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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How the American Revolution might be interpreted as both a conservative and a radical movement
• Conservative
- led by colonial elite (merchants and planters)
- patriots fought to keep power, not necessarily to increase it
~ perceived Britain as interfering after the Seven Years War
~ demanded colonies be left alone
- American liberties were traditional English liberties
~ not asking for “new” rights
• Radical
- old political systems have to be replaced (king, parliament, un-elected royal governors)
- an opportunity for a new system
- implement new theories about government
- recreate the democracy of Athens or Roman Republic model Capital from their architecture greatness not because of birth into power
- Evacuation of loyalists
~ they were the true conservatives
~ left property and positions of power for the taking
- national sacrifices deserve national rewards
~ worst small pox epidemic- soldiers brought diseases back to their villages after they were discharged
~ poor fought the war- wanted something for it and not to go back to system where the rich were in charge
Be able to list and describe the major problems and compromises associated with the creation of the U.S. Constitution.
• Problems
- limited consensus
- slavery-hypocrisy of a free nation
- large states could dominate the republic- larger populations meant more power in national legislature based on direct representation
- federal authority or tyranny?
- Limited national support
~ ratification rules requires approval of all state legislatures
~ unlikely to get approval
• Compromises
- spirit of compromise
~ most votes went 5 to 4
~ rarely the same states voting together
- no discussion on slave trade for 20 years
- leave slavery up to eastern states
- the Great Compromise
~ bicameral legislature (senate and house of representatives)
- absolute authority but only in specific areas
~ limited revenue raising
~ diplomacy: defense
- Virginia Plan/ New Jersey Plan
~ 3 branches, checks and balances
~ equals an inefficient, lumbering government- wanted more local power, not federal
- cheated and change ratification rules
~ require approval by only 9 states
~ approved by conventions not state legislatures
The role of parades in the creation of national support for the Washington administration
• Parades: a propaganda, educated kids
Alexander Hamilton’s financial program, the concerns about it and the backlash
• Part 1- Make federal government largest debtor
- redeem all paper currency left over from the confederacy
- assume all state debts from revolutionary war
~ won’t get rid of federal government because they now owe them money but will vote for a new leader
Why??
- ties people to new government
- lenders are largely citizen to foreign countries
- federal government overthrown = no debt repayment
~ economic stability
- stable debt repayments
- allows private lenders to take risks with other money because federal government has the power to pay off debts, put federal taxes on international trade to raise funds, private/public partnerships to create a national bank to service the debts.
~ means fast access to money for wars and projects
~ federal independence from states
• Concerns and Backlash
- plan looks a lot like Britain- powerful federal government
- power within the federal government is tied to treasury(appointed position)
- debt repayment relies on overseas trade
~ more power to the merchants who run the trade (90% of Americans are rural farmers)
- concentration of financial institutions in the Capitol
- benefits people who can relocate to the capitol (urban elite)
- Federalist party splits
~ old federalists(Hamilton and his supporters)
~ democrat-republicans (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison)- favor a more limited federal government
How the American Revolution might be interpreted as both a conservative and a radical movement
• Conservative
- led by colonial elite (merchants and planters)
- patriots fought to keep power, not necessarily to increase it
~ perceived Britain as interfering after the Seven Years War
~ demanded colonies be left alone
- American liberties were traditional English liberties
~ not asking for “new” rights
• Radical
- old political systems have to be replaced (king, parliament, un-elected royal governors)
- an opportunity for a new system
- implement new theories about government
- recreate the democracy of Athens or Roman Republic model Capital from their architecture greatness not because of birth into power
- Evacuation of loyalists
~ they were the true conservatives
~ left property and positions of power for the taking
- national sacrifices deserve national rewards
~ worst small pox epidemic- soldiers brought diseases back to their villages after they were discharged
~ poor fought the war- wanted something for it and not to go back to system where the rich were in charge
Be able to describe the population shift to the American interior that took place between 1790 and 1820
• Population Shift
- decrease in English after 1700
~ England unites with Scotland in 1707- poor scots pour into America
~ England more politically and economically stable after 1700 (less discontented people for immigration)  jobs
- Scots-Irish: wave of immigrants in 18th century
~ protestant
- 90,000 Germans during 18th century
~ protestants
~ farmers
~ wanted to avoid warfare and famine- sought prosperity in America
- Assortment of other groups
~ African slaves and former slaves
~ Jewish immigrants- mostly urban-based merchants
~ Muslims- some slaves; some merchants
- earlier English colonists hold most of the wealth and power
~ closer to the seaboard
~ control the government
~ creates tensions- English there 1st- got best land, set up government, prejudice against others even though they soon became the minority- rebellions
Be able to list and describe each of the three major branches of westward expansion after the American Revolution and before American Civil War.
