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668 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
combining form: brain
combining form: spinal cord
combining form: nerves
neur/i, neur/o
peripheral nervous system
12 pairs/ cranial nerves extending from the brain & 31 pairs/ spinal nerves
one or more bundles of neurons (impulse carrying fibers)
a bundle or group of nerve fibers located w/in the brain & spinal cord
ascending tracts
carry nerve impulses toward brain
descending tracts
carry nerve impulses away from brain
a network of intersecting nerves
wave of excitation transmitted thru nerve fibers and neurons
afferent neurons (=)
=sensory neurons: emerge from skin or sense organs and carry impulses toward brain
connecting neurons (=)
=associative neurons: carry impulses from one neuron to another
efferent neurons (=)
=motor neurons: carry impulses away from brain toward muscles and glands
terminal end fibers
branching fibers at the end of the axon that lead the nerveous impulse from the axon to the synapse
space b/t 2 neurons or b/t neuron and receptor organ
chemical subst. that makes it possible for messages to be transmitted by crossing the synapse from a neuron to the target receptor
glial cells (=)
=neuroglia: star-shaped supportive and connective cells of the nervous system
myelin sheath
white protective covering that is made up of glial cells and covers some parts of the spinal cord, white matter of the brain, and most peripheral nerves
released at some synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular junctions; influences muscle action
released w/in brain; ?mood & thought disorders and abnormal movement disorders (Parkinson's disease)
natually occurring substances produced by the brain that are released to help relieve pain
released at synaptic nerve endings; responds to hypