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280 Cards in this Set

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What book did Barry Commoner write?
The Closing Circle
Who arued that modern society courted disaster by trying to "improve on nature?" As an example, American farmers shifted from animal manures to artifiical fertilizers to increase farm productivity.
Barry Commoner
What does EPA stand for?
Environmental Protection Agency
this group was put in place to enforce environmental laws such as the Environmental Policy Act of 1969...
Environmental Protection Agency
This act required environmental impact statements for most public projects and made the govnt. responsible for respresenting the public interest.
Environmental Policy Act of 1969
-Who was responsible for Earth Day?

-Where was he from?
-Senator Gaylor Nelson

-Wisconsin
-Who was responsible for the Family Assistance Plan?
-Daniel Patrick Moynihan
What was meant to replace the welfare system and stressed workfare and welfare while targeting the working poor, not the underserving poor?
Family Assitance Plan
What were four Nixon Reforms?
Occupational Safety, Health Agency to enforce health standards in the workplace.
Clean Air Act to reduce car exhaust emmissions well as Clean Water Act to make polluters liable for their negligence and to deal w/ disatrous oil spills.
What was used to achieve racial blance in schools?
School busing
What democrat was elected Senator of South Dakota?
George McGovern
What Democrat embraced all the activist causes that the silent majority resented such as: immediate withdrawal from Vietnam, abolition of the draft, amnesty for war resisters, and a minimum guaranteed income for the poor?
George McGovern
Who were the people hired by Nixon to find and plug security leaks that gave info. to the New York Times on the Petagon Papers?
These people also went outside the law and burglarized the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist to find damaging material.
The Plumbers
Who was instructed to organize "the plumbers" by Nixon?
John Ehrlichman
Who was prosecuted by the govt. for leaking the Pentagon Papers?
Daniel Ellsberg
What book did Barry Commoner write?
The Closing Circle
Who arued that modern society courted disaster by trying to "improve on nature?" As an example, American farmers shifted from animal manures to artifiical fertilizers to increase farm productivity.
Barry Commoner
What does EPA stand for?
Environmental Protection Agency
this group was put in place to enforce environmental laws such as the Environmental Policy Act of 1969...
Environmental Protection Agency
This act required environmental impact statements for most public projects and made the govnt. responsible for respresenting the public interest.
Environmental Policy Act of 1969
-Who was responsible for Earth Day?

-Where was he from?
-Senator Gaylor Nelson

-Wisconsin
-Who was responsible for the Family
-Daniel Patrick Moynihan
What was meant to replace the welfare system and stressed workfare and welfare while targeting the working poor, not the underserving poor?
Family Assitance Plan
What were four Nixon Reforms?
Occupational Safety, Health Agency to enforce health standards in the workplace.
Clean Air Act to reduce car exhaust emmissions well as Clean Water Act to make polluters liable for their negligence and to deal w/ disatrous oil spills.
What was used to achieve racial blance in schools?
School busing
What democrat was elected Senator of South Dakota?
George McGovern
What Democrat embraced all the activist causes that the silent majority resented such as: immediate withdrawal from Vietnam, abolition of the draft, amnesty for war resisters, and a minimum guaranteed income for the poor?
George McGovern
Who were the people hired by Nixon to find and plug security leaks that gave info. to the New York Times on the Petagon Papers?
These people also went outside the law and burglarized the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist to find damaging material.
The Plumbers
Who was instructed to organize "the plumbers" by Nixon?
John Ehrlichman
Who was prosecuted by the govt. for leaking the Pentagon Papers?
Daniel Ellsberg
Refusing to spend the appropriate money to execute the laws of the land is....
Impoundment

-Nixon used impoundment alot until it was found illegal.
Who resigned the Vice presidency to avoid jail due to solicited bribes, not just as Governor of Maryland but while serving in Washington?
Spiro Agnew
Who replaced Spiro Agnew as Nixon's Vice President?
Represenative Gerald R. Ford
The October 20th reaction to Special Prosecutor Cox being fired because he rejected the offer of Nixon to accept written summaries of the tapes was?
The Saturday Night Massacre
When the attorney general resigned in protest and 84 house members to sponsor 16 different bills of impeachment was called the...
The Saturday Night Massacre
The tapes that produced the evidence to force the president out of office and convicted Attorney General John Mitchell of numerous crimes?
The Smoking Gun
Who became president after Nixon was resigned?
General Ford
This act was adopted in 1974 in an attempt to enforce greater financial accountability on campaigns.
Fair Campaign Practices Act
This act required the president to consult Congress whenever possible before committing troops to send an explanation of his actions with 2 days, and to w/draw any troops after 60days unless Congress voted to retain them.
War Power Act of 1973
Who did the Socialists, Communists and radicals elect to be their president in Chile, that created a danger to the US?
Salvador Allende Gossens
Who pressed the CIA to bribe the Chilean Congress and promote a military coup against Allende?
Kissinger
What did Kissinger resort to when the bribes from the CIA to the Chilean Congress did not work? What was the outcome?
to economic warfare between the US and the Allende govt.; they successful drove out the Socialists
What was the war called when Syria and Egypt launched a surprise attack against Israel; When the SU airlifted supplies to the Arabas and the US countered by supplying Israel while pressing for both sides to cease fire.
