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14 Cards in this Set

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Nat Turner
the most famous slave rebel who led a revolt in virgina that ended with the deaths of at least 200AAs and 60 whites.
while in jail awaiting execution, interviewed by a virgina lawyer and wrote "the confessions of nat turner"
chronicled the details of the life of a slave.
His rebellion caused Upper South states to bar free blacks from learning to read and many blacks were denied an education or religious practices at all.
Most importantly, it led to a debate within Virginia legislature in 1832 about the gradual abolition of slavery as a means of ridding itself of blacks. This was the last time white southerners would debate any kind of emancipation until war forced their hand.
describes the mind set of the White slaveholding plantation owners that justified their dominance over white women and black slaves.
saw themselves not as oppressors but benevolant guardians of an inferior race. Paternalism grew as a give and take relationship between each extracting from the other what they desired. The owners took labor from the slaves, and the slaves obliged their masters to provide them some independence and living space. White plantation owners used the theory of paternalism to comfort themselves and sort of justify exploiting the black population.
Paternalism also severd as a defense against abolitionist criticism. White slave owners could defend using slave labor by arguing that they were actually helping out the slaves by providing them with shelter, food, and work.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Representatives from the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February 1848 after U.S. troops captured the Mexican capital.
US gained Cal. and NewMexico and Rio Grande became southern boundary of Texas.
Paid Mexico only $15Mil
The Mexican War ended, but public opinion was sharply divided. On the same day Polk received the treaty, a mob in Paris forced Louis Philippe from the French throne. As the 1848 nationalistic revolutions against monarchy spread, republican America seized an empire.
William Proviso
an amendment proposed by David Wilmot that made slavery illegal in any territory gained from Mexico. Altho the proviso was never passed, it transformed the debate over the expansion of slavery.
In south they defended slavery on basis of state sovereignty which said that all the territories belonged to the states and the federal government could do nothing to limit the spread of slavery there.
In the north, the Wilmot Proviso became a rallying cry for abolitionists but not all supporters, including Wilmot, were abolitionists. Wilmost was acting for his own self-interest because he worried the spread of slavery would hurt labor by free whites and deny them their right to work.
this brought into light the idea that it was possible to be both racist and an opponent of slavery.
Many white northerners desired to keep the west free from slavery because they desired to keep blacks from settling there.
Also, the fear of the slave power united abolitionist and antiblack voters
Comprimise of 1850
enacted during a time of huge turmoil for our country. The entire country was split on whether or not slavery should be allowed
During the gold rush thousands of people fled to California, enough to create a state. The settlers wanted to make California a “free state” but this would upset the delicate balance between free and slave states
Stephen A. Douglas and Henry Clay came up with a compromise which included 5 basic parts
1) California was admitted as a free state
2) Texas boundary was set at present limits
3) Texas was paid $10 million for lose of property (New Mexico)
4) New Mexico and Utah were organized on basis of popular sovereignty
5) fugitive slave law was strengthened
The good thing about the compromise was that the north and south had come to an agreement and fighting was postponed at least for a while. The bad things were that it didn’t accomplish anything b/c the fundamental questions about slavery were lest unanswered
also the term “popular sovereignty” was not specifically defined. The law also protected slavery by increasing the protection of the fugitive slave act. Basically the compromise was just delaying the inevitable.
Fugitive Slave Act
one of the flaws of the comprimise of 1850 that gave controversial protection to slavery
this law empowered slave owners to into court and show evidence that a their slave had escaped, even in free states. this was enough proof for a slave's status, and many northerners said it was a violation of fundamental american rights.
there was violent reistance by abolitionists, and they helped some slaves escape.
people began to feel that violence was a legitimate means of opposing slavery
bleeding kansas
A series of violent events involving both abolitionists (free soilers) and
pro-slavery (border ruffians)elements that took place in Kansas–Nebraska Territory and the
western frontier towns of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858.
abolitionists and pro-slave groups were fighting for the state of kansas, there was even a praudulent majority for pro-slave polls which caused more conflict.
politics started to resemble war more than democracy, and this period showed how extremem polarization had become, and how far ppl would go for their ideas and belifs.
Dred Scott Case
missouri slave sued his owner for his freedom because his owner had taken him into a free state.
normally, the SC liked to stay out of slave controversy, but Roger Taney delivered opinion of court that Scott was not a citizen and residency in Free State did not make him free. Seemed to permanently close the door on black hope for justice, possible element leading to civil war.

