PUAL OF TAURSUS
- Emphasis on personal responsibility
- Believed in Justification by Faith – faith is personal
Luther
Name the type of the astronomical system that states; Geocentric - Earth is the center of the universe, sphere is perfect which, 7 is holy, perfect number, Planet paths follow a circle
Ptolemaic System
-Published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium – sun is the center of the universe
- published on his death
- dedicated to pope
o Nicholaus Copernicus
Wrote in 1512: Praise of Folly
§ attacked everyone; church, popes, intellectuals, and nobility
- The fool has it/lives it best, ignorance is bliss
- Thought Alchemy was nonsense
Erasmus
- 95 Theses – nailing of flyers
- Attacked Indulgence
Luther
- Emphasis on personal responsibility
- Believed in Justification by Faith – faith is personal
Luther
Geocentric - Earth is the center of the universe, sphere is perfect which, 7 is holy, perfect number, Planet paths follow a circle
Ptolemaic System
- He made Christianity LEGAL in 343
o Nycia council in attempt to define Christian doctrine
o Lay the foundation to define Christianity
o AGAPE (unconditional love)
Constantine
Saw universe as perfect machine that can only be explained thru math
- Law was a Platonic Form
Galileo
What is Galileo's objective reality
Objective, exists separate from anyones perception of it e.g. Shapes, sizes, positions, motions, rest (not moving)
What is Galileo's subjective reality
Tied to a sensing mechanism
e.g. color, temperature, smell, taste
§ A lot of conscious experience is subjective so don’t waste time trying to understand it
§ Humans are not the center of Gods eye
- What is real and important exists outside of human perception
- Teachings were held to be heretical by the church and placed under house arrest
Galileo
- Looked at light and prisms and wavelengths to color
- Developed calculus at the same time as Gotfried Liebnits
Newton
- Most famous book “mathematical principals...”
- Interested in human behavior and can they be looked @ thru mathematics
- Made master of the royal mint, and tried to make it easy to spot counterfeit
Newton
- Believed in Alchemy held some magical force in creation and humans can find these magical portals and gain esoteric knowledge
- fascinated with mercury because it is contradictory liquid metal
Newton
- Most influential work “Nosum Organum” = New Method
Francis Bacon
- Spokesman for new science which is based heavily into empiricism did not use Aristotole and Plato
- Saw previous works of philosophy as flawed and thought ppl shouldn’t consider it
§ The beginning or scientific experimentation
Francis Bacon
-The beginning or scientific experimentation
- Use objective study and deduce some laws
- Forget religion and philosophy. Be careful of mathematics
- Math can close your eyes to things you can observe
Francis Bacon
Bacon's 4 sources of error
- Idols of the cave – Biases based on your own intellect
- Idols fo the Tribe – biases due to human nature
- Idols of the Marketplace – biases due to being overly influenced of the meaning of words
- Idols of the theater – biases due to blind allegiance to any view point
Bacon's 2 kinds of experimentation?
- Experimenta Lucifer (light) designed causal relationships
- Experimenta Fructufera (fruit)designed to find ways of applying science
Thought Experiments should be done without a hypothesis because it was a bias?
Bacon
What behaviorist was influenced by Bacon?
Skinner
- Famous for study of heart and circulatory system
- Proved heart was a pump but believed it was the center of the body
- compared the body and blood to a kingdom and messengers
Bacon
- Was An Aristotalian
- One of his last experiments was proving Galen was wrong that the heart doesn’t pass fluid between the two chambers
Bacon
“I think therefore I am”
Descarte
- Wanted to find an intellectual fortress that is safe from skeptics
descarte
- “Certainty”; used mathematical/ analytical geometry
- Watched fly and determined it’s position; begining of the principles of analytical geometry
Descarte
Descarte's 4 Rules to Attain Certainty
·never accept anything as true
·Divide any problem into many parts
·Think from simplest to the most difficult
·Be thorough
- Was An Aristotalian
- One of his last experiments was proving Galen was wrong that the heart doesn’t pass fluid between the two chambers
Bacon
“I think therefore I am”
Descarte
- Wanted to find an intellectual fortress that is safe from skeptics
descarte
- “Certainty”; used mathematical/ analytical geometry
- Watched fly and determined it’s position; begining of the principles of analytical geometry
Descarte
Descarte's 4 Rules to Attain Certainty
·never accept anything as true
·Divide any problem into many parts
·Think from simplest to the most difficult
·Be thorough
What did Descarte's Innate Ideas include
- natural components of the mind unity, infinity, perfection, various geometric axioms, God
- Trust senses but be careful bcs they are flawed; analyze info rationally
- Emphasized rational processes and we use them to validate things
- Intuition; process; unbiased mind come to clear idea
- Dualism (mind/body)
Descarte
-How we sense thing is due to pressure plates e.g. finger
·Animal spirits; fluid moves thru hollow tubes (nerves) & opens a pore in the brain
· Can work in reverse to the muscles and cause them to reflex
·Humans are a lot like animals
Descarte
According to Descarte what 3 things do humans have (mind) that animals don't
consciousness
free choice
reasoning abiliyt
- We are no more than machines
- Not any better than animals – we are a bunch of apes
- Animals have natural law