The major features (as described in the lecture) of Democrat-Republican party rule, 1800-25
• Westward Expansion
- Treaty of Paris (1783) gives control of British-held interior (Indians were “conquered” peoples)
- Louisiana Purchase (1803)
- Florida to Gulf Coast from Spain (1819)
- A shift to the interior
~ 1790- US population was 3.9 million, 200,000 lived west of the Appalachians (1 in every 20 Americans)
~1820- US population was 9.6 million, 2 million lived west of the Appalachians (1 in every 5 Americans)
• Migration into the Upper South
- primarily Kentucky, Tennessee, Southern Ohio
- had wanted these lands for decades
- most settlers wee lower-class people from the Chesapeake
~ wanted own (or more) land
- Some land was reserved for genuine settler
- 1/3 was handed over to a handful of speculators
~ meant renting land from wealthy owner again
• Migration into the Gulf Coast
- Future Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and West Georgia
- Some poor settlers
- Mostly southern from plantation class
~ adventurous second sons
~ cheaper land for bigger plantations
- took slaves to slavery with them
- main product was cotton
- result= new states were culturally and economically aligned with Virginia, Carolinas, Georgia, etc. (Old South and New South)
• New England Migration
- began with migration to north (in Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire)
- then looked west primarily went into West New York and East Ohio- lands taken from the Iroquois
- New Englanders extend New England
~ took religion and cultural values with them
~ idealized small farming communities of freeholders
- Speculators take over
~ drive up price of land
~ by 1820s more renters than owners
Be able to list and describe the major problems and compromises associated with the creation of the U.S. Constitution.
• Problems
- limited consensus
- slavery-hypocrisy of a free nation
- large states could dominate the republic- larger populations meant more power in national legislature based on direct representation
- federal authority or tyranny?
- Limited national support
~ ratification rules requires approval of all state legislatures
~ unlikely to get approval
• Compromises
- spirit of compromise
~ most votes went 5 to 4
~ rarely the same states voting together
- no discussion on slave trade for 20 years
- leave slavery up to eastern states
- the Great Compromise
~ bicameral legislature (senate and house of representatives)
- absolute authority but only in specific areas
~ limited revenue raising
~ diplomacy: defense
- Virginia Plan/ New Jersey Plan
~ 3 branches, checks and balances
~ equals an inefficient, lumbering government- wanted more local power, not federal
- cheated and change ratification rules
~ require approval by only 9 states
~ approved by conventions not state legislatures
Capitalism and democracy as defining characteristics of U.S. society after the American Revolution and before American Civil War
• “greed is good”- capitalism as a defining characteristic
- The national legal and social system was based on private property
- Wealthy control the political system
~ wealth = power and influence
~ only wealthy can run for office
- wealth was acquired, not inherited- wealthy still work
- wealth as a measure of merit and success
~ citizens see it as obtainable
• Democracy
- a nation ruled by “ordinary” people
~ economic and social mobility
~ shift toward universal man hood sufferage
~ Indians are involved in government
- popular politics- the Jacksonian presidency
~ 1824- popular candidate but rejected by congress
~ mass voting in 1828- defeats the difference-based, big government whigs- voting in doubles from 1824
~ Jackson popular- man of the people, western, small government extremely popular- “kegger” after elected
The role of parades in the creation of national support for the Washington administration
• Parades: a propaganda, educated kids
“Southern aristocracy” as defining characteristics of U.S. society after the American Revolution and before American Civil War
• Southern Aristocracy
- extending into the lower south
- owners of hereditary plantations controlled the south
~ huge rich-poor gap
~ owned 1/3 of population
~ controlled the other through economic coercion
- planters self-fashioned themselves as aristocrats
~ patriarchy over slaves
~ dispensed patronage to lower class whites
~ espoused chivalric codes of honor and fought duels to “protect” it
The Second Great Awakening: be able to describe it, its immediate causes, to whom it appealed, which groups it benefited and targeted, and its major theological tenets.
