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54 Cards in this Set

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Washington Naval Arms Conference
Two major agreements emerged from this Conference. With the Four-Power Treaty, the US, Britain, Japan, and France agreed to respect one another’s possessions in the Pacific.
-The Nine-Power Treaties for the first time pledged the signers to support the principle of the Open Door enunciated by Secretary of State John Hay at the turn of the century.
FDR's First 100 Days
-FDR pushed through legislation that reformed the banking and financial sectors, tried to cure the ills afflicting American agriculture, and attempted to resuscitate American industry.
-To meet the immediate crisis of starvation and the dire needs of the nation’s unemployed, FDR provided direct cash relief and jobs programs for the poor.
-On March 5, 1933, he ordered all banks—already closed—to remain closed until March 9. Then he issued that the banks stay closed a while longer.
-On June 16, 1933 he signed the National Industry Recovery Act which authorized the president to regulate industry to try and stimulate economic recovery.
Tennessee Valley Authority
-hydroelectric network for cheap power.
-The dams really came too late to have much impact on the lives of most people in the Tennessee Valley during the Great Depression.
-Receiving TVA-subsidized electricity, however, gave Tennessee Valley farmers an incentive to remain in agriculture instead of moving into manufacturing and service sectors.
Federal Securities Act
required that new stock and bond issues register with the Federal Trade Commission and later, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, a new agency that regulated the chaotic stock and bond markets.
Kristallnacht
-Nov 9, 1938 also known as the Night of Broken Glass.
-Jewish homes were vandalized, 177 synagogues burned, and 7500 Jewish businesses wrecked and looted.
-Hundreds of Jews were injured and 91 killed; foreshadows the “final solution” –and hardly anyone protests!
Poland
On Sep 1, 1939, Hitler launched his conquest of Poland. The Nazis overran Poland in less than a month, the war settled into a stalemate in early 1940 that began to be called the phony war.
Dunkirk
-Hitler withholds the Panzer divisions from attacking the Dunkirk area—concerned with many ditches and canals in Flanders area.
-Hitler and Goering thought the Luftwaffe would prevent the evacuation, just like at the Lodtz pocket in Poland; but they failed to consider the effects of bad weather and the RAF.
-So, on June 3 the evacuation completed.
Strategic Bombing
-British decided to only fly night bombing raids because of too many losses in a day;
-US flew day bombing with large formations and bombers with many machineguns to protect each other in order to maximize ability to find and hit the target.
-Allied air power was decisive. It brought the economy to virtual collapse, although the effects still were not being felt at the front line at the end of the war. Domination of the air was essential.
-No indispensable industry was knocked out by a single attack; persistent re-attack was necessary.
Airborne operations in Operation Market Garden (A Bridge Too Far)
-Allied fighter planes were restricted for all but 2 days allowing the Germans to form their counterattacks without interference.
Limitations of Logisitics in WWII
-Ammunition shortages harassed the Allies all the way to the Ruhr and went through 4 distinct phases:
1. Normandy—started on the beaches; even when 35,000 tons per day were brought in there was a shortage.
2. Race across France—transportation was the bottleneck and even the Red Ball Express (a one-way road system for high speed truck traffic to the front) could not solve it.
3. Break-through of the Siegfried Line—ports were the bottleneck. Beach unloading was slowed by weather and until Antwerp was captured there was insufficient wharfage in the channel ports to handle the tonnage. At one point 250 Liberty ships were lined up in England awaiting dock space in France.
4. Winter/Spring 1945—the bottleneck was in production in the US where rosy estimates on the imminent end of the European war had brought cutbacks in production.
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of the Chinese Nationalists. He would settle for nothing short of dominance, and was resigned to gaining that by military means unless the Communists would hand it to him with a fail-safe guarantee.
Bretton Woods Agreement
-1944; pegged other currencies to the dollar’s value,
-created International Monetary Fund, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the World Bank.
Truman Exec Order desegregates US military
-On July 26, 1948, Truman banned racial discrimination in the hiring of federal employees.
-Four days later he issued an executive order ending racial segregation in the armed forces.
