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73 Cards in this Set

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_______________ is the thick fibrous capsule that surrounds the testes.
Tunica Albuginea
The _____________is formed by an inward projection of Tunica Albuginea, through which vessels pass, in which the rete testis is formed, and the efferent ductules leave
Medistinum
What passes through the mediastinum of the testis?
vessels

Rete testis formed

efferent ductules leave
Thin CT partitions divide the testis into about 250 pyramidial compartments of __________.
Lobules
Each lobule in the testis contains from one to four seminiferous tubules which then abruptly change to short __________and these converge on the plexus of spaces the _____________.
straight tubules

rete testis
What types of cells would you find in the interstitium between the seminiferous tubules?
interstitial cells/Leydig cells
Each testicular lobule contains 1-4 ___________ lined by a complex stratified epithelium containing
supporting and spermatogenic cells.
seminiferous tubules
Supporting cells within the semineferous tubules are _______________ cells.
Sertoli
T/F: Sertoli cells divide.
False
Sertoli cells extend from the _______________ to the free surface/lumen of the seminiferous tubule.
Basal lamina
T/F: Sertoli cells contain prominent nucleoli.
True
What type of junctions link Sertoli Cells?
Gap and tight junctions
Junctions of the zonula occludens type establish a ________ compartment and an _____________compartment
basal

Adluminal
___________ and ___________ are restricted to the basal compartment.
Spermatogonia and early primary spermatocytes
___________ and _______ are restriced to the adluminal compartment.
mature spermatocytes and spermatids
Movement of cells toward the lumen involves breaking and resealing the ____________.
tight junctions
_____________ is the physiologic compartmentalization of the testis.
Blood-Testis barrier
Discuss the difference in fluid compostion in the blood plasma vs. testis/STs.
Ionic composition differs considerably from blood plasma and ST or excurrent ducts. Plasma proteins and circulating antibodies are excluded from the ST lumen.
What are the functions of the Sertoli Cells? There are 10.
(1) provide nutritional and mechanical support for differentiating germ cells; (2) push germ cells upward by shape changes; (3) secrete androgen binding protein (ABP) which binds testosterone, transporting it to lumen and onward to epididymis; (4) secrete testicular transferrin which transports iron to germ cells (most abundant product); (5) secrete inhibin that regulates FSH production; (6) secrete anti-mullerian hormone (also called mullerian-inhibiting hormone) a glycoprotein to promote regression of mullerian ducts in male fetus; (7) secrete testicular fluid used for sperm transport, (8) protection of developing sperm cells from immunologic attack through blood-testis barrier; (9) phagocytosis of residual bodies; (10) release of late spermatids into ST lumen. Secretion is controlled by FSH and testosterone
What are the 3 phases of spermatogenesis?
spermatocytogenesis

Meiosis

spermiogenesis
List the progression of cells in the spermatogenesis phase.
Type A dark spermatogonia

Type A pale spermatogonia

Type B spermatogonia

primary spermatocytes
How many meiotic divisions are necessary to form a spermatid?
2
Where/when does crossover occur?
Pachytene stage of prophase of 1st meiosis
At the end of prophase, the 1o spermatocyte contains ____________chromosomes.
44 autosomes

x and y chromosomes

46 total in humans
At the end of the 1o spermatocyte stage there are ____________ chromosomes.
22 autosomes

x or y sex chromosome

23 chromosomes in humans
These cells, derived from the 1st meiotic division, are __________spermatocytes.
secondary
Secondary spermatocytes undergo a second meiotic division to become _______.
spermatids
In ________________, the spermatids differentiate into spermatazoa
Spermatogenesis
How many chromosomes does a spermatid contain?
23 autosomes

x or y sex chromosome

23 total in humans
When is the diploid (2n) condition restored?---spermatids are haploid (n).
fertilization.....merge with ovum
Describe the 4 stages of spermiogenesis.
(1) a Golgi phase in which the Golgi produces the acrosomal vesicle. The vesicle becomes adherent to the nucleus, defining the apex of the condensed sperm nucleus. Centrioles migrate to the posterior pole to form the flagellum axoneme.

(2) In the cap phase the acrosomal vesicle increases in size spreading over the anterior 2/3 surface of the nucleus to become hemispherical in shape. In the mature spermatozoan, it is called the acrosome and is an organelle containing hyaluronidase, neuraminidase, acid phosphatase, aryl sulfatase and a protease called acrosin, like trypsin.

(3) During the acrosomal phase the formation of the acrosome is completed. The acrosome is interposed between the cell membrane and the condensed nucleus, with its inner membrane fused to the nuclear membrane. The nucleus condenses and changes shape to the characteristic pyriform shape. The neck region which connects the nucleus to the flagellum develops. Mitochondria migrate to form the middle piece of the tail and eventually the remainder of tail is formed.

