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31 Cards in this Set

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Alexander Thompson
1774 in PA
-wrote a letter from America to a friend back in his homeland of Scotland, in which he contrasted life back home from his new life in Pennsylvania. He talked about both the attractions of immigration and the restraints that prevented many from leaving their European homes.
Arabella Sermon
1630 on Atlantic
One of the most famous, if not the most famous, sermon in American history given by John Winthrop on the Arabella on the great migration to New England. In his sermon, Winthrop, the puritan leader of the great migration, explained to the puritans’ their understanding of their migration to New England. He included the goals they hoped to achieve and the responsibilities they assumed. The sermon was entitled, “A Model of Christian Charity”.
Anti-Federalists
1770s-1780s-came mostly from backcountry areas
America (came largely from backcountry areas, New York, other colonies)
Who/what: (anti-constitution) were unhappy about lack of Christianity and religion in constitution and the fact that it welcomed other religions; were also concerned that elected reps would always be members of the elite (they were mostly rural noncommercial men who were not very involved in state govt)
backcountry
1676 VA
where indentured servants were given (bad) land, which led to Bacon’s Rebellion in 1676; BR occurred because of Western Expansion here
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 Chesapeake,VA
a dispute over Virginia’s Indian policy; Nathaniel Bacon led the frontier soldiers in a war (rebellion) against the Indians who they had been fighting over land with. They also wanted to fight against others who they felt may be threatening to their success and natural rights, such as the elite planters who they charged with governing for their own best interest.
Barbados
1640s a small island in the Caribbean
very successful in sugar growth-known as the gem of the British West Indies;
Significance/impact on larger issues: sugar transformed Barbados and other West Indian islands-made sugar planters rich; much richer than tobacco planters-also owned many slaves in Barbados ****so slaves became much more popular and needed to cultivate so much sugarblacks were the majority of Barbados whereas in Chesapeake, they were only 4% of the population ******for slaves, life on a sugar plantation was brutal, horrible labor, so their life expectancies were short and they had a low reproduction rate, which meant that Barbadian planters had to purchase enslaved Africans, ***so this had a major influence on developing slavery in the colonies
*due to the great sugar production in Barbados, more slaves were needed, and they lived under horrible conditions which made them have low life expectancies and thus low reproduction rates, so the sugar planters had to purchase enslaved Africans; this had a major influence on the development of slavery in the colonies
Boston King
1798, Charleston SC
an enslaved African American who worked as a carpenter in Charlestown, SC, and ran away from his master and sought freedom among the British army. In his memoir, he recounts his experiences in both slavery and freedom. He later became a Methodist minister and moved to Sierra Leone in Africa.
Significance/impact on larger issues: one of about 100,000 slaves who fled to the British army during the American Revolution. He said in his memoir the British army received him readily.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773
over 100 men disguised as Indians threw 342 chests of tea into Boston harbor to boycott the dutied tea; ordinary people took part, not just elite
Columbian Exchange
1492, the Caribbean
a transatlantic exchange of goods, people, and ideas that has continued ever since;
Significance/impact on larger issues: European diseases transformed the dominant peoples of the New World from descendants of Asians, who had inhabited the hemisphere for millennia, to descendants of Europeans and Africans, recent arrivals from the Old World by way of the newly formed “sea bridge” or the Columbian exchange
Corn
forever, originatd in Central Mexico
important commodity in keeping Indians and settlers alive and thus good bartering tool for Indians; caused conflicts when withheld from settlers such as those between Powhatan and Jamestown
Significance/impact on larger issues: allowed Indians to have something to teach Europeans
Henry Laurens
1760s S.Carolina
politician/merchant who was the president of continental congress; his wealthy position caused him to be a target for the Sons of Liberty in that they attacked him for being a stamp distributor (but wasn’t); later became a leading revolutionary
indentured servitude
1600s Chesapeake region
a system that committed poor immigrants to 4 to 7 yrs of labor in exchange for passage to the colonies and food and shelter after they arrived-about 80% of the immigrants were indentured servants. This system developed when the settlers began mass cultivating tobacco and needed people who were willing, or could be forced, to do this hard labor since the Native Americans refused to.