Yom Kippur War
What did the boycott of oil sales from the 7 Arab members of OPEC that backed Egypt and Syria cause?
staggered the economies of W. Europe and Japan and the energy crisis
Why did South Vietnam fall to North Vietnam?
Congress refused to send help to South Vietnam
When Euproean leaders, Soviet leader Brezhnev and Ford agreed to recognize the political boundaries that had divided E. and W. Europe?
Helsinki Summit
When was the first time the US sent an ambassador to E. Germany?
Helsinki Summit
Who routinely violated its charter by spying on American citizens at home by opening mail, infiltrating domestic protest orgs and even conducted experiments on unwitting subjects using the LSD?
CIA
Who used illegal means to infiltrate and disrupt domestic dissidents?
FBI
What FBI agent attempted to drive Martin Luther King to suicide in order to disrupt domestic dissidents?
J. Edgar Hoover
A peanut farmer and former governor of Georgia that ran for president and managed to adress controversial issues w/out offending large groups on either side? He also looked to invest the White House w/ a new simplicity and directness.
Jimmy Carter
This helped to reduce dependence on foreign oil.
Department of Energy
Congress rejected Carter's ...... and ....... to encourage....................
Carter's energy taxes and proposals to encourage solar energy alternatives.
March 29, 1979 a valve stuck in the cooling system of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Penn. and a cloud of radioactive gas floated into the atomspher worrying officials of a nuclear meltdown
Three Mile Island; this posed the question of where to dump nuclear radioactive wastes
1978 Chrysler stood on brink of bankruptcy unless the govt. provided a billion dollar tax cut; the threat of massive unemployment persuaded Congress to give the loan, called the...
Chrysler Bailout
Carter reasserted the natin's moral purpose by.....
giving higher priority to preserving human rights.
Who was determined to reimpose a cold war framework in Latin America?
Zbignew Brzezinski
Who stepped in to help Latin America to prevent the spread of Communism?
Jimmy Carter
What is Kissinger's old hope of playing the two Communist superpower's against each other called?
The China Card
-In hopes of reviving the "China Card" who flew off to Bejing?
-Who extended formal recognition to China in 1979, causing trade to double w/in a year?
-Brzezinski

- the US
When Euproean leaders, Soviet leader Brezhnev and Ford agreed to recognize the political boundaries that had divided E. and W. Europe?
Helsinki Summit
When was the first time the US sent an ambassador to E. Germany?
Helsinki Summit
Who routinely violated its charter by spying on American citizens at home by opening mail, infiltrating domestic protest orgs and even conducted experiments on unwitting subjects using the LSD?
CIA
Who used illegal means to infiltrate and disrupt domestic dissidents?
FBI
What FBI agent attempted to drive Martin Luther King to suicide in order to disrupt domestic dissidents?
J. Edgar Hoover
A peanut farmer and former governor of Georgia that ran for president and managed to adress controversial issues w/out offending large groups on either side? He also looked to invest the White House w/ a new simplicity and directness.
Jimmy Carter
This helped to reduce dependence on foreign oil.
Department of Energy
Congress rejected Carter's ...... and ....... to encourage....................
Carter's energy taxes and proposals to encourage solar energy alternatives.
March 29, 1979 a valve stuck in the cooling system of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant near Harrisburg, Penn. and a cloud of radioactive gas floated into the atomspher worrying officials of a nuclear meltdown
Three Mile Island; this posed the question of where to dump nuclear radioactive wastes
1978 Chrysler stood on brink of bankruptcy unless the govt. provided a billion dollar tax cut; the threat of massive unemployment persuaded Congress to give the loan, called the...
Chrysler Bailout
Carter reasserted the natin's moral purpose by.....
giving higher priority to preserving human rights.
Who was determined to reimpose a cold war framework in Latin America?
Zbignew Brzezinski
Who stepped in to help Latin America to prevent the spread of Communism?
Jimmy Carter
What is Kissinger's old hope of playing the two Communist superpower's against each other called?
The China Card
-In hopes of reviving the "China Card" who flew off to Bejing?
-Who extended formal recognition to China in 1979, causing trade to double w/in a year?
-Brzezinski

- the US
Who was Carter's National Security Advisor?
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Who was the National Security Advisor and later Secretary of State under Nixon and Ford?
Henry Kissinger
What is the treaty to limit nuclear launchers and missiles w/ multiple warheads, that neigther the US nor the SU agreed to?
SALT II
US would intervene unilaterally if the SU threatened American interests in the Persian Gulf?
Carter Doctrine
September 1978, Carter invited Begin and Sadat to.....; lasted 13 days and ended in sucess by ending the 30-year state of war between Israel and Egypt.
Camp David Accords
1978, the Shah's regime was challenged by Iranian Islamic Fundamentalists.
The Iranian Revolution
-Who objected to the Western influences flooding their country, especially the tens of thousands of American advisers?
-What did Carter do?
-Shah's regime
- encouraged the Shah's to use force but ruled out any American participation
-Who won the Iranian Revolution?
-What resulted?
Islamic Fundamentalists
-Student revolutionaries storming American Embassy in Teheran taking 53 hostage.
