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20 Cards in this Set

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henry the navigator
3RD son of king of portugal

involved in north africa

finds out about gold in africa

motives to expand- christian crusade

creates school called sagres for study of explorations and tech
columbian exchange
disease epidemic to natives- small pox, lack of immunity, incas, mayans, aztecs hurt

crops- rice, patatoes and coffee in the new world, corn patatoes, beans and chocolate brought to old world

livestock-gre rapidly, horses brought to new world
council of the indies
1524

created to supervise religious, gov and commercial aspects in colonies

council was set up in europe which made it hard to give orders across the world due to lack of tech
bartalome de las casas
1474-1566

spent life fighting exploitation and harm to meso-americans from catholics

orginally came to colonies out of greed

after seeing the exploitation he gave up his old ways and became a preist

wrote books about exploitation

greatest achievement- new laws of 1542 outlawing meso american slavery
deterioration of clergy
leadership in church declined

church positions were able to be bought to be used to gain wealth

many held multiple positions

positiions were held by nobles
pope leo x
1513-1546

came from demdici family that loved reniassance and art

designed st peters bisilica

used indulgances to pay for funding
martin luther
1483-15

started out as a lawyer but ended up joining a monostary and getting doctrine in theology

wrote the pope out of objection to indulgences

called out the pope to a debate, the pope see's this as a personal issue and discommunicates him from the church

luther starts protistant reformation
doctrine of salvation
catholic doctrine said faith and good works get you to heaven
centrality of bible
beliefs of luther that christian beliefs should be based solely on the bible

faith alone gets you salvation
john calvin
1509-1564

starts out as lawyer went to study theology

agreed heavily with luther except he believed predestination

created calvinism- militant religiosu group

churchs were simple

calvinists lived in small communities
council of trent
1545

group of cardinals, bishops and archbishops

tried to compromise to bring people back to the church

compromise didnt work out and belief of faith and work was needed for salvation
nicolaus copernicus
1473-1543

monk and mathemitician

wrote book challenging idea of ptelamic universe by saying the sun in the center of the universe

waited till he near death to publish book
johannes keplor
1571-1630

german mathematician

accepts but alters copermicus theory

developed laws of planetary motion saying orbit is oval
galileo galilei
1564-1642

italian scientist who invented telescope

discoveries- moon resembling earth, jupiters moons, sun spots,

was ordered by inquisition to ban his thoughts

repeatedly denounced his theories due to threats from inquisition
isaac newton
1642-1727


created "mathematical principles of natural philosophy" and laws of motion that tied theories together

said universe is one large mechanism, throwing god out of equation
theory of absolution
political system where king/queen have ultimate and divine power

authority over church as well as state
the fronde
1648

noble revolt

wanted to limit/reverse build up of power

crushed after 4 years, crushing nobles hopes
copernican cosmotology
sun is center of universe and planets revolve around it
predestination
god has it planned whether ou go to heaven or hell
ptolemaic cosmotology
idea that earth was fixed and motionless

earth was made of land and water

other planets made of air and fire

earth is center, beyond earth is heavenly bodies