- Ppl do not have an innate knowledge of good and evil
Julien Offray de la Mettrie
Who believed in the passive mind and what group believed in the active mind
Empiricists
Rationalists
Who Used analysis, intuition, & deduction, Empiricists or Rationalists
Rationalists
Rejected Descarte’s dualism, believed that God, Matter and Mind are all one in the same
- heresy by rabbi
Baruch Spinoza
Believed in Pantheisim – God is in everything and everywhere
Baruch Spinoza
Mind and Body influence ea. other bcs they are the same substance; “Double Aspectism” what is exp. by one felt by the other
Baruch Spinoza
·Good and evil are emotions & correlate w/pleasure and pain
o Pleasure is rooted in the entertaining of clear thoughts and is necessary for your survival bcs. it reflects an understanding of causal necessity
o When mind entertains unclear ideas or passion the person feels weak, vulnerable = pain
Baruch Spinoza
o Mind and Body influence ea. other bcs they are the same substance; “Double Aspectism” what is exp. by one felt by the other
Baruch Spinoza
1st to look at emotions and the various types of emotions
- Differentiated emotion from passion
Baruch Spinoza
- Something is loved and then hated, it will be hated w/more intensity than if it was never loved
Baruch Spinoza
Wrote that the free man is conscious of the necessities that compel him; free man is the one who recognizes he has no freedom
Baruch Spinoza
o Interested in John Locke’s mind is a blank slate
o Active mind but our ideas are innate including the potential to have an idea
o Introspection
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Combined physics, biology, introspection and theology all into one world view
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
Monads make up everything including level of intelligence
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
- Psychophysical parallelism – pre-established harmony i.e. monads don’t influence each other it just seems that way
- Universe is perfect and works in harmony not a cause and effect relationship
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
- Conscious & unconscious perception – nothing moves quickly
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
·Perceptions which can not be seen = petite perceptions
·Apperception - continuum Xwn conscious and unconscious perception (1st to discuss unconscious)
·Limen is the threshol
Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz
2 early expressions of early religion
- Olympian Gods
- Dionysiac-Orphic-belief you can get in touch with a spirit that protects you. Many festivals associated with it.
Who was considered the 1st greek philosopher and what did he believe Physis was?
Thalen, believed Physis was the substance from which everything is created and it was Water
How did Anaximander differ from Thalen?
- Physis is boundless & shouldn’t be defined
- Believed that things could be mixed together to form other things e.g. water+dirt=fish
What was Heraclitus famous saying and why did he believe it?
“Can’t step into the same river twice” because he believed in constant change
Which early Greek did Pythagoras influence and in with what beliefs
Plato, physical world is corrupt and thought is the only pure thing
What were the 4 elements Empedocles believed made up creation/humans and where were they found?
Earth = Body, Water = fluid in body, Fire =reasoning, Air = breath and Water, Found in blood
What were the 2 causal powers according to Empedocles?
Love which attracts and brings the 4 elements together and Strife which separates them
Of the 4 cosmic phases (Empedocles) where did he believe the world exists?
The 2nd and fourth when strife begins to disrupt and the 4th when love returns to dominance
According to Empedocles what was the Eidola?
Believed every object gives off a tiny copy of itself and that is how we see things = emanation
According to Democritus what were all things made of and how did his view of perception differ from Empedocles?
tiny invisible parts = atoms Believed atoms hit the receptors in eyes and that’s how ppl see you. Didn’t believe in the Eidola
What was Democritus’ Physical Monism and which of the three themes does this apply to?
everything has a physical foundation (materialism) the nature of the nature vs. nurture debate
How was Democritus a Reductionist and how did he think we should use our senses?
tried to explain events in terms of observable behavior and tie it to the elements. Trust our senses and then based on what we observe let’s ask how we can tie it to these atoms
What were the temples of medicine called, which was the most famous, and how was one cured?
Aesclipions, Epidarus, in dreams
Alcmaeon was the first to move away from Temple medicine, what did he believe kept people in good health?
A balance of the humors, Warm & Cold, Moist & Dry, Bitter & sweet
Alcmaeon was Dismissive of magic and the supernatural what did he believe regarding the Brain?
Brain tied to our senses and is the center of thought
Because Hippocrates was a materialist what were his thoughts about diseases?
Looked for natural factors for the cause of disease Believed diseases could be inheritable
According to Hippocrates how was good health achieved?
Good health was in a balance of 4 humors Black Bile, Yellow Bile, Blood, Phlegm
What were the core beliefs of the Sophists?
truth was relative. Anything cold be true if you could convince someone
The most famous Sophist, Protagoras was famous for what statement?
“man is the measure of all things, things that are they are, things that are not they are not”
According to Protagoras truth is dependent on what and why?