• The 2nd Great Awakening
- America changing and so does religion
- A widespread Christian religious revival/surge
- Begins in the wake of the American Revolution
~ disestablishment of religion (separation of church and state)
~ churches have to compete in the private market
~ freedom of religious warship guaranteed
- Fringe denominations fill the gap
~ Methodists
~ Baptists
• 2nd Great Awakening Theology
- Evangelical
- Rejected complex theological arguments in favor of a “personal relationship with god”- don’t have to go to church to be a good Christian
- Rejected in liturgical worship in favor of “revival” style charismatic services
- Self-help theology- can achieve salvation through righteous living
~ responsibility
~ self-determination
• Target
- targeted frontier communities
- lacked established churches and social organizations
- people lived in fear and anxiety
Alexander Hamilton’s financial program, the concerns about it and the backlash
• Part 1- Make federal government largest debtor
- redeem all paper currency left over from the confederacy
- assume all state debts from revolutionary war
~ won’t get rid of federal government because they now owe them money but will vote for a new leader
Why??
- ties people to new government
- lenders are largely citizen to foreign countries
- federal government overthrown = no debt repayment
~ economic stability
- stable debt repayments
- allows private lenders to take risks with other money because federal government has the power to pay off debts, put federal taxes on international trade to raise funds, private/public partnerships to create a national bank to service the debts.
~ means fast access to money for wars and projects
~ federal independence from states
• Concerns and Backlash
- plan looks a lot like Britain- powerful federal government
- power within the federal government is tied to treasury(appointed position)
- debt repayment relies on overseas trade
~ more power to the merchants who run the trade (90% of Americans are rural farmers)
- concentration of financial institutions in the Capitol
- benefits people who can relocate to the capitol (urban elite)
- Federalist party splits
~ old federalists(Hamilton and his supporters)
~ democrat-republicans (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison)- favor a more limited federal government
The global context of the American industrial revolution and why it was a necessary advance in order to maintain U.S. autonomy
• Industrial Revolution: a necessary advance: the global context
- it was neither started nor dominated by the Americans
- the industrial revolution began in Britain
~ center of a global trading empire; huge markets
~ ready coal deposits and small streams
- had to industrialize to maintain independence
~ US had to assert control over interior markets or Britain would
~ necessary to avoid dependence on European manufacturing
Be able to describe the population shift to the American interior that took place between 1790 and 1820
• Population Shift
- decrease in English after 1700
~ England unites with Scotland in 1707- poor scots pour into America
~ England more politically and economically stable after 1700 (less discontented people for immigration)  jobs
- Scots-Irish: wave of immigrants in 18th century
~ protestant
- 90,000 Germans during 18th century
~ protestants
~ farmers
~ wanted to avoid warfare and famine- sought prosperity in America
- Assortment of other groups
~ African slaves and former slaves
~ Jewish immigrants- mostly urban-based merchants
~ Muslims- some slaves; some merchants
- earlier English colonists hold most of the wealth and power
~ closer to the seaboard
~ control the government
~ creates tensions- English there 1st- got best land, set up government, prejudice against others even though they soon became the minority- rebellions
Be able to describe the rise of manufacturing in the U.S., including the output system, division of labor, changes in power and the creation of factories.
• Rise of Manufacturing
- rare to have more than 5 employees before 1800
- changes in labor system
~ output system
~ division of labor ex. Shoes
- changes in power- animal to water
~ water power form streams to run mills
~ later, steam engines fueled by burning coal meant production location was flexible
- Factories- production under one roof
~ new labor and power systems combined
~ more control of production by proprietor
Be able to list and describe each of the three major branches of westward expansion after the American Revolution and before American Civil War.