4) During the maturation phase of spermatid differentiation the excess cytoplasm or residual body is pinched off. The mature sperm (Fig. 7) is about 60 µm long. The Y-chromosome or male determining sperm can be stained selectively. Sperm are released from the ST as nonmotile cells, they aquire motility in the epididymis. They are stored in the distal portion of the epididymis, survive for several weeks in the male excurrent system, survive only 2-3 dd in the female tract. They acquire the ability to fertilize the ovum only in the female tract. This process involves modification of the sperm cell membrane and is called capacitation.
What does the golgi produce in the golgi phase?
Acrosomal vesicles
______ stimulates sertoli cells.
FSH
________ stimulates intersitial Leydig cells to secrete ___________.
LH

Testosterone
List the secretions of the sertoli cell.
ABP

AMH

Inhibin

Testicular Transferrin

Testicular Fluid
Discuss capacitation.
The process by which the sperm cell membrane is modified to allow for fertilization...this happens in the female repro. tract.
Where does sperm become motile?
epididymus
The total time required for differentiation from a spermatogonium to a sperm is ______days,
64-74 days
The total time required for differentiation from a spermatogonium to a sperm plus storage time in epidiymus is ___ days.
86
At the site of fertilization, sperm become associated with the ______________
zona pellucida
Binding of the spermatozoon to the receptors induces the sperm to undergo the _____________ reaction.
acrosome
thousands of cortical granules ________ reaction = in the peripheral ovum cytoplasm fuse with the egg membrane and release their contents around the ovum
cortical
This event triggers the cortical reaction.
The spermatazoon makes its way through the opening then the intact plasma membrane behind the acrosome fuses with the egg membrane, permitting the sperm to sink into the ooplasm to complete fertilization
Discuss the composition of the testicular interstitium.
Rich capillary network, fibroblasts, fibrocytes, macrophages, myoid cells, mast cells, undifferentiated mesenchymal cells

and Leydig cells
What organelle is pronounced in Leydig cells?
sER
What is a unique feature of Leydig cell mitochondria?
Tubular cristae
What is a unique and distinguishing feature of Leydig cells?
Reinke Crystals
When do Leydig cells appear?
during early months of gestation, decline at about 5
months then differentiate to maturity at puberty.
What is the affect (if any) of prolactin in the testis?
Stimulatory for Leydig cells
What is the negative feedback regulator of Sertoli cells?
Inhibin
What is the negative feedback regulator of Leydig cells?
testosterone
Discuss the flow of sperm from seminiferous tubules to seminal vesicles.
ST > straight tubules > rete testis (w/in mediastinal testis) > efferent ducts > epididymus > ductus defferens > seminal vesicle
Where does phagocytosis of residual bodies occur?
epidiymus
What is the function of the epididymus?
accumulation, maturation, and storage of spermatazoa
Head of sperm is modified in the ___________ by an addition of surface-associated __________________ factor containing epididymal fluid glycoconjugates that inhibit fertilization ability
Epididymus

Decapacitation
What kind of epithelium lines the ductus defferens?
pseudostratified columnar with cilia
On almost every sarcolemma in the ductus defferens there are autonomic motor nerve endings, explaining fast contractions during __________.
ejaculation
_______ are A pair of coiled tubes or elongated sacs about 5 cm in
length. The mucosa forms thin folds from which numerous primary, secondary and tertiary folds (mucosal arches) project into the lumen. The pseudostratified columnar epithelium contains columnar or cuboidal cells and short round cells.
seminal vesicles
What is secreted by the seminal vesicles?
Fructose, Amino acids, ascorbic acids, and prostaglandins
A yellowish ________pigment secreted by the vesicles gives sperm a strong fluorescence under ultraviolet light beneficial in medicolegal detection.
flavin
The largest of the accessory glands which consists of tubuloalveolar glands surrounding the proximal urethra.
Prostate
Prostatic glands are arranged in three fashions>....
mucosal, submucosal and main glands
What are the main secretions of the prostate gland?
Acid Phosphatase

Fibrinolysin

citric acid
What is the effect of prostatic fluid on sperm motility?
stimulating effect on sperm motility
____________ could be a blood marker to check for metatstisis of the prostate.
Acid phosphatase
Benign prostatic hypertrophy or nodular prostatic hyperplasia occurs in the?
the mucosal and submucosal glands and demands attention because of urethra compression or bladder.
Prostate cancer usually develops in the ________________________ prostatic glands.
Peripheral main
_____________are more common in older men, are glycoprotein, but may become a site of calcium deposition.
Prostatic concretions/Corpora Amylacea
these are paired, pea-sized, compound, tubuloalveolar glands located in the urogenital diaphragm, opening by ducts into the initial penile urethra. The secretion is mucus-like and probably serves as a lubricant, although it contains several sugars.
Bulbourethral glands
What are the 3 cavernous bodies that make up the mojority of the penis?
2 - copora cavernosa

1 - corpora spongiosa
________is a thick collagenous capsule surrounding all three cavernous bodies
tunica albuginea
Describe the general blood flow in the penis.
From the deep artery of penis (Fig. 14), blood flows in three directions: (1) into arteriovenous anastomoses; (2) into coiled helicine arteries which empty blood into cavernous sinuses; (3) into short nutrient arteries which split into a capillary network vascularizing CT trabeculae. The blood is
collected by efferent veins.
Describe erection and vascular dynamics.
In erection, under influence of parasympathetic vasodilator nerves, helicine arteries uncoil and dilate and blood fills sinuses under high pressure (Fig. 14). Arteriovenous anastamoses and capillary network constrict and become compressed - - outflow interrupted. Tunica albuginea is only weakly extensible, cavernous bodies become enlarged and rigid.