-The air force and navy quickly complied, but the army dragged its feet until the early 1950’s.
-By 1960 the armed forces were the most racially integrated of all organizations.
Korean War and MacArthur's Removal
-President Truman dismissed General MacArthur as commander in chief of United Nations forces in Korea, supreme commander for allied power in Japan, commander in chief of American forces in the Far East, and commanding general of the United States Army in the Far East.
-The reasons for his dismissal were:
--MacArthur challenged Truman’s role of making foreign policy, thus confusing allies and embarrassing the Administration
--MacArthur disobeyed Truman’s Dec 6th order against making public statements without prior clearance (issued his “military appraisal” of March 24 with a content and tone exactly opposite to Truman’s)
--MacArthur was not sympathetic with the Administration’s decision to try to limit the conflict to Korea
Silent Spring (Rachel Carson)
-book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1962.
-The book is widely credited with helping launch the environmental movement.
-When Silent Spring was published, Rachel Carson was already a well-known writer on natural history, but had not previously been a social critic.
-The book was widely read and inspired widespread public concerns with pesticides and pollution of the environment. Silent Spring facilitated the ban of the pesticide DDT in 1972 in the United States.
Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal in 1956
-American pressure helped push the British to sign an agreement with Egypt that would see the last British soldier leave Egyptian soil by 1956; thus ended the British control of the Suez canal which had been in place since 1882;
-it was Washington’s belief that the new Egyptian regime under Gamal Nasser would be appeased and less inclined to neutralism. Nasser later announced the seizure and nationalization of the Suez Canal company.
Taft-Hartley Act
-barred closed shops,
-allowed a union shop unless barred by state law
-outlawed secondary boycotts, outlawed featherbedding (pay for work not done),
-outlawed refusal to bargain in good faith,
-required union leaders to sign loyalty oaths that they were not communists,
-permitted the president to call an 80-day cooling-off period to delay any strike that might endanger national safety or health.
Bay of Pigs invasion
-The invasion force numbers were small—initial plan called for about 4000 men landing at Trinidad, nearly 100 miles east of the Bay of Pigs; but Kennedy was worried such a large force would be more difficult to explain away so a more modest strategy was adopted involving only 1400 men landing at the Bay of Pigs where there also was an airfield nearby from which it could be claimed the rebel aircraft originated instead of from Nicaragua.
-Kennedy started bombing too early which let Castro arrest opposition (alerted Castro and his 200,000 men army that something was about to happen).
Lee Harvey Oswald kills JFK
-JFK was assassinated in Dallas on Nov 22, 1963.
Lyndon Johnson and Gradual Escalation in VN
- One of the most fateful decisions of the war was made early on by President Johnson not to call up the Reserves and National Guard. This would severely restrict the way the US would fight the war and reduce the caliber and experience of those fighting it. Eventually this would impact on leadership skills, drug use and the support of the people back home.
Gen Westmoreland's Search and Destroy
-have large sweeps with huge numbers of troops,
-, emphasize the use of artillery and air strikes (firepower),
-the main objective was attrition (body counts),
-little interest in pacification and protecting civilians
Kent State
-On May 2 Police Chief Thompson reported that Weathermen had been positively identified on campus, guns were being stockpiled, and plans hatched to burn the banks, post office and campus ROTC buildings; he urged the mayor to call in the National Guard. Most of the rumors could not be substantiated, but the mayor agreed.
-Word spread on campus of a rally planned at the Army ROTC building and later many said it was common knowledge that the building would burn that night. Most believed that a small group of hard-core agitators played a predominant role as a larger crowd gathered to watch.
-That evening the agitators rushed the ROTC building, pelting it with rocks, battering its windows and attempting to set it afire with railroad flares thrown onto the roof. Another person tried to light curtains with his cigarette lighter but it fizzled out.
-Finally at 8:45pm someone lit a rag and dipped it in gasoline and the building was ablaze. Campus police did not come and the crowd got braver. Firefighters arrived and met resistance.
