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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Alexander Hamilton
Commercial Empire
Diversified economy
Strong central gov’t
Gov’t of merchants and manufacturers
Urban-based, industrial, commercial ruling class
Visions of the New Republic
“Hamilton feared anarchy and loved order; Jefferson feared tyranny and loved liberty”
Thomas Jefferson
New Agrarian Empire: the yeoman farmer
-committed to plantation agriculture
-Contradictions: outside customers needed for agrarian country (still in essence colonial economy)
-Restricted role for gov’t– maintain order, conduct foreign policy
Jeffersonian Republicans
States’ rights, small gov’t, civil liberties, less formality
Federalists
Hamilton- mimic strong gov’ts of Europe
Strong fed gov’t,
-internal improvements,
-restrict civil liberties
Louisiana Purchase pg. 237
Purchased Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million
NE Federalists strongly opposed: some suggested secession
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis & Clark sent out in 1804
-Thomas Jefferson commissioned Lewis to head an expedition to explore the newly-bought Louisiana Territory in order to further commerce (trade)
Dolley Madison’s White House
James Madison’s administration more socially elaborate, elegant than Jefferson’s
-Dolley Madison at center of Washington society
-Republican Motherhood and women’s place in the new republic
Lead up to the War of 1812
Country facing threats from Indians led by Tecumseh
Britain and France at war with each other, threatening US shipping/trade
Embargo Act of 1807 following attack on the Chesapeake
Nonintercourse Act, 1809 (reversed 1810)
War Hawks
members of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated waging war against the British in the War of 1812
-used to describe a political stance of being for aggression
Treaty Of Ghent
the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
-The treaty largely restored relations between the two nations
Indian Removal Act
1830- Pres. Jackson, supported in south
-the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states into west
Treaty of New Echota
1835 -established terms under which the entire Cherokee Nation was expected to cede its territory in the Southeast and move west to the Indian Territory
-became the legal basis for the forcible removal known as the Trail of Tears.
Lead up to the War of 1812
Country facing threats from Indians led by Tecumseh
Britain and France at war with each other, threatening US shipping/trade
Embargo Act of 1807 following attack on the Chesapeake
Nonintercourse Act, 1809 (reversed 1810)
War Hawks
members of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated waging war against the British in the War of 1812
-used to describe a political stance of being for aggression
Treaty Of Ghent
the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
-The treaty largely restored relations between the two nations
Indian Removal Act
1830- Pres. Jackson, supported in south
-the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states into west
-to solve the dispute with georgia
Treaty of New Echota
1835 -established terms under which the entire Cherokee Nation was expected to cede its territory in the Southeast and move west to the Indian Territory
-became the legal basis for the forcible removal known as the Trail of Tears.
The Bank War
the attempts to destroy it by President Andrew Jackson
-Jackson viewed the Second Bank of the United States as a monopoly since it was a private institution managed by a board of directors, and in 1832 he vetoed the renewal of its charter
Whigs- Nationalist Republicans
the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic Party
-supported the supremacy of Congress over the presidency and favored a program of modernization and economic protectionism
-opposed tyranny
Democrats- Democratic Republicans
The Democratic Party evolved from Anti-Federalist factions that opposed the policies of Alexander Hamilton in the early 1790s
-The party favored states' rights and strict adherence to the Constitution; it opposed a national bank and wealthy, moneyed interests
Corrupt Bargain
Clay supported Adams, became his Secretary of State
Tariff of Abominations
designed to protect industry in the northern United States which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by putting a tax on them
-the South was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce
Nullification Crisis
that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina
John Ross
led the Nation through tumultuous years of development, relocation to Oklahoma, and the American Civil War
-Cherokee attempted to become a nation state, lost their ancestral land, endured removal to the Indian Territory, and suffered the destructive Civil War, in which their early alliance with the Confederacy jeopardized their nation.
Andrew Jackson
created modern Democratic Party
-polarizing figure who dominated the Second Party System in the 1820s and 1830s, as president he destroyed the national bank and relocated most Indian tribes from the Southeast to west of the Mississippi River
-elected pres. in 1828
-supported limited federal government
Trail of Tears
forced relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830
The Market Economy
goods and services are provided by the private sector rather than the government (i.e., it’s voluntary, not controlled), and the prices and quantities are determined by supply and demand.
Market Revolution in the North
Northern Agriculture
-Raising livestock commercially became an important new form of agriculture in the Northeast.
-As farmers raised more livestock and less grain, the land that remained in cultivation was farmed more intensively.
