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185 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Origin:
Psoas Major
(superior attachment)
Transverse processes of all lumbar vertebrae, bodies of last thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae, and intervertebral disk of each lumbar vertebrae
Insertion:
Psoas Major
(inferior attachment)
Lesser trochanter of femur
Action:
Psoas Major
Flexes thigh at the hip joint and flexes vertebral column
Muscles that make up the ILIOPSOAS
- Psoas Major
- Iliacus
Trigger points:
Psoas Major
Near both points of attachment
Referred Pain Pattern:
Psoas Major
Entire lumbar area
Synergists:
Psoas Major
- Iliacus
- Adductor group
- rectus femoris
Antagonists:
Psoas Major
- Gluteus Maximus
- Hamstring muscles
Origin:
Iliacus
Upper two thirds of iliac fossa, ala of the sacrum, anterior inferior iliac spine, and iliac crest
Insertion:
Iliacus
With psoas major, lesser trochanter of femur
Action:
Iliacus
Flexes thigh at hip joint
Contraction of this large fan-shaped muscle brings the swinging leg forward in walking or running
Iliacus
Trigger Point:
Iliacus
Near the inner border of the ilium behind the anterior inferior iliac spine
Referred pain pattern:
Iliacus
Entire lumbar area and front of thigh
Muscle can mimic menstrual pain and appendicitis
Iliacus
Muscles usually involved in "pulled groin" or "groin strain" since the superior attachments of these muscles are in the inguinal region at the junction of the abdomen and thigh
Combined Iliacus/psoas (ILIOPSOAS)
Synergists:
Iliacus
- Psoas major
- Adductor group
- rectus femoris
Antagonist:
Iliacus
- gluteus maximus
- three hamstring muscles
Origin:
Piriformis
Pelvic surface of the sacrum between the first through fourth sacral foramina and sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion:
Piriformis
Superior border of the greater trochanter of the femus
Action:
Piriformis
Laterally rotates thigh at the hip joint and abducts thigh
Trigger points:
Piriformis
Near the points of attachment
Referred Pain Pattern:
Piriformis
In the sacroiliac region, the entire buttock and down the posterior thigh
Synergists:
Piriformis
- superior and inferior gemelli
- quadratus femoris
- internal and external obturators
Antagonist:
gluteus minimus
Gluteus minimus
Tension in this muscle may cause entrapment of the sciatic nerve which normally passes under the muscle but which in some individuals may pass through the muscle.
Piriformis
Origin:
Obturator Externus
Outer surface of superior and inferior rami of pubis and ramus of ischium
Insertion:
Obturator Externus
Trochanteric fossa of femur
Action:
Obturator Externus
Laterally rotates thigh at the hip
Synergists:
Obturator Externus
- superior and inferior gemelli
- quadratus femoris
- internal obturator
Antagonists:
Obturator Externus
gluteus minimus
Origin:
Obturator Internus
Pelvic surface of the obturator membrane and the margins of the obturator foramen. Also the internal surface of the pubis and ramus of the ischium
Insertion:
Obturator Internus
Medial surface of the greater trochanter of the femus
Action:
Obturator Internus
Laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
The muscle that surrounds the obturator foramen in the pelvis.