1979, SU ordered troops into neighboring Afghanistan to?
subdue anti-communist Muslim guerillas
What was Carter's reaction to the SU invading Afghanistan?
pulled the US out of the 1980 Olympics in Moscow and the Carter Doctrine
Vision of Vietname, Central America, and the Middle East produced a nightmare of waning American Power. Economic dislocations at home revived fears of depression all led to the ?
Crisis of Confidence
-What were "cathedrals of consumption?"
-Malls symbolized?
-malls
- society runing away from social protest and crusades to more private paths of personal fulfillment; the new found cosumerist or material path
-China, Great Britain, and Russia allso saw a resurgence of?
-Social programs were cut, govnt spending was down-sized, and state controlled industries were privatized as an example of ?
-political conservatism
-political conservatism
Resisted the trend toward more secular values, especially in education. Some pressed for "creationism" but almost all sought to insulate their children from "secular humanism" and denouced modern media.
Evangelicals
Aimee Semple McPherson was a?
Evangelical
1979, ruled against wider roles for women in the church hierarchy and stiffened church policy against birth control; beleived all life begins at conception
Pope John Paul II
blurred the gaps between his rhetoric and reality; projected vitality; "hands off" style of management; set the tone and let his advisors take the reins
Ronald Reagan; oldest president to take office
-Resembled trickle-down economics of the Harding-Coolidge era; theorists arged that high taxes and govt. regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion
-What was the key to revival?
Supply side economics
-tax cuts
-The "silent thief" and Regan's enemy
-What was Regan's stragety for this?
-Fighting inflation
-tight money, high interest rates, and wage and price controls
Due to an increase in military budget, the Amerian military would gain strength to act unilaterally to respond.....
to communist threats anywhere in the world!
1979, ruled against wider roles for women in the church hierarchy and stiffened church policy against birth control; beleived all life begins at conception
Pope John Paul II
blurred the gaps between his rhetoric and reality; projected vitality; "hands off" style of management; set the tone and let his advisors take the reins
Ronald Reagan; oldest president to take office
Provided a 25% across the board tax cut for all taxpayers and known as the "antidote to big govt."?
Economic Recovery tax Act of 1981
1979, ruled against wider roles for women in the church hierarchy and stiffened church policy against birth control; beleived all life begins at conception
Pope John Paul II
1979, ruled against wider roles for women in the church hierarchy and stiffened church policy against birth control; beleived all life begins at conception
Pope John Paul II
-An outspoken champion of this "sagebrush rebillion" to head the Interior Department of environmental controversies?
-Devoted himself to opening federal lands for private developments
-James Watt
-James Watt
-Resembled trickle-down economics of the Harding-Coolidge era; theorists arged that high taxes and govt. regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion
-What was the key to revival?
Supply side economics
-tax cuts
A substantial transfer of wealth from the poor and lower classes to the rich, brought about by the tax cuts of Reagan?
Transfer of Wealth; 1% of the nation's rich gained a greater share of the wealth than they had held since 1932
-The "silent thief" and Regan's enemy
-What was Regan's stragety for this?
-Fighting inflation
-tight money, high interest rates, and wage and price controls
1979, ruled against wider roles for women in the church hierarchy and stiffened church policy against birth control; beleived all life begins at conception
Pope John Paul II
blurred the gaps between his rhetoric and reality; projected vitality; "hands off" style of management; set the tone and let his advisors take the reins
Ronald Reagan; oldest president to take office
blurred the gaps between his rhetoric and reality; projected vitality; "hands off" style of management; set the tone and let his advisors take the reins
Ronald Reagan; oldest president to take office
Due to an increase in military budget, the Amerian military would gain strength to act unilaterally to respond.....
to communist threats anywhere in the world!
blurred the gaps between his rhetoric and reality; projected vitality; "hands off" style of management; set the tone and let his advisors take the reins
Ronald Reagan; oldest president to take office
billions of dollars were spent on attempts to launch satellites that would act as a protective web against potential ICBM nuclear attacks?
Star Wars
-Resembled trickle-down economics of the Harding-Coolidge era; theorists arged that high taxes and govt. regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion
-What was the key to revival?
Supply side economics
-tax cuts
-Resembled trickle-down economics of the Harding-Coolidge era; theorists arged that high taxes and govt. regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion
-What was the key to revival?
Supply side economics
-tax cuts
-Resembled trickle-down economics of the Harding-Coolidge era; theorists arged that high taxes and govt. regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion
-What was the key to revival?
Supply side economics
-tax cuts
Provided a 25% across the board tax cut for all taxpayers and known as the "antidote to big govt."?
Economic Recovery tax Act of 1981
1979, ruled against wider roles for women in the church hierarchy and stiffened church policy against birth control; beleived all life begins at conception
Pope John Paul II
A symbolic gesture by which we invaded this small island nation to protect the govt. and a few hundred American students from the threat of pro-Castro rebels attemtping to over-throw the govt
Grenada Invasion
blurred the gaps between his rhetoric and reality; projected vitality; "hands off" style of management; set the tone and let his advisors take the reins
Ronald Reagan; oldest president to take office
Forbids the CIA or "any other agency involved in intelligence activities" to spend money to support the Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
-Resembled trickle-down economics of the Harding-Coolidge era; theorists arged that high taxes and govt. regulation stifled enterprising business and economic expansion
-What was the key to revival?