invalidated Wilmot Proviso and popular sovereignty

It strengthened the opposition to slavery in the North, divided the Democratic
Party on sectional lines, encouraged secessionist elements among Southern
supporters of slavery to make even bolder demands, and strengthened the
Republican Party.

Because of of these strengthened sentiments on both sides of the issue, it is
considered by many to have been a key cause of the American Civil War, and of
the later ratification of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments
to the United States Constitution, leading to the abolition of slavery and
establishment of civil rights for freed slaves.
Harper's Ferry
an attack on federal arsenal at harpers ferry hopping to trigger a slave rebellion let by john brown. led 18 black and white men but failed miserably and quickly captured.

because one of the most enduring martyrs, as well as villian, of american history and struck fear in the south

The raid on Harpers Ferry is generally thought to have done much to set the
nation on a course toward civil war
first major battle of civil war to take place on Northern soil. a.k.a sharpsburg
Bloodiest single-day battle in American history, almost 23k casualties.
The battle also became a turning point, an engagement that changed the entire course of the Civil War.
Antietam not only halted Lee's bold invasion of the north, but also thwarted his efforts to force Lincoln to sue for peace.
It also provided Lincoln with the victory he needed to announce the abolition of slavery in the South with that proclamation of Emancipation.
Emancipation proclamation said that all of the slaves in the rebelling Southern
states were free, the border states that did not secede from the Union were
exempt. So this battle not only a partial victory for the North, but also a
speech that brought about a huge change. This proclamation would lead to
thousands of slaves being liberated as the Union armies advanced on the South
Rifled Musket
one of the advancements of the civil war that made it particularly deadly.
smoothbore muskets were not accurate at distances over 80 yards
"minie balls" made the muskets accurate at 400 yards and useful at 1000 yards
advancing soldiers had to expose themselves to accurate fire, and bc medical knowledge was not that great, there were many deaths
Vicksburg and Gettysburg
2 crushing defeats for the confederacy that severely damaged confederate hopes for independence.

Vicksburg was a vital western citadel, the last
major fortification on the Mississippi in southern hands. Troops led by
Ulysses S. Grant found the fort and attacked from an advantageous point and
took the citadel from General John Pemberton.

Gettysburg as a bloody 3 day
battle in which on day 2, the north gained the high ground.

Afterwards the confederacy was divided into two, and was the end of major southern offensive actions. the confederacy was weak and had to conserve its resources and rely on prolonged defence.
New York City Draft Riots
1863 the United States the United States made
the draft law, and many were infuriated. In many areas there were riots, but
the worst one was in New York. The war was extremely unpopular in this
democratic stronghold and tensions such as race and class were particularly
high. Immigrants thought they were being put in the draft more than anyone
else and turned their aggression outward on the rich and the blacks. Many
blacks were beaten, killed, and an orphanage was burned down. These riots are
significant because they show the strength of the opposition to the war and the
tensions b/t clss and race even in the north
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman lead a veteran army of 50,000 from the north thta
cut a path 5o miles wide and 200 miles long that devastated the country side.
Men were killed, fields were burned, and animals were killed to starve the
people. Sherman marched his men toward carolina b/c that was the heart of the
rebellion. This march was significant b/c it shows the norths resolve to see
tht the south did not succede, and how this brutal tactic broke the back of the
southern rebllion.