Truth depends on the perceiver rather than the physical reality (the body is corrupt and we can’t trust it)
What factors effect perception according to Protagoras?
Perceptions vary w/the previous experience of the perceiver & What is considered true is in part culturally determined
The Sophists took the nihilist belief one step further, what were the nihilist beliefs?
no way to determine what’s true so don’t try
What were four core beliefs of Socrates and what should be the goal of life
The unexamined life is not worth living”, truth is out there if you look hard enough, You needed to know yourself and the content of your mind. Believed in Dualism mind & body- one is imperfect the other is or has the potential to be pure Goal of Life– to gain knowledge.
What were the Essences according to Socrates and why was it important to know the Essence?
- A concept that transcends what is experienced, a basic nature, the ideal of everything that exists in the world
- We need to know the Essences because we need to know WHY something is beautiful, true, just, or love
Plato’s Academy taught in what type methods with what type of influence?
Socratic methods (questioning students) with Pythogoran (senses are corrupt) Philosophy
Explain Plato’s Theory of forms?
what you see is an inferior representation of the ideal form.
According to Plato why is what we perceive an inferior representation of the Form?
because the body is corrupt
Difference Xwn Essences and Forms?
Soc. definition specified the essence, essence is out there we define it. Plato - the form/the ideal is out there, Believed Reason is the ideal
What do Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and the analogy of the Divided line try to explain?
Forms/Reason/Wisdom on one side and physical perception on the other.
What is Plato’s Reminiscence Theory of Knowledge? What is this an argument for rationalism or materialism?
a.
Innate knowledge come from our pure soul entering our body at birth and we are recovering knowledge that our soul experienced before entering the body
b. Rationalism
According to Plato what are the 3 components of the Soul and how do we achieve true knowledge
a. Rational, Couragous, Appetitive
b. Achieve true knowledge by ignoring the needs of the body, the job of the soul is to reign in the body
What is Plato’s republic, the ideal society, made up of?
a people dominated by each component of the soul
How did Plato and Aristotle differ in their view of the ideal and math?
Plato believed the Forms must be learned w/o the senses But Aristotle believed you SHOULD use your senses if you are going to gain knowledge of the forms. Plato thought highly of Mathematics and Aristotle didn’t
How do we see the beginnings of Empiricism in Aristotle’s view of rational thought?
the object of your rational thought should be based on the information furnished by the senses
According to Aristotle what 4 Causes were needed to truly know something and what did they represent?
Material Cause – the kind of matter, Formal Cause – the particular form/shape or pattern, Efficient Cause – the force that shapes the matter, Final Cause – the reason the object exists (the core of Aris. philosp)
What was Aristotle’s Telelogy and how is it different from Entlechy?
everything exist for a purpose not a conscious intention, Entelechy – is the built in purpose. force that keeps the object moving towards it’s potential
Did Aristotle believe in Evolution and why?
No. Aris believed that categories were fixed
What was Aristotle’s Scala Naturae?
ladder/hierarchy of nature. Neutral matter to unmoved matter (pure actuality
What were the levels on the hierarchy of Souls according to Aristotle?
a. Vegetative Soul – Lowest soul – growth, food assim. and reprod. PLANTS
b. Sensitive Soul – all of above + it can react to environment, exp. pleasure and pain, & have memories; ANIMALS
c. Rational Soul – All of the above + thinking, rational thought; ONLY HUMANS
d. Soul gives the body life didn’t believe you should try to separate the soul/dualism
How did Aristotle’s belief of perception differ from Empedocles
All info provided by 5 senses (not the eidola). Objects have a motion & this motion of objects is what stimulates the senses
Besides our sensory experience what else was necessary to learn according to Aristotle?
Common Sense is what coordinated your senses and believed it resides in the heart not the mind
What were Aristotle’s 2 types of reasoning?
Passive, everyday & Active the ultimate goal
Why wouldn’t you see Aristotle at an Esclipion?
tied dreaming to memory of the past not the future
Why wouldn’t you see Aristotle at an asclipion?
tied dreaming to memory. the reappearance of images of past experience. dismissed the idea that dreams tell the future
What was Aristotles way of thinking regarding Everything
Everything in moderation
What did Aristotle think emotion did & did he thing we should allow our emotions to be encouraged?
Amplified our feelings and perceptions. No
What is Skepticism and who founded it?
the suspension of belief in anything; Pyrrho of Elis
What contrasted Pyrrho’s moral relativism?
Morality, goodness, badness are beyond your grasp but people should uphold appearances, common law
Cynicism is tied to whose writings and why did he think society should live free of passions and wants
Antisthenes; society’s reliance on material comfort was a distortion of nature and people should leave society living free of passions and wants
Who is most associated with cynicism and how did he get his name?
Diogenes; came to be called cynic (dog like) because he lived by begging and believed we had a brotherhood with animals
Why would Diogenese/Cynic have enjoyed the ‘70’s?
he believed we should reject all social conventions and engage in free lov