Supply side economics
-tax cuts
-The "silent thief" and Regan's enemy
-What was Regan's stragety for this?
-Fighting inflation
-tight money, high interest rates, and wage and price controls
-The "silent thief" and Regan's enemy
-What was Regan's stragety for this?
-Fighting inflation
-tight money, high interest rates, and wage and price controls
-laundered government money through Swiss bank accounts to funnel weapons to Contra rebels in Nicaragua and circumvent the Boland Amendment; used Iran to get weapons to the contras
-What was his nickname?
-Oliver North
-Irangate
-An outspoken champion of this "sagebrush rebillion" to head the Interior Department of environmental controversies?
-Devoted himself to opening federal lands for private developments
-James Watt
-James Watt
-The "silent thief" and Regan's enemy
-What was Regan's stragety for this?
-Fighting inflation
-tight money, high interest rates, and wage and price controls
He is responsible for "Glasnost" a new form of openness communication and cooperation with the west that eventually led to the fall of Communist Russa and the breaking up of the SU?
Mikhail Gorbachev
Due to an increase in military budget, the Amerian military would gain strength to act unilaterally to respond.....
to communist threats anywhere in the world!
Due to an increase in military budget, the Amerian military would gain strength to act unilaterally to respond.....
to communist threats anywhere in the world!
A series of summits with Russian leaders, the US and its former rivals agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991)
Provided a 25% across the board tax cut for all taxpayers and known as the "antidote to big govt."?
Economic Recovery tax Act of 1981
Due to an increase in military budget, the Amerian military would gain strength to act unilaterally to respond.....
to communist threats anywhere in the world!
-The "silent thief" and Regan's enemy
-What was Regan's stragety for this?
-Fighting inflation
-tight money, high interest rates, and wage and price controls
Provided a 25% across the board tax cut for all taxpayers and known as the "antidote to big govt."?
Economic Recovery tax Act of 1981
A substantial transfer of wealth from the poor and lower classes to the rich, brought about by the tax cuts of Reagan?
Transfer of Wealth; 1% of the nation's rich gained a greater share of the wealth than they had held since 1932
Crazy Iraqi dictator that invaded Kuwait in 1990 to ease his financial crisis of enormous debt?
Saddam Hussein
January 17, 1991, planes from France, Italy, Britain, Saudi Arabia and the US began to bomb Baghdad and Iraqi bases; only took 100 hours to win the ground war after merciless air attacks?
Operation Dessert Storm
Provided a 25% across the board tax cut for all taxpayers and known as the "antidote to big govt."?
Economic Recovery tax Act of 1981
-An outspoken champion of this "sagebrush rebillion" to head the Interior Department of environmental controversies?
-Devoted himself to opening federal lands for private developments
-James Watt
-James Watt
-An outspoken champion of this "sagebrush rebillion" to head the Interior Department of environmental controversies?
-Devoted himself to opening federal lands for private developments
-James Watt
-James Watt
A substantial transfer of wealth from the poor and lower classes to the rich, brought about by the tax cuts of Reagan?
Transfer of Wealth; 1% of the nation's rich gained a greater share of the wealth than they had held since 1932
Due to an increase in military budget, the Amerian military would gain strength to act unilaterally to respond.....
to communist threats anywhere in the world!
How did Hussein react to his loss at Operatoin Dessert Storm?
He resorted to ecoterrism; his forces set Kuwait's oil fields ablaze and dumped huge quantities of crude oil into the rich Persian Gulf ecosystem
billions of dollars were spent on attempts to launch satellites that would act as a protective web against potential ICBM nuclear attacks?
Star Wars
January 17, 1991, planes from France, Italy, Britain, Saudi Arabia and the US began to bomb Baghdad and Iraqi bases; only took 100 hours to win the ground war after merciless air attacks?
Operation Dessert Storm
-An outspoken champion of this "sagebrush rebillion" to head the Interior Department of environmental controversies?
-Devoted himself to opening federal lands for private developments
-James Watt
-James Watt
billions of dollars were spent on attempts to launch satellites that would act as a protective web against potential ICBM nuclear attacks?
Star Wars
Who did Bush appoint to head the Environmental Protection Agency?
William Reily
Provided a 25% across the board tax cut for all taxpayers and known as the "antidote to big govt."?
Economic Recovery tax Act of 1981
How did Hussein react to his loss at Operatoin Dessert Storm?
He resorted to ecoterrism; his forces set Kuwait's oil fields ablaze and dumped huge quantities of crude oil into the rich Persian Gulf ecosystem
A substantial transfer of wealth from the poor and lower classes to the rich, brought about by the tax cuts of Reagan?
Transfer of Wealth; 1% of the nation's rich gained a greater share of the wealth than they had held since 1932
A substantial transfer of wealth from the poor and lower classes to the rich, brought about by the tax cuts of Reagan?
Transfer of Wealth; 1% of the nation's rich gained a greater share of the wealth than they had held since 1932
billions of dollars were spent on attempts to launch satellites that would act as a protective web against potential ICBM nuclear attacks?
Star Wars
A symbolic gesture by which we invaded this small island nation to protect the govt. and a few hundred American students from the threat of pro-Castro rebels attemtping to over-throw the govt
Grenada Invasion
A symbolic gesture by which we invaded this small island nation to protect the govt. and a few hundred American students from the threat of pro-Castro rebels attemtping to over-throw the govt
Grenada Invasion
Although Bush opposed efforts to draft stricter rules to lessen the threat of global warming, Bush did sign into law the ?
Sweeping Clear Air Act 1990
-An outspoken champion of this "sagebrush rebillion" to head the Interior Department of environmental controversies?
-Devoted himself to opening federal lands for private developments
-James Watt
-James Watt
January 17, 1991, planes from France, Italy, Britain, Saudi Arabia and the US began to bomb Baghdad and Iraqi bases; only took 100 hours to win the ground war after merciless air attacks?
Operation Dessert Storm
January 17, 1991, planes from France, Italy, Britain, Saudi Arabia and the US began to bomb Baghdad and Iraqi bases; only took 100 hours to win the ground war after merciless air attacks?
Operation Dessert Storm
Who did Bush appoint to head the Environmental Protection Agency?
William Reily
A symbolic gesture by which we invaded this small island nation to protect the govt. and a few hundred American students from the threat of pro-Castro rebels attemtping to over-throw the govt
Grenada Invasion
Forbids the CIA or "any other agency involved in intelligence activities" to spend money to support the Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
Forbids the CIA or "any other agency involved in intelligence activities" to spend money to support the Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
Who was the Governor of Arkansas that urged Bush to issue a modest set of goals of environmental issues?
Governor Bill Clinton
billions of dollars were spent on attempts to launch satellites that would act as a protective web against potential ICBM nuclear attacks?
Star Wars
A substantial transfer of wealth from the poor and lower classes to the rich, brought about by the tax cuts of Reagan?
Transfer of Wealth; 1% of the nation's rich gained a greater share of the wealth than they had held since 1932
How did Hussein react to his loss at Operatoin Dessert Storm?
He resorted to ecoterrism; his forces set Kuwait's oil fields ablaze and dumped huge quantities of crude oil into the rich Persian Gulf ecosystem
How did Hussein react to his loss at Operatoin Dessert Storm?
He resorted to ecoterrism; his forces set Kuwait's oil fields ablaze and dumped huge quantities of crude oil into the rich Persian Gulf ecosystem
Although Bush opposed efforts to draft stricter rules to lessen the threat of global warming, Bush did sign into law the ?
Sweeping Clear Air Act 1990
A symbolic gesture by which we invaded this small island nation to protect the govt. and a few hundred American students from the threat of pro-Castro rebels attemtping to over-throw the govt
Grenada Invasion
Who was the Governor of Arkansas that urged Bush to issue a modest set of goals of environmental issues?
Governor Bill Clinton
-laundered government money through Swiss bank accounts to funnel weapons to Contra rebels in Nicaragua and circumvent the Boland Amendment; used Iran to get weapons to the contras
-What was his nickname?
-Oliver North
-Irangate
billions of dollars were spent on attempts to launch satellites that would act as a protective web against potential ICBM nuclear attacks?
Star Wars
Who did Bush appoint to head the Environmental Protection Agency?
William Reily
Who did Bush appoint to head the Environmental Protection Agency?
William Reily
Forbids the CIA or "any other agency involved in intelligence activities" to spend money to support the Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
Although Bush opposed efforts to draft stricter rules to lessen the threat of global warming, Bush did sign into law the ?
Sweeping Clear Air Act 1990
A symbolic gesture by which we invaded this small island nation to protect the govt. and a few hundred American students from the threat of pro-Castro rebels attemtping to over-throw the govt
Grenada Invasion
Forbids the CIA or "any other agency involved in intelligence activities" to spend money to support the Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
He is responsible for "Glasnost" a new form of openness communication and cooperation with the west that eventually led to the fall of Communist Russa and the breaking up of the SU?
Mikhail Gorbachev
-laundered government money through Swiss bank accounts to funnel weapons to Contra rebels in Nicaragua and circumvent the Boland Amendment; used Iran to get weapons to the contras
-What was his nickname?
-Oliver North
-Irangate
A series of summits with Russian leaders, the US and its former rivals agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991)
Who was the Governor of Arkansas that urged Bush to issue a modest set of goals of environmental issues?
Governor Bill Clinton
Forbids the CIA or "any other agency involved in intelligence activities" to spend money to support the Contra rebels in Nicaragua
Boland Amendment
He is responsible for "Glasnost" a new form of openness communication and cooperation with the west that eventually led to the fall of Communist Russa and the breaking up of the SU?
Mikhail Gorbachev
Crazy Iraqi dictator that invaded Kuwait in 1990 to ease his financial crisis of enormous debt?
Saddam Hussein
-laundered government money through Swiss bank accounts to funnel weapons to Contra rebels in Nicaragua and circumvent the Boland Amendment; used Iran to get weapons to the contras
-What was his nickname?
-Oliver North
-Irangate
-laundered government money through Swiss bank accounts to funnel weapons to Contra rebels in Nicaragua and circumvent the Boland Amendment; used Iran to get weapons to the contras
-What was his nickname?
-Oliver North
-Irangate
A series of summits with Russian leaders, the US and its former rivals agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991)
He is responsible for "Glasnost" a new form of openness communication and cooperation with the west that eventually led to the fall of Communist Russa and the breaking up of the SU?