Obturator Internus
Trigger points:
Obturator Internus
In the belly of the muscle
Synergists:
Obturator Internus
- superior and inferior gemelli
- quadratus femoris
- piriformis
- external obturator
Antagonists:
Obturator Internus
gluteus minimus
Origin:
Gemellus Superior
Dorsal surface of the ischial spine
Insertion:
Gemellus Superior
With tendon of obturator internus into the upper border of the greater trochanter
Action:
Gemellus Superior
Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint
Synergist:
Gemmelus Superior
- inferior gemellus
- quadratus femoris
- internal & external obturators
Antagonist:
Gemellus Superior
Gluteus Minimus
Origin:
Gemellus Inferior
Upper margin of the ischial tuberosity
Insertion:
Gemellus Inferior
With tendon of obturator internus into upper border of greater trochanter
Action:
Gemellus Inferior
Laterally rotates thigh at hip joint
Synergist:
Gemellus Inferior
- superior gemellus
- quadratus femoris
- internal & external obturators
- piriformis
Antagonist:
Gemellus Inferior
Gluteus minimis
Origin:
Quadratus Femoris
Upper part of the lateral border of the ischial tuberosity
Insertion:
Quadratus Femoris
Trochanteric crest of femus
Action:
Quadratus Femoris
Laterally rotates the thigh at the hip joint
Synergists:
Quadratus Femoris
- superior & inferior gemelli
- piriformis
- internal & external obturators
Antagonist:
Quadratus Femoris
Gluteus minimus
Origin:
Gluteus Maximus
Posterior gluteal line of ilium, adjacent posterior surface of sacrum and coccyx, sacrotuberous ligament and aponeurosis of erector spinae muscles
Insertion:
Gluteus Maximus
Iliotibial tract of fascia lata and gluteal tuberosity of femur
Action:
Gluteus Maximus
Upper part- extends and laterally rotates thigh

Lower part - extends, laterally rotates thigh and assists in raising the truck from a flexed position. Also assists in adduction of the hip joint
Muscles important in obtaining upright posture; active primarily during strenous activities such as running, jumping, and climbing
Gluteus Maximus
Trigger points:
Gluteus Maximus
Three main points: One near sacrum; one near the ischial tuberosity; and one in the belly of the muscle near the lower fibers.
Referred pain pattern:
Gluteus Maximus
entire gluteal region
Synergists:
Gluteus Maximus
- hamstring muscles
Antagonist:
Gluteus Maximus
- adductor group
- iliopsoas
- rectus femoris
Origin:
Gluteus Medius
Between anterior and posterior gluteal lines on lateral surface of ilium
Insertion:
Gluteus Medius
Lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur
Action:
Gluteus Medius
Abducts the hip joint and medially rotates the thigh
Gluteal muscle targeted for intramuscular injections in order to avoid nerves and blood vessels
Gluteus Medius
Trigger Points:
Gluteus Medius
Along the musculotendinous junction at the iliac crest
Referred Pain Pattern:
Gluteus Medius
To the lower back and posterior and lateral areas of the buttock
Synergists:
Gluteus Medius
- Gluteus minimus
- Tensor fasciae latae
Antagonists:
Gluteus Medius
- adductor group
- gracilis
- pectineus
Origin:
Gluteus Minimus
Outer surface of the ilium between the middle and inferior gluteal lines
Insertion:
Gluteus Minimus
Anterior border of the greater trochanter
Action:
Gluteus Minimus
Abducts the femur at the hip joint and medially rotates the thigh
Two muscles together that keep the pelvis from dropping toward the opposite side during walking; also keeps the pelvis level when standing on one foot
Gluteus medius & minimus
Trigger Point:
Gluteus Minimus
Belly of the muscle
Referred pain pattern:
Gluteus Minimus
The lower lateral buttock down the lateral aspect of the thigh, lower leg to the ankle
Synergists:
Gluteus Minimus
- gluteus medius
- tensor fasciae latae
Antagonist:
Gluteus Minimus
- adductor group
- pectineus
- gracilis
Origin:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
(proximal attachment)
Anterior aspect of the outer lip of the iliac crest and the anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
(distal attachment)
Middle and proximal thirds of the thigh along the iliotibial tract. The iliotibial band inserts on the lateral epicondyle of tibia.
Action:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Assists in abduction, medial rotation, and flexion of thigh. Makes the iliotibial tract taug. Stabilizer of the hip.
The muscle that braces the knee when walking.
Tensor Fasciae Latae (IT Band)
Trigger Point:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
In the belly of the muscle near its proximal attachment
Referred Pain Pattern:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
Localized in the hip and down the lateral side of the leg to the knee
Synergists:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
- Gluteus Medius & Minimus for abduction of the thigh
- Gluteus maximus for flexion of the hip
Antagonists:
Tensor Fasciae Latae
- adductor group
- gracilis
- pectineus
Origin:
Sartorius
Anterior superior iliac spine and upper half of iliac notch
Insertion:
Sartorius
Proximal part of the medial aspect of the tibia
Action:
Sartorius
Flexes, laterally rotates, and abducts the hip joint. Also flexes the torso toward the leg, and flexes and assists in medial rotation of the knee
The longest muscle in the body.
Sartorius
The "tailors muscle" used in sitting on the floor with thighs spread and lower legs crossed similar to a yoga position.