Iroquois
1750s-1760s NY (Great Lakes)
one of the 2 major Indian tribes (the other was the Hurons who they had an ongoing war with for many years); sided with the British during the revolution
Jamestown
May 14, 1607 on James River
the first main English settlement; chosen as a good site because it was easily defensible; good protection against Indians; set tone for useful yet hostile view of Native Americans
John Smith
1607 Jamestown
saved by Pocahontas, the chief Powhatan’s daughter, but she was really acting out adopting him into the land, as the ceremony should go
Katherine Watkins
1681 Henrico County,VA
she was on trial for slave rape, etc
Lords Proprietors
1663-1719 Carolina
: small group of wealthy elites who came from Barbados and were given land by the British; they had been exposed to slave labor in Barbados and were used to this kind of labor so knew how to use it; then planted rice in Carolina
Mercy Otis Warren
1788 Mass.
an anti-federalist woman of a very distinguished family who published a piece called “Observations on the New Constitution”, which was prompted by the debate in Massachusetts about the ratification of the Constitution. In it, she examined Federalists’ rash behavior and ideas to change the constitution.
Metacomet
1675-76 New England (MA)
the chief of the Wampanoags who led them in attacking the New England colonists when they tried to take over Indian lands; also called King Phillip; the war he “led” left the colonists with an enduring hatred of Indians, a large war debt, and a devastated frontier
New Amsterdam
NY 1670s
principal trading center in New York and the colony’s headquarters; it was a very diverse place and Dutch merchants carried tens of thousands of African slaves there; it was also Dutch in between English settlements
Pocahontas
1607 Jamestown
the daughter of the chief Powhatan who saved John Smith from death, which was actually probably only a staged adoption ritual; later was Christianized and married to John Rolfe, and Englishman
Roger Williams
banished from Mass. in 1635
puritan minister who was banished from Massachusetts in 1635; had radical views for his time: believed in separation of church and state, the state shouldn’t punish for sins; was known for his relations with Native Americans and his desire to live in harmony with them
Seven Years War
1754-1763 spread throughout Europe, the Caribbean, and even India
England and France had been fighting for years and this war was based on tensions on contested land in Ohio that they were fighting over; English won over the French and their Indian allies; laid the groundwork for the imperial crisis of the 1760s between British leaders and American colonists
Sons of Liberty
1760s Boston
a group of protesters; attacked stamp distributors
Stamp Act
1765 colonies
imposed a tax on all paper used for various colonial documents: newspapers, pamphlets, court documents, licenses, wills, etc.; designed simply to raise money; posed a major conflict between England and the colonies over Parliament’s right to tax
Starving Time
winter of 1609-1610/11 Jamestown
all died but 36; happened because they weren’t prepared; they expected the Native Americans to feed them
Stono Rebellion
1739 Stono, SC
a group of about 20 slaves attacked a country store, killed the 2 storekeepers; they then set out toward Spanish Florida, enticing other rebel slaves to join the march south-pillaged more plantations on the way and killed whites, but did not succeed and were suppressed by whites and mounted their heads as a warning to other rebels
The ensign controversy
1635 Mass
there was a cross on the flag and John Endecott ripped it off; a control issue in that it disrupted a conforming society: raised the tension of religious control; he didn’t get in trouble though
Plantation America
1600s Chesapeake, Caribbean, Carolina Lowcountry
three regional societies: 1)Chesapeake 2)Caribbean (or West Indies) 3)Carolina Lowcountry; African slavery, staple commodities (sugar, rice, indigo, tobacco), small powerful white elite
Thomas Paine
1776 Philadelphia, PA
wrote “Common Sense”, in which he argued that independence was common sense, through a revolution; swayed people; radical colonist
Opechancanough
organized an all-out assault on the settlers in 1622 in the Virginia colony; he was Powhatan’s brother, who replaced him as supreme chief in 1618; organized an all-out assault on the English settlers in 1622 in which they killed nearly a third of the English pop.
Significance/impact on larger issues: angered the settlers and caused them to think of the Indians as their enemies whereas before they depended on them to stay alive