The major features (as described in the lecture) of Democrat-Republican party rule, 1800-25
• Westward Expansion
- Treaty of Paris (1783) gives control of British-held interior (Indians were “conquered” peoples)
- Louisiana Purchase (1803)
- Florida to Gulf Coast from Spain (1819)
- A shift to the interior
~ 1790- US population was 3.9 million, 200,000 lived west of the Appalachians (1 in every 20 Americans)
~1820- US population was 9.6 million, 2 million lived west of the Appalachians (1 in every 5 Americans)
• Migration into the Upper South
- primarily Kentucky, Tennessee, Southern Ohio
- had wanted these lands for decades
- most settlers wee lower-class people from the Chesapeake
~ wanted own (or more) land
- Some land was reserved for genuine settler
- 1/3 was handed over to a handful of speculators
~ meant renting land from wealthy owner again
• Migration into the Gulf Coast
- Future Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida and West Georgia
- Some poor settlers
- Mostly southern from plantation class
~ adventurous second sons
~ cheaper land for bigger plantations
- took slaves to slavery with them
- main product was cotton
- result= new states were culturally and economically aligned with Virginia, Carolinas, Georgia, etc. (Old South and New South)
• New England Migration
- began with migration to north (in Vermont, Maine, New Hampshire)
- then looked west primarily went into West New York and East Ohio- lands taken from the Iroquois
- New Englanders extend New England
~ took religion and cultural values with them
~ idealized small farming communities of freeholders
- Speculators take over
~ drive up price of land
~ by 1820s more renters than owners
The major obstacles to U.S. industrialization and how they were overcome
• Obstacles
- Britain had richer, more established companies
- Britain forbid export of industrial technology
- Britain had a cheaper labor force
• Solutions
- tariffs on competing products
~ bad for trade-hurt growers
- steal the technology
- create a cheaper labor force
~ women
Capitalism and democracy as defining characteristics of U.S. society after the American Revolution and before American Civil War
• “greed is good”- capitalism as a defining characteristic
- The national legal and social system was based on private property
- Wealthy control the political system
~ wealth = power and influence
~ only wealthy can run for office
- wealth was acquired, not inherited- wealthy still work
- wealth as a measure of merit and success
~ citizens see it as obtainable
• Democracy
- a nation ruled by “ordinary” people
~ economic and social mobility
~ shift toward universal man hood sufferage
~ Indians are involved in government
- popular politics- the Jacksonian presidency
~ 1824- popular candidate but rejected by congress
~ mass voting in 1828- defeats the difference-based, big government whigs- voting in doubles from 1824
~ Jackson popular- man of the people, western, small government extremely popular- “kegger” after elected
“Southern aristocracy” as defining characteristics of U.S. society after the American Revolution and before American Civil War
• Southern Aristocracy
- extending into the lower south
- owners of hereditary plantations controlled the south
~ huge rich-poor gap
~ owned 1/3 of population
~ controlled the other through economic coercion
- planters self-fashioned themselves as aristocrats
~ patriarchy over slaves
~ dispensed patronage to lower class whites
~ espoused chivalric codes of honor and fought duels to “protect” it
The emergence of women as the U.S.’s early industrial labor force
• Labor: Women
- initiated by Francis Lowell, textile producer
- Waltham system
~ pay women more than servant wages but less than men
~ ease parental concerns by enforcing a strict moral code
- by early 1830s, more than 40,000 young women in the mills
The Second Great Awakening: be able to describe it, its immediate causes, to whom it appealed, which groups it benefited and targeted, and its major theological tenets.