Paris Peace Accords of 1973
-North Vietnamese troops stay in South VN-
-It officially went into effect on Jan 28, 1973, and legitimized the tactical positions of the enemy, thus had only two virtues—it ended the American involvement and brought the American POW’s home.
Detente and Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT)
-The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union-the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II.
-The first ever negotiations started in Helsinki, Finland, in 1969. They were held during Apollo 12's flight - four months after astronauts from Apollo 11 had returned safely home.
-Primarily Focused on limiting the two countries' stocks of nuclear weapons, the treaties then led to START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). START I (a 1991 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union) and START II (a 1993 agreement between the United States and Russia) which placed specific caps on each side's number of nuclear weapons.
Southeast Asia: Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Thailand
-America was worried that Southeast Asia would fall under communist rule. They felt that if one country fell under communism, it would have a domino effect (this was called the Domino Theory).
-The first countries likely to fall under china’s communist rule would be: Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. If this occurred, the US would lose many of its air and naval bases and its island defense chain would likely be broken. Trading right with Japan other asian countries would likely be lost.
Jimmy Carter and Camp David Accords
-Jimmy Carter forced a peace treaty between Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem to end the Arab-Israeli war.
-Egypt lost Jerusalem and Sinai peninsula to the Israelis in 1967, so in 1973 the Egyptians waged war to take them back. After 6 years of fighting, Carter forced a stop.
Reagan "government is the problem"
Ronald Reagan was a conservative vice president who viewed that the government wasn’t the solution, but the problem. His goals were to limit the power of the government over the people.
Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan
Operation Iraqi Freedom, Desert Storm? Everyone fights with everyone, there are a lot of radical terrorist groups…
Grenada
Grenada attained the status of “Associated State of the United Kingdom”, which meant that Grenada was now responsible for her own internal affairs, and the UK was responsible for her defence and foreign affairs.
-Independence was granted in 1974 under the leadership of the then Premier, Sir Eric Matthew Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
-President Bill Clinton pushed the welfare reform act on a conservative congress/house (who gladly passed it). It stated that after 2 years of receiving welfare, you are cut off. If you have a child while on welfare, you lose it.
-The purpose of welfare is to aide those in tough times, not to live on. This Act was passed to prevent free loading.
Scopes Trial
-Scopes vs. The State of Tennessee — and informally as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case that tested the Butler Act which made it unlawful "to teach any theory that denies the story of the Divine Creation of man as taught in the Bible, and to teach instead that man has descended from a lower order of animals" in any Tennessee state-funded school and university.
-The trial drew intense national publicity, with moderns pitted against traditionalists over the teaching of evolution in the schools and a Fundamentalist interpretation of the Bible. The trial proved a critical turning point in the American creation-evolution controversy.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
-was a public work relief program for unemployed men, providing vocational training through the performance of useful work related to conservation and development of natural resources in the United States from 1933 to 1942
-As part of the New Deal legislation proposed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR), the CCC was designed to aid relief of the unemployment resulting from the Great Depression while implementing a general natural resource conservation program on federal, state, county and municipal lands in every U.S. state, including the territories of Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
National Labor Relations Act
-is a 1935 United States federal law that limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sector that create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining, and take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
-The Act does not, on the other hand, cover those workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, federal state or local government workers, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers.
Neville Chamberlain
-was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940.
-Chamberlain is best known for appeasement foreign policy, in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Nazi Germany, and, when Germany continued its aggression, for declaring war on it on 3 September 1939. Chamberlain then led Britain through the first eight months of World War II.
Battle of the Bulge
-true surprise)- German’s counter attack of our landing in Normandy.
-The Ardennes Offensive (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was a major German offensive (die Ardennenoffensive), launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains region of Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front
-With over 800,000 men committed and over 19,000 Americans killed, the Battle of the Bulge was the single largest and bloodiest battles that American forces experienced in World War II.
Marshall's mission to China
The Marshall Mission (December 20, 1945 - January, 1947) was a failed diplomatic mission undertaken by United States Army General George C. Marshall to China in an attempt to negotiate the Communist Party of China and the Nationalists (Kuomintang) into a unified government.