Sartorius
Trigger Points:
Sartorius
Three or four places in the long belly of the muscle
Referred Pain Pattern:
Sartorius
The entire anterior thigh with concentration at the knee
Synergists:
Sartorius
- biceps femoris
- semitendinous
- semimembraneous
- gracilis
Origin:
Rectus Femoris
Anterior head - Anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS)

Posterior head - upper margin of the acetabulum
Insertion:
Rectus Femoris
Patella and by the patella ligament to the tibial tuberosity
Action:
Rectus Femoris
Extends the leg at the knee and flexes the thigh at the hip joint.
The only quadriceps muscle that crosses both the hip and knee joint.
Rectus Femoris
"soccer" muscle
Rectus Femoris
Synergists:
Rectus Femoris
- other quadriceps mjuscles
- psoas
- sartorius
Antagonists:
Rectus Femoris
Hamstring group
Origin:
Vastus Medialis
Lower half of intertrochanteric line, linea aspera, medial supracondylar line, and medial intermuscular septum
Insertion:
Vastus Medialis
Medial border of the patella and then by the patella ligament to the tibial tuberosity
Action:
Vastus Medialis
Extends the leg at the knee joint and draws the patella medially
The most medial quadricep muscle.
Vastus Medialis
Trigger Points:
Vastus Medialis
In the belly and just above the insertion.
Referred Pain Pattern:
Vastus Medialis
Entire anterior thigh, especially the lower medial aspect with the most concentrated pain in the knee region.
Synergists:
Vastus Medialis
- Other quadriceps muscles
- Sartorius
Antagonists:
Vastus Medialis
Hamstring group
Origin:
Vastus Lateralis
Proximal intertrochanteric line, greater trochanter, gluteal tuberosity, and linea aspera
Insertion:
Vastus Lateralis
Patella and through the patella ligament the tibial tuberosity
Action:
Vastus Lateralis
Extends the knee joint and exerts a lateral pull on the patella
The most lateral muscle in the quadriceps femoris group.
Vastus Lateralis
Stricking the ligament of this muscle at the patella region causes the characteristic knee jerk reflex test.
Vastus Lateralis
Trigger Points:
Vastus Lateralis
Near each attachment and in the belly of the muscle
Referred Pain Pattern:
Vastus Lateralis
The anterior thigh especially the lateral surface and again with pain concentrated in the knee.
Compression of the knee, or quadriceps muscle imbalance, may pull the patella sideways and produce this condition....
Chondromalacia patellae or "runners knee"
Synergists:
Vastus Lateralis
- other quadriceps muscles
- sartorius
Antagonists:
Vastus Lateralis
hamstring group
Origin:
Vastus Intermedius
Anterior and lateral surfaces of the proximal two thirds of the body of the femur
Insertion:
Vastus Intermedius
Deep surface of the tendon of the rectus femoris and vastus muscles. Patella and through the patella ligament to the tibial tuberosity
Action:
Vastus Intermedius
Extends the knee at the joint
Smallest and deepest muscles of the quadriceps femoris group
Vastus Intermedius
Trigger Points:
Vastus Intermedius
near the proximal attachment.
Referred Pain Pattern:
Vastus Intermedius
Deep anterior thigh
Synertists:
Vastus Intermedius
- other quadriceps muscles
- sartorius
Antagonists:
Vastus Intermedius
hamstring group
Origin:
Biceps Femoris
Long head - ischial tuberosity

Short head- lateral lip of linea aspera, proximal two thirds of supracondylar line
Insertion:
Biceps Femoris
Common tendon passes downward to insert on head of fibula and lateral condyle of the tibia
Action:
Biceps Femoris
Flexes and laterally rotates the knee joint and extends the thigh
The most lateral muscle of the hamstring group.