• The 2nd Great Awakening
- America changing and so does religion
- A widespread Christian religious revival/surge
- Begins in the wake of the American Revolution
~ disestablishment of religion (separation of church and state)
~ churches have to compete in the private market
~ freedom of religious warship guaranteed
- Fringe denominations fill the gap
~ Methodists
~ Baptists
• 2nd Great Awakening Theology
- Evangelical
- Rejected complex theological arguments in favor of a “personal relationship with god”- don’t have to go to church to be a good Christian
- Rejected in liturgical worship in favor of “revival” style charismatic services
- Self-help theology- can achieve salvation through righteous living
~ responsibility
~ self-determination
• Target
- targeted frontier communities
- lacked established churches and social organizations
- people lived in fear and anxiety
Major characteristics and significance of the Wilmot Proviso
• Wilmot Proviso (1846)
- proposal that congress bar slavery form all lands acquired in the war with Mexico
- northerners supported the proviso, some because they opposed slavery, some because they wanted to save the lands for whites (including Wilmot) and some because they did not want the south to gain political power
- southerners opposed the proviso, afraid that it would disrupt the political balance
- proviso passed house but not senate, no plan was adopted by war’s end. House dominated by north, wasn’t voted on by senate ran out of time.
The global context of the American industrial revolution and why it was a necessary advance in order to maintain U.S. autonomy
• Industrial Revolution: a necessary advance: the global context
- it was neither started nor dominated by the Americans
- the industrial revolution began in Britain
~ center of a global trading empire; huge markets
~ ready coal deposits and small streams
- had to industrialize to maintain independence
~ US had to assert control over interior markets or Britain would
~ necessary to avoid dependence on European manufacturing
Major characteristics and significance of the Compromise of 1850
• Compromise of 1850
- Henry Clay proposed a plane to deal with all the current issues arising from slavery
- Most opposed plan as a whole, it failed in the senate
- Stephen Douglas separated the bill into parts
- California was admitted as a free state. New Mexico and Utah wee left to popular sovereignty= state would vote
- Texas gave up land claims for payment of its debt (New Mexico)
- Slave trade was abolished in Washington D.C. but slavery was affirmed
- Enacted a stricter fugitive slave act
- Pass all parts after S. Douglas breaks it up into several different bills
- Federal act to return slaves not a states rights issue but more power for south
Be able to describe the rise of manufacturing in the U.S., including the output system, division of labor, changes in power and the creation of factories.
• Rise of Manufacturing
- rare to have more than 5 employees before 1800
- changes in labor system
~ output system
~ division of labor ex. Shoes
- changes in power- animal to water
~ water power form streams to run mills
~ later, steam engines fueled by burning coal meant production location was flexible
- Factories- production under one roof
~ new labor and power systems combined
~ more control of production by proprietor
The major obstacles to U.S. industrialization and how they were overcome
• Obstacles
- Britain had richer, more established companies
- Britain forbid export of industrial technology
- Britain had a cheaper labor force
• Solutions
- tariffs on competing products
~ bad for trade-hurt growers
- steal the technology
- create a cheaper labor force
~ women
The emergence of women as the U.S.’s early industrial labor force
• Labor: Women
- initiated by Francis Lowell, textile producer
- Waltham system
~ pay women more than servant wages but less than men
~ ease parental concerns by enforcing a strict moral code
- by early 1830s, more than 40,000 young women in the mills
Major characteristics and significance of the Wilmot Proviso
• Wilmot Proviso (1846)
- proposal that congress bar slavery form all lands acquired in the war with Mexico
- northerners supported the proviso, some because they opposed slavery, some because they wanted to save the lands for whites (including Wilmot) and some because they did not want the south to gain political power
- southerners opposed the proviso, afraid that it would disrupt the political balance
- proviso passed house but not senate, no plan was adopted by war’s end. House dominated by north, wasn’t voted on by senate ran out of time.
Major characteristics and significance of the Compromise of 1850
• Compromise of 1850
- Henry Clay proposed a plane to deal with all the current issues arising from slavery
- Most opposed plan as a whole, it failed in the senate
- Stephen Douglas separated the bill into parts
- California was admitted as a free state. New Mexico and Utah wee left to popular sovereignty= state would vote
- Texas gave up land claims for payment of its debt (New Mexico)
- Slave trade was abolished in Washington D.C. but slavery was affirmed
- Enacted a stricter fugitive slave act
- Pass all parts after S. Douglas breaks it up into several different bills
- Federal act to return slaves not a states rights issue but more power for south