-Marshall arrived in China on December 20, 1945. His goal was to unify the Nationalists and Communists with the hope that a strong, non-Communist China, would act as a bulwark against the encroachment of the Soviet Union
-. Immediately, Marshall drew both sides into negotiations which would last for nearly two years. Significant agreements failed to appear, as both sides used the time to further prepare themselves for the ensuing conflict. Finally, in February 1947, exasperated with the failure of the negotiations, Marshall left China
Mao Tse-tung
-Mao served as Chairman of the Chinese People’s Republic until after the failure of the Great Leap Forward, in 1959.
-Still chariman of the Communist Party, in May 1966 Mao initiated the Cultural Revolution with a directive denouncing "people like Khrushchev nestling beside us."
-In August 1966, Mao wrote a big poster entitled "Bombard the Headquarters." Served as Party chairman until his death in 1976.
Berlin blockade and Airlift of 1948
-Soviet resentment of the Marshall Plan and the political unification of West Germany led the soviets in April 1948 to restrict road and rail traffic into West Berlin.
-On June 23rd they stopped all traffic. Also electricity to the western sector was cut off. The soviets hoped the blockade would force the Allies to give up either Berlin or the plan to unify Germany.
-Truman opened massive air lift and up to 13,000 tons of food, coal and other supplies dropped off a day. May 12, 1949, soviets lifted blockade.
Task Force Smith's ineffectiveness at start of War
-North Korean division supported by thirty three T-34 tanks destroys the U.S. delaying position
-The U.S. forces lacked any anti-tank mines, recoilless rifles and 2.36 rocket launchers could not penetrate t-34 armor, artillery quickly expended its effective anit-tank ammunition, rain prevented air support, communications broke down.
-Also there were 150 U.S. casualties and they were left with only small arms. The next 3 delaying positions were similarly defeated
George Kennan's Long Telegram
-Kennan was counselor of U.s. embassy in Moscow.
-His telegram was an 8,000 word dispatch to the State Department. In 1947 in an article published anonymously in Foreign Affairs, he provided analysis of Soviet insecurity and post war intentions.
-Insisted U.S. must pursue a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansive tendencies.
French defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954
Early 1954 the Vietminh trapped 12,000 french troops in the Valley of Dien Bien Phu.
-France appealed for U.S. air support but Eisenhower was unwilling to commit U.S. forces unilaterally. May 7, 1954 the french surrendered at Dien Bien Phu.
Miranda vs Arizona
-In this court case, the cout issued certain basic rights; the right to remain silent; the right to know anything that is said can be used against the individual in court; the right to an attorney
-In addition, the court establised rules for police to follow in informing suspects of their legal rights before questioning could begin.
Cuban Missile Crisis
-(October 1962): The U.S. decided to respond to the threat of nuclear warheads enrourt to U.S. Navy; meanwhile B-52 bombers armed with nuclear weapons took to the air and nearly a quarter of a million troops began to assemble in Florida to invade cuba.
-After the crisis, Kennedy and Khrushchex agreed to install a Kremlin-White house “hot line”. In 1992, the russian military disclosed that soviet forces in Cuba had possesed 36 nuclear warheads for their 24 IRBM’s as well as a tactical nuclear weapons to be used against invading troops.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (fog of war)
-On Aug. 4, 1964, North Vietnamese torpedo boats in the Gulf of Tonkin were alleged to have attacked without provocation U.S. destroyers that were reporting intelligence information to South Vietnam.
-President Lyndon B. Johnson and his advisers decided upon immediate air attacks on North Vietnam in retaliation; he also asked Congress for a mandate for future military action.
-On Aug. 7, Congress passed a resolution drafted by the administration authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia. Although there was disagreement in Congress over the precise meaning of the Tonkin Gulf resolution, Presidents Johnson and Richard M. Nixon used it to justify later military action in Southeast Asia. The measure was repealed by Congress in 1970.
General Abram's Clear and Hold
-(1969-73): He shifted the emphasis from big-unit ‘search-and-destroy’ missions to population control.
-He refused to see pacification as ‘the other war.’