Biceps Femoris
Trigger Points:
Biceps Femoris
In the belly of the muscle and near the insertion
Referred Pain Pattern:
Biceps Femoris
From the ischial tuberosity to the back of the knee and down the posterior leg to mid-calf
Synergists:
Biceps Femoris
- other hamstring muscles
- gracilis
- gastrocnemius
- sartorius
Antagonists:
Biceps Femoris
Quadriceps femoris group
Origin:
Semitendinosus
Ischial tuberosity
Insertion:
Semitendinosus
Upper medial surface of the shaft of the tibia
Action:
Semitendinosus
Flexes and slightly medially rotates leg at knee joint, and extends the thigh at the hip joint
Trigger Points:
Semitendinosus
In the belly of the muscle and near the insertion
Referred Pain Pattern:
Semitendinosus
The back of the leg to midcalf
The muscle group used to slow the leg down at the end of its swing; susceptible to being strained by resisting the momentum of the action
Hamstrings
Synergists:
Semitendinosus
- other hamstring muscles
- gracilis
- gastrocnemius
- sartorius
Antagonists:
Semitendinosus
- quadriceps femoris
Origin:
Semimembranosus
Ischial tuberosity
Insertion:
Semimembranosus
Poster part of the medial condyle of tibia
Action:
Semimembranosus
Flexes and slightly medially rotates leg at knee joint and extends thigh at hip
The most medial member of the hamstring group.
Semimembranosus
Trigger Points:
Semimembranosus
In the belly and near the insertion
Referred Pain Pattern:
Semimembranosus
The back of the thigh, to behind the knee and down the back of the leg to mid-calf.
Synergists:
Semimembranosus
- other hamstring muscles
- gracilis
- gastrocnemius
- sartorius
Antagonists:
Semimembranosus
- quadriceps femoris group
Origin:
Gracilis
Inferior ramus and body of pubis
Insertion:
Gracilis
Medial surface of tibia just inferior to its medial condyle
Action:
Gracilis
Adducts thigh at hip joint and flexes leg at knee joint. Assists in medial rotation.
Trigger points:
Gracilis
In the belly of the muscle and near the origin
Referred Pain Pattern:
Gracilis
Deep into the groin, into th emedial thigh, and downward to the knee and shin
Because this is a relatively deep muscle of the thigh adductor group, together with its nerves and blood vessels, it has been transplanted to replace a damaged muscle.
Gracilis
Synergists:
Gracilis
- adductor group
Antagonists:
Gracilis
- tensor fasciae latae
- gluteals
Origin:
Pectineus
Pectineal line on superior ramus of pubis
Insertion:
Pectineus
From lesser trochanter to linjea aspera of femur
Action:
Pectineus
Flexes femur at hip and assists in adduction of femur at hip
The uppermost of the addcutor group of muscles
Pectineus
Referred pain pattern:
Pectineus
Deep into the groin area
Synergists:
Pectineus
- adductor group
- gracilis
Antagonists:
Pectineus
- gluteus minimus and medius
- tensor fascae latae
Origin:
Adductor Brevis
Outer surface of inferior ramus of pubis
Insertion:
Adductor Brevis
Upper one third of medial lip of the linea aspera of the femur
Action:
Adductor Brevis
Adducts the thigh. Assists in flexion and medial rotation
Referred Pain Pattern:
Adductor Brevis
Deep in the groin to the medial knee and on to the shin
Synergists:
Adductor Brevis
- adductor muscles
- pectineus
- gracilis
Antagonists:
Adductor Brevis
- gluteus medius and minimus
- tensor fasciae latae
Origin:
Adductor Longus
Anterior body of pubis
Insertion:
Adductor Longus
Medial one third of medial lip of linea aspera of femur
Action:
Adductor Longus
Adducts and flexes thigh. Assists in medial rotation.
The most anterior of the adductor muscles.
Adductor Longus
Referred Pain pattern:
Adductor Longus
- Adductor muscles
- Pectineus
- Gracilis
Antagonists:
Adductor Longus
- Gluteus medius & minimus
- Tensor Fasciae Latae
Origin:
Adductor Magnus
Inferior ramus of pubis and ramus of ischium and inferior portion of ischial tuberosity
Insertion:
Adductor Magnus
Linea aspera and adductor tubercle of femur
Action:
Adductor Magnus
Adducts and extends thigh; assists in medial rotation
Largest muscle of the adductor group.
Adductor Magnus
The femoral artery and vein emerge through the adductor hiatus within this muscle...
Adductor Magnus
Referred Pain Pattern:
Adductor Magnus
Deep in the groin down to the knee and to the shin
Synergists:
Adductor Magnus
- other adductor muscles
- pectineus
- gracilis
Antagonists:
Adductor Magnus
- gluteus medius & minimus
- tensor fasciae latae