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125 Cards in this Set

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Holy Books
Rig Vedas and Upanishads
Two aspects of hinduism...
1. Nirguna
2. Saguna
What to know about Nirguna:
1. god w/o attributes
2. believe it's not an object and therefore cannot find it
Brahma = ?
creator
Vishnu = ?
preserver
10 avatars (divine incarnation)
Ganesha
remover of obstacles
lord of hosts
symbolizes fortune and wisdom
Hanuman
half-monkey
Dharma
religious (brahmins)
Brahmin
priests
in Upanishads this is our moral obligation
What do the Upanishads teach us?
"to know yourself is to know your dharma"
Central message of the Upanishads = ? = ?
= Atman = brahman
What is the central message?
know your true calling
calling
follow the vishnu gods that you want
4 Goals of Hinuism
Kama
Artha
Dharma
Moksha
Kama
pleasure
Artha
Gains
Dharma
Righteousness: they mean a spiritual connection to do what is right because its right NOT because you have to
How do you reach Moksha?
yoga
Yoga allows you to reach
samsura (nirvana)
samsura
realm of life and death is where we live
where we are constantly incarnate & reincarnate depending on your karma
what are the two goals that have to do with fullfilling oneself
Kama and Artha
4 stages of Hinduism life
1. student
2. houeholder
3. Hermit
4. Renunciant
varnas
castes
4 varnas
1. brahmins (head)
2. kshatriyas (arms)
3. vaishyas (ghandi) ((thighs))
4. Shundras (feet)
Laws of Mann (c. 100 c.e.)
codes of law that tell all about the 4 varnas, stages, and goals
The Upanishads teach to
"know yourself"
monism versus dualism
monism
-everything is already one in the universe
-reflection of ultimate reality

dualism
-sees God completely separate from creation/reality
3 types of yoga
karma yoga
Jnana yoga
Bhakit yoga
Student Stage
ahsrams
people are learning the teachings and practices
Householder Stage
men does guy things and wife maintains the house and kids
women moves to husband's family
Hermit Stage
one who withdraws from society in search of Moksha; usually only men
Renunciant
has experienced the divine/enlightenment
sadhus
holy men in the renunciant stage
Brahmin caste
sacrifices, know the Upanishads, temple scholars
kshatriya caste
rulers/warriors that keep order
vaishya caste
merchants/craftsmen
shudra caste
peasants - manual labor
harijans caste
lowest of the low
"untouchables"
if you touch one you have to go through rituals
Karma yoga
path of selfless service or action
Jnana yoga
spiritual/wisdom insight
Bhakti yoga
devotion or love
The Bhagavad Gita
"The song of the Lord"
Arjuna
warrior = atman = jiva = the outer self
Pantajali
written works of how to do yoga
hatha yoga
concerned with physical movement and controlling the body
asanas
postures of positions of yoga
The three forms of yoga need to be
brought together
The Bhagavad Gita
"The Song of the Lord"
Arjuna
warrior - atman = jiva = the outer self
the Bhagavad Gita teaches that we must learn to
detatch ourselves from our actions
REASON: people were leaving families behind
Advaita Vedanta
Philosophy emphasizing non-dualism, teaches that all is really Brahman; what appears as other than Brahman is "maya"
Shankara
philosopher mystic who embraced non-dualism/monism
Advidya
ignorance(non-vedic)
not able to see reality as it is...we need to remove this to recognize the divine
Maya
illusion
we need overlook illusions/obstacles so encounter reality ho it is
Avidya and Maya
remove one to remove the other
Yantra
cosmic representation of the universe
visually divine throughout
mantras
simple phrase you repeat
"Om Mani Padme um" (jewel in the lotus)
Seven Chakras
energy centers that the Kundalini energy moves through Chakras
Bhakti
devotion/love for deities
Bhakti opens the door...
...to deity or the divine, epecially for women; women have special positions with dancing or reciting poetry
Lakshmi
wife of vishnu
Shiva/Shakti
Parvati/Kali
Kali
dark one who represents the unknown/hidden dimension
Social Class System
Eastern
get rid of impurities and purify body, mind and soul
swaraj
independence
Satyagraha
holding the truth "truth in God & God is truth"
--not enough to study own faith but also get acquainted with other texts
(Gandhi said we had the moral obligation to do this)
Bramhachyara
practice of asceticism
What did Gandhi integrate his life and thoughts with?
Karma Yoga
Bahkti (women)
women could be poets
Women could be...
...gurus in Tantric tradition
Founder of Jainism
Vardhamana
Vardhamana
"the Mahauvira" - the great hero
Jivas
souls
Jinas
conquering
according to Jainic tradition...