Mikhail Gorbachev
He is responsible for "Glasnost" a new form of openness communication and cooperation with the west that eventually led to the fall of Communist Russa and the breaking up of the SU?
Mikhail Gorbachev
A series of summits with Russian leaders, the US and its former rivals agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991)
-laundered government money through Swiss bank accounts to funnel weapons to Contra rebels in Nicaragua and circumvent the Boland Amendment; used Iran to get weapons to the contras
-What was his nickname?
-Oliver North
-Irangate
Although Bush opposed efforts to draft stricter rules to lessen the threat of global warming, Bush did sign into law the ?
Sweeping Clear Air Act 1990
He is responsible for "Glasnost" a new form of openness communication and cooperation with the west that eventually led to the fall of Communist Russa and the breaking up of the SU?
Mikhail Gorbachev
Crazy Iraqi dictator that invaded Kuwait in 1990 to ease his financial crisis of enormous debt?
Saddam Hussein
Crazy Iraqi dictator that invaded Kuwait in 1990 to ease his financial crisis of enormous debt?
Saddam Hussein
A series of summits with Russian leaders, the US and its former rivals agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991)
Who was the Governor of Arkansas that urged Bush to issue a modest set of goals of environmental issues?
Governor Bill Clinton
A series of summits with Russian leaders, the US and its former rivals agreed to sharp reductions in their stockpiles of nuclear weapons?
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (1991)
Crazy Iraqi dictator that invaded Kuwait in 1990 to ease his financial crisis of enormous debt?
Saddam Hussein
Crazy Iraqi dictator that invaded Kuwait in 1990 to ease his financial crisis of enormous debt?
Saddam Hussein
Who was he Secretary of Housing and Urban Development that searched for ways to improve the plight of the homeless and empower poor urban communities by promoting economic "free enterprise zones?"
Jack Kemp
Outspoken, black conservative and former member of Reagan administration accused of sexually Harrasment?
Clarence Thomas
This brought the issue of sexual harassment to the national lime-light when Anita Hill claimed sexual harrassment?
The Clarence Thomas hearings in 1991
laws that gave preferred treatment to minority groups in order to remedy past discrimination
Affirmative action laws
In 1978, the majority ruled that college admissions staffs could not set fixed quotas, although they could still use race as a guiding factor in trying to create a more diverse student body.
Bakke v. Regents of the University of California (1978)
A series of long-term crises contributed to this sens of disillutionment. By the end of the decade these thrifts were failing at the highest rate since the Great Depression; Regan and Congress agreed to cut back federal regulations which did not help much.
Savings and loans crisis
Established steadily increasing limits on federal spending meant to force Congress and the president to make hard choices need to reach a balanced budget. IF they did not, automatic across-the-board cuts would go into effect.
Gramm-Rudman Act
Clinton campaign's central theme after Bush failed to revive the economy?
"It's the economy stupid!"
May 1970, predominately white, young students opposing the war were protesting to the war on campus when guardsmen fired into the crowd killing 3 students and injuring many.
Kent State
A black college in Mississippi, antiwar protesters seized a woman's dormitory; May 14, state police surrounding the building opened fire without provocation, killing two more students and wounding dozens
Jackson State
A Vietnamese who hoped to throw off French influence as well as the Chinese. Attended the Wilson peace conference to petition for Vietnam. Delegates ignored his plea so he became a Communist w/ the Russian Revolution as his model.1945, he seized the opportunity to unite Vietnam under a nationalist govt.; He and his forces began 8 years of guerrilla war against the French, which led to victory at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
Ho Chi Minh
leader of S. Vietnam, Vietcong, determined to thwart Ho, President Eisenhower helped install him and supproted his decision not to hold elections
Ngo Dinh Diem
Eisenhower's theory if the pro-Western Catholic govt. fell to the Communists, all the other nations of Southeast Asia would collapse in a row; such an event would discredit Kennedy's effort to use counterinsurgency to fight the cold war w/ new vigor
The Domino Theory
Americcan ships in the Gulf of Tonkin began to patrol the N. Vietnamese coast and provide cover for secret S. Vietnamese raids; Aug. 2, 3 N. Vietnamese patrol boats exchanged fire w/ American destroyer Maddox, neither side hurting the other; two nights later, radar operators on the C. Turner Joy reported a torpedo attack which never was explained or proven
Tonkin Gulf Incident
Term coined in 1965 by the US to mean "increase the attack"; it would increase military pressure to the point at which further resistance cost more than the enemy was willing to bear
Escalation
When a Vietcong mortar attack in Feb. killed 7 marines stationed at (where), Johsnon ordered US planes to being bombing N. Vietnam.
(Pleiku airbase)
a systematic bombing campaign aimed at bolstering confidence in S. Vietnam and cutting the flow of supplies from the North launched in March 1965
Operation Rolling Thunder
the # of Vietcong killed; GIs regularly took out their frusterations on innocent civilians to help inflate their numbers and show the Americans were winning
Body Counts
-jellied gasoline were what type of bomb?
-American planes spread more than 100million pounds of defoliants such as...
-Bombs of Naplam
-Agent Orange
bombs designed to explode hundreds of pellets in midair, sprayed the enemy w/ high velocity shrapnel
Cluster bombs
-By 1966, national leaders had similarly divided into opposing camps of___ and ___?