-Under his new approach, which he called the ‘one-war’ strategy, he broke up divisional forces and sent them on extensive patrol and night operations in platoon and company strength.
--Clear and Hold
--Protect populated areas
--Seize NVA prepositioned supplies (logistics nose)
--Reduce firepower; new Rules of Engagement (ROE) to protect civilians
--No more body count
--Small unit operations & ambushes
--Use Regional Force/Popular Force (RF/PFs) & more use of US advisors
--Emphasize pacification
1972 Bombing of North VN and Peace talks
-In the face of clear North Vietnamese violations of whatever understanding there had been in Paris when President Johnson, on October 31, 1968, halted all bombing of North Vietnam, President Nixon resumed air and naval attacks against the North in April 1972.
-In the process he sanctioned the actions that should have been taken many years earlier, including B-52 strikes and mining --in effect, blockading -- Haiphong Harbor.
Nixon visit to China
-Nixon breaks isolation with China
-Nixon: “The real reason (that brought the two countries together) was our common strategic interest in opposing Soviet domination in Asia. Like the Soviet Union, China was a Communist country. The United States was a capitalist nation. But we did not threaten them, while the Soviet Union did.
-It was a classic case of a nation’s security interest overriding ideology.” The joint comminique after the meeting stated that neither nation “should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony.”
Kissinger's Shuttle Diplomacy
-Henry Kissinger negotiated cease fire to end 1973 Yom Kippur War between Israel and Arabs in Middle East; that led to closer ties with Egypt and more restrained support for Israel; finally initiated discussions with Egypt (Anwar Sadat) and Israel (Menachem Begin) to develop a comprehensive peace plan for the region (would ignore the Palestinian problem).
-Laid the groundwork for subsequent accord in 1977. Kissinger never was able to obtain a promise of North Vietnamese withdrawal from South Vietnam. Whether they would have honored it anyway, is very much debatable.
-As amply demonstrated in their subsequent flagrant violations of other aspects of the cease fire, they were not about to honor anything unless American bombs forced them to.
Watergate and threat to impeach Nixon
-the Nixon wiretaps were solely to prevent unauthorized leaks of sensitive secret initiatives with the Soviet Union and China -- and we were at war in Vietnam
Shah Pahlavi, Ayatollah Khomeini and hostages
-Jan 1979: Carter sent Gen Robert Huyser to Tehran to convince the Iranian military to transfer its loyalties from Shah Mohanned Reza Pahlavi to a replacement civilian government.
-January 1979: the Shah fled the country as unrest peak. Nov 1979: Carter admitted the Shah into the US for cancer treatment. (He died in Jul 1980) -- no US official attended his funeral in Cairo; Richard Nixon did).
-Ayatollah Khomeini returned after 15-yr exile, imposed strict Islamic rule & preached hatred of the US. 19 Nov 1979: US embassy seized by Khomeini supporters and over 50 US hostages taken in a siege that would last 444 days.
1987 Intermediate Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty
-This new weapon now posed a significant new threat to the nuclear balance and directly threatened Europe
-In 1979 the Soviets started deploying their new mobile SS-20 missiles, capable of carrying 3 warheads each; by 1987 they had 410 deployed.
Panama and Manuel Noriega
-a former general and the military dictator of Panama from 1983 to 1989.
-In a deal worked out with the U.S.-created government headed by Guillermo Endara, U.S. authorities brought Noriega to Miami for trial, which was delayed into the early 1990s. He was convicted of several crimes including cocaine smuggling. He was sentenced to forty years in a Miami prison and ordered to pay $44 million to the Panamanian government
-In 1999 a French court sentenced Noriega and his wife to ten years in jail along with a $33 million fine. Also in 1999 the Panamanian high court announced that it would seek to have Noriega returned to that country to make sure he served time there for murder
Peace Dividend in the 1990's
-Bill Clinton: “perhaps for the first time in history, the world’s leading nations are not engaged in a struggle with each other for security or territory. The world clearly is coming together.”
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
-Implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) began on January 1, 1994
-This agreement will remove most barriers to trade and investment among the United States, Canada, and Mexico