...the particles of life are spread everywhere and therefore animistic
Jainic goal
get rid of impurities and simplify as much as possible
ascetism
fasting, abstinence, poverty
--try to minimize possessions because its time consuming
ahimsa
"non-violence"
we dont have to kill in order to survive
treat others how you want to be treated
vegetarian
Two Jainic Monastic Orders
Digambaras
Swetamburas
Digambaras
naked because thats how we are born and should end
Swetamburas
thin white (purity) garment
Shikism
born out of Hinu and Muslim
don't embrace ascetism because by God's "will" you will be saved
emphasize simple and comlex prayers
10 gurus of Shikism
last died around 1708 (Gobind Rai)
Gurunanak (1470-1540)
lord of the true name
true name
"sat nam"
Shikism is
monotheistic
Kirpan
double bladed knife - symbolizes courage and male/female
Adi Granth
holy scripture of Shikism
says to leave hair long because God wants it like this
Amritsak
holies Shikism temple in all of India (golden temple)
Amrit
nectar of life (drink)
Khalsa
military order
The transcendental movement was started in US by
Maharishi Yogi
Advaitavendata
school of thought relating to non-duality
who brought Advaitavendata to the US?
Vivekananda and Ramakrishna
Hare Krishna
Bahkti movement from India that helps people reach a state of conscienceness of Krishna
Sai Baba 1960s
brought Hinduism to the US (myrtle beach)
Other names for Buddah
siddhatra Guatama
shakyamuni
differences between buddhism and christianity
buddhism believes in many rebirths
What's the point of following christ if we can't be like him
Gnosis
knowledge
Sangha
group that takes buddhism and lives by it
Four people that Buddah saw on his trip out
old man represents aging
sick man represents suffereing
corpse represents death
monk represents enlightenment
finally after some years of ascetisim he finds..
...what he is doing ISNT all buddha nature
Buddha goes under a tree where...
...Mara tempts him. He resists and finally empties himself and comes in tough with his true Buddha nature and soon gets ppl to follow him
3 Jewels (pillars) of Buddhism
Seek refuge in:
1 Buddha
2 Dharma - teachings of the Buddha
3 Samgha - buddhist community (monks and nuns too)
4 Noble Truths
1 all life is suffering
--unsatisfying, life brings pain and suffering
2 suffering is caused by desire
--greed, unhealthy
3 there can be an end to desire
--through enlightenment
4 the way out is in the 8 fold plan
Buddhists say that we have the moral duty to save all life to avoid...
...suffering
summary of 8 fold path
morality (Sila) (right speech, action, mindfulness)
concentration (samadhi)(right effort, mindfulness, meditation - 2 types: samudhi, vipassana)
wisdom (prajna) - right understaning thoughts
4 unlimited virtues
1 friendliness - smiling is huge (transformation). important because you are mindful everyday of meeting new ppl in life. this includes flowers, bugs, etc
2 compassion - AKA karuna. key to spirituality. kill something you kill part of yourself
3 joyful - even in stress be cheerful and share with others
4 equinimaty/mindfulness - being able to react well in circumstances with more compassion and be serene
2 Major Buddhist Branches
Theravada and Mahayana
theravada
theravadin
"small vehicle" - small group of people who understand buddhist elite
Thailand, Sri Lanka
historical buddha
enlightenment:Arhant (ind enlightenment)
Tripitaka (written in pali)
meditation: sanadhi (gradual) and upassana (direct)
samsara (realm of reality) is NOT equal to nirvana
For those who are not yet enlightened
Mahayana
Mahyanist
Tibet, Japan, Vietnam
comsic buddhas - many buddhas and more to come
enlightenment: Bodhisattva (collective enlightenment) helps all to be aware of the buddha nature
Tripitaka and Sutras (written in sanskrit)
meditation: chanting (anyone can do this)
samsora = nirvana
for the enlightened
Current Dali Lama
Tenzin Gyasto
Dharamsala
Indian city where Dali Lama lives today
Dali Lama Titles
The XIV Dali Lama
Kundun = divine presence
Rimpoche = eminence
vajrayana (or tantric)
"The Thunderbolt verse"
-->diamond (buddha stone becomes diamond)
Yogacara
emphasize "the mind" or "the void" because to be empty of everything is to be full of good
Zen
Buddhism in Japan
started in India as Dhyana
Dhyana - meditation
Chan
also buddhism in India
Zen Buddhism addresses enlightenment
they beleive anyone is potentially a Buddha
They beleive that breathing is very important
It's direct and you can be enlightened
The Bardothodol
AKA Tibetan book of the dead
prepares person who is dying to move through realms and die
how to identify "the void"
Koans
helps you break through the logic of your mind and see reality how it is
they are asked these questions in order to try and be a buddha
Pure Land Buddhism
you can be saved by another power that can hit you like thunder
they chant things like the name of "Amitabha/Amida"
Amitabha
Buddha of compassion
Negative Roles of Women in Buddhism
denied that women can reach nirvana
In tantric women have been exploited
in theory they are equal in tantric but not really
Buddhism to America
Chinese laborers in CA
established in San Diego
1st pure land temple in Hawaii
Zen is the most popular in US
Suzuki was major representative of Buddhism in US
Bodhidharma
Zen spiritual master who brought it from China-->Japan