- hawks and doves
___ argued that America must win in Vietnam to save Southeast Asia from communism, to preserve the nation's prestige, and to protect the lives of American soldiers fighint the war; large majority support
Hawks
___ included New Left radicals as well as respected editorialist Walter Lippman; Senator J William Fulbright, head of the Foreign Relations Committee and Dr. Benjamin Spock, the physician whose child care manuals had raised the generation of baby boomers.
Doves
For years the statistically minded defense secretary had struggled to quantify the succes of the war effort but by 1967 the defense secretary had grown skeptical; he was a ____?
Dove
One severe economic consequence of the Vietnam War; by 1967 the cost of the war had soared to more than $50 billion a year
Inflation
-From 1950-60 average rate of inflation was about?
-From 1965-70, as the war escalated, it jumped to around ?
-2%

-4%
What is Tet?
the Vietnamese lunar new year
American Troops under Lt. William Calley, swept into ___ and rounded up the villagers, and slaughtered more than 200 men, women and children
My Lai
the antiwar forces had found a political champion in Senator Eugene McCarthy from Minnesota; he would challenge Johnson in the 1968 Democratic parties; idealistic college students got haircuts and shaves in order to "....."
"look clean for gene"
On March 31, due to bombing raids being halted in hopes of peace talks beginning, Johnson?
Withdraws from the election in 1968
April 4, shot by James Earl Ryan; riots broke out that evening in ghetto areas of the natin's capital
Martin Luther King Jr's assassination
June 5, a disgruntled Arab nationalist, Sirhan Sirhan, shot him; he had just won a crucial primary victory in California
Robert Kennedy
Radicals determined to disrupt Mayor Richard Daley's Democratic convetnion in Chicago and marched past the convention site; police turned on the crowd in what a federal commission later labeled a police riot; this resulted in....
The Democrats are finished
Clashes in Chicago reflected a growing willingness among students worldwide to use violence to....
press their revolutionary causes
group of Chinese students formed to enforce a Cultural Revolution that was purging China of all bourgeois middleclass culture?
Mao Zedong's Red Guards
Governor of Alabama sensed the frusteration among the "average man on the stree, this man in the textile mill, this man in in the steel mill"; he sought the support of blue-collar workers and the lower middle classes; first came to national attention when standing at door barring integration in Alabama; pursued Democratic pres. nomination in 1964, formed his own independent party in 1968; ememies were the liberals, intellectuals and long hairs
George Wallace
Nixon felt he was a represenative of the "...." , not a ......
silent majority; vocal minority
Hubert Humphrey won support of the bluecollar Democrats; Nixon captured 43.4% of votes and won; Nixon's "southern strategy" worked and he and Wallace carried the entire southern tier except Texas; majority of American electorate seemed to have turned their backs on liberal reform
The Eleciton of 1968
Had a global vision of foreign affairs; had a tendency to pursue his ends secretly, skirting the traditional channels of govt. such as the Department of State?
Henry Kissinger
Strategy of "peace with honor"; boiled down to preserving a pro-American South Vietnamese govt.
Vietnamization
US began gradually withdrawing troops as a way to advance the peace talks in Paris; the burden of fighting would shift to the S. Vietnamese army, equipped w/ massive American suppilies now; this helped reduce antiwar protests at home; this was part of what approach?
this acted as the carrot in the carrot and stick approach
President Nixon hoped to drive the North Vietnamese into negotiating peace on American terms; this was part of what approach?
this acted as the stick in the carrot and stick approach
Nixon ordered American troops into Cambodia to wipe out N. Vietnamese bases; enforced Johnson's old policy of escalation to buy time to strengthen the S. Vietnamese army
Invading Cambodia
in this doctrine, the US announced it would no longer expect to fight every battle, win every war, or draw every line ot keep the global peace. Instead, Americans would shift some of the military burden for containment to such allies as Japan in the Pacific, the shah of Iran in the Middle East, Zaire in central Africa, and the apartheid govt in South Africa
Nixon Doctrine
Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev and Nixon pledged not to develop a new system of antiballistic missiles, which would have accelerated the costly arms race; they agreed to limit the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles each side would deploy
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
soft-spoken, determined farmworker whos efforts led to the foramtion of the United Farm Workers(UFW) labor union; he proclaimed an ethnic of nonviolence; rallied supporters for a 250mile march on Sacramento; Roman Catholicism; combined w/ a 24day hunger strike and a boycott of grapes, he negotiated contracts w/ the UFW beginning in 1970
Cesar Chavez
People whose culture had been taken from them; their heritage had been rejected and labor exploited and opportunity for advancement denied
Chicanos
Charasmatic leader La Alianza movement in New Mexico organzied armed bands to occupy federal lands that Hispanos in the region had once used for grazing livestock
Reies Lopez Tijerina
laid a blue-print for a separatist Chicano society, w/ public housing set aside for Chicanos development of economically independent barrios in which a new cultural pride could flourish
Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales
third-party movement sought to gain power in communities in which Chicanos were a majority and to extract concessions from the Democrats and Republicans
La Raza Unida
During the 1950s, liberals joined conservatives and western state politicans in adopting a policy of ???; the Bureau of Indian Affairs would reduce federal services, gradually sell off tribal lands and push Indians inot the "mainstream" of American life
Termination
Because the Bureau of Indian Affiars refused to address the problems of urban Idians, the more militant members of this organziation dramatized their dissatisfaction by seizing the abandoned federal prison of Alcatraz Islan in San Fran Bay?
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Ever since white cavalry had gunned down over a hundred Sioux in 1890,___ had symoblized for Indians the betrayal of white promises and the bankruptcy of reservation policy.
Wounded Knee
Had a global vision of foreign affairs; had a tendency to pursue his ends secretly, skirting the traditional channels of govt. such as the Department of State?
Henry Kissinger
Strategy of "peace with honor"; boiled down to preserving a pro-American South Vietnamese govt.
Vietnamization
US began gradually withdrawing troops as a way to advance the peace talks in Paris; the burden of fighting would shift to the S. Vietnamese army, equipped w/ massive American suppilies now; this helped reduce antiwar protests at home; this was part of what approach?
this acted as the carrot in the carrot and stick approach
President Nixon hoped to drive the North Vietnamese into negotiating peace on American terms; this was part of what approach?
this acted as the stick in the carrot and stick approach
Nixon ordered American troops into Cambodia to wipe out N. Vietnamese bases; enforced Johnson's old policy of escalation to buy time to strengthen the S. Vietnamese army
Invading Cambodia
in this doctrine, the US announced it would no longer expect to fight every battle, win every war, or draw every line ot keep the global peace. Instead, Americans would shift some of the military burden for containment to such allies as Japan in the Pacific, the shah of Iran in the Middle East, Zaire in central Africa, and the apartheid govt in South Africa
Nixon Doctrine
Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev and Nixon pledged not to develop a new system of antiballistic missiles, which would have accelerated the costly arms race; they agreed to limit the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles each side would deploy
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I)
soft-spoken, determined farmworker whos efforts led to the foramtion of the United Farm Workers(UFW) labor union; he proclaimed an ethnic of nonviolence; rallied supporters for a 250mile march on Sacramento; Roman Catholicism; combined w/ a 24day hunger strike and a boycott of grapes, he negotiated contracts w/ the UFW beginning in 1970
Cesar Chavez
People whose culture had been taken from them; their heritage had been rejected and labor exploited and opportunity for advancement denied
Chicanos
Charasmatic leader La Alianza movement in New Mexico organzied armed bands to occupy federal lands that Hispanos in the region had once used for grazing livestock
Reies Lopez Tijerina
laid a blue-print for a separatist Chicano society, w/ public housing set aside for Chicanos development of economically independent barrios in which a new cultural pride could flourish
Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales
third-party movement sought to gain power in communities in which Chicanos were a majority and to extract concessions from the Democrats and Republicans
La Raza Unida
During the 1950s, liberals joined conservatives and western state politicans in adopting a policy of ???; the Bureau of Indian Affairs would reduce federal services, gradually sell off tribal lands and push Indians inot the "mainstream" of American life
Termination
Because the Bureau of Indian Affiars refused to address the problems of urban Idians, the more militant members of this organziation dramatized their dissatisfaction by seizing the abandoned federal prison of Alcatraz Islan in San Fran Bay?
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Ever since white cavalry had gunned down over a hundred Sioux in 1890,___ had symoblized for Indians the betrayal of white promises and the bankruptcy of reservation policy.
Wounded Knee
Police raided the Stonewall Inn, a Greenwich Village bar; gay bars were regularly harassed by the police in an attempt to control urban "vice"; patrons fought back; gay activists called on homosexuals to "come out of the closet"
Stonewall incident
In this book, Friedan indentified the "problem that has no name," a dispirting boredom or emptiness in the midst of affluent lives; gave birth to a new women's right movement
The Feminine Mystique
proposed the 1963 Equal Pay Act and helped add gender to the forms of discrimination outlawedby the 1964 Civil RIghts Act; women also assumed an important role in both the civil rights and antiwar movements
Commission on the Status of Women appointed by President Kennedy
24 women and 2 men who formed this organization sought to force the Johnson administration to take bolder action to eliminate discrimination in such areas as job and pay
National Organization for Women
one of the first women to voice dissatisfaction with the cultural prevalent at midcentury
Betty Friedan
striking down 46 state laws restricting a woman's access to abortion; Justice Harry Blackburn observed that a woman in the 19th century had "enjoyed a substantially broader right to terminate a pregnancy than she does in most states today"
Roe v. Wade
treaty that promised aid to the N. Vietnamese to help in postwar reconstruction as well as secret pledge to General Thieu to send troops again if they were needed; ended the Vietnam war
Paris Peace Treaty
Who started the US down the road to Vietnam by promoting a doctrine containment all around the globe?
Harry Truman
-Who increased American involvement in Vietnam?

-Who ended American involvement in Vietnam?
-Eisenhower and Kennedy

-Nixon
Vietnam is remembered as whos war?
Lyndon Johnson's War
Lyndon Johnson commited both the material and human resources of the US to defeat communism in Southeast; What decision destroyed the political consensus that unified Americans since the 1940s?
decision to escalate
What were the two major assumptions the consensus of Vietnam was built on?
- US must bear the burden of containing communism around the world
-American leaders had believed that the prosperity generated by the American economy made it possible both to fight communism abroad and to solve major social problems at home