-This transition to livestock raising also transformed woodlands into open pastures.
Market Rev. in North Cont.
Northern Cities
-Richest men in these cities were seaport merchants.
-Below this group of elite merchants was a growing middle class of white-collar workers.
-Cities and manufacturing towns also had growing working class.
~~Many low-wage female laborers in this group.
~~These men and women were “invisible” in American society.
Market Revolution in South
Cotton production increased dramatically in early 19th century (aided by Whitney’s cotton gin).
-Cotton created dual economy: wealthy large planters at the top of society and white small yeoman farmers (and slaves) at the bottom.
-Southern states spent little money on making internal improvements, such as building canals or railroads, and didn’t develop large cities.
The Transportation Revolution: The Steamboat
In 1807 Robert Fulton successfully launched a steamboat named the Clermont
-In 1815 a steamboat made the trip from New Orleans to Louisville, KY, in 25 days.
-The steamboat played an important role in the development of two-way trade along interior waterways and helped to expand America’s market economy
The Transportation Revolution: Canals
Construction on the Erie Canal began in 1819 and ended in 1825.
-The Erie Canal opened a continuous water route between the Northwest and New York City.
-By 1840, there were 3,300 miles of canals, almost all of them in the Northeast and Northwest.
The Transportation Revolution: Railroads
The first American railroads connected growing cities to rivers and canals.
-By 1860 the U.S. had a rail network of 30,000 miles, most of it connecting the East to the Northwest.
-Railroads effectively opened markets that were previously unavailable to many farmers and also made more goods available to more people.
The Slater Mill
the first water-powered cotton spinning mill in North America
-Samuel Slater
-Slater initially hired children and families to work in his mill
American System
a tariff to protect and promote American industry; a national bank to foster commerce; and federal subsidies for roads, canals, and other 'internal improvements' to develop profitable markets for agriculture
***mass production of interchangeable parts, rapidly assembled, standardized
Lowell Mill Girls
Avg. 15-25 years old
-From surrounding country
-Worked to contribute to family economy
-Lived in company-owned or approved in boarding houses
Created distinctive culture & identity as mill girls
Spinning Jenny
multi-spool spinning frame. It was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves
-reduced the amount of work needed to produce yarn, with a worker able to work eight or more spools at once
Cotton Gin
quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, a job that otherwise must be performed painstakingly by hand.
-Eli Whitney
Mill Life
Mill life transformed how workers and their families thought of time
-Now had to live by the Mill’s schedule– mill towns had bells to summon workers
-Strict separation of work and leisure time
Second Great Awakening
Christian revival movement
-Rejection of established theology
-Emphasis on emotion
-Egalitarian possibilities
-“active” form of Christianity
-Established church membership low at the end of the 18th century

Challenged by deism, new denominations & other cultural/political/ economic forces
Second Great Awakening
Baptists, Methodists, Presbyterians
- Rejected predestination
-Believed that individual could triumph over sin
-Believed that individuals could remake society
-Conversion central to religious experience
Charles Grandison Finney
Trained as lawyer, converted at in 1821
-Addressed issues of free will, equality, and self governance
-Wanted “audience centered” ministry
-Criticized for unorthodox methods, called “New Measures”
- innovative revivalist
Burned-Over District (Revivals)
religious scene where religious revivals and Pentecostal movements of the Second Great Awakening took place
-Camp meetings: 4 days-1 week
-“Protracted meetings: 2-3 weeks
-100s-1000s attended
-Singing, preaching, shouting, crying, fainting, conversions…
Seneca Falls Convention
“Declaration of Sentiments”
“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and women are created equal”
-Over 300 attended
-Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Frederick Douglas
-Followed by others soon after, including Rochester, NY in August 1848, and the first national convention in Worcester, Mass. in 1850
-Reflects larger political culture– conventions as a method of participation and increased emphasis on voting and legislation
Declaration of Sentiments
author was Elizabeth Cady Staton
-based it on the form of the US Declaration of Independence
-"grand basis for attaining the civil, social, political, and religious rights of women."[
Elizabeth Cady Staton
-wrote the declaration of sentiments
-initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States
Lucretia Mott
American Quaker, abolitionist, and a social reformer.
-the World's Anti-Slavery Convention, in London, England. In spite of Mott's status as one of six women delegates-The social mores of the time generally prohibited women's participating in public political life
Susan B Anthony
--prominent American civil rights leader
-co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement
-co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution
Amelia Bloomer
-American women's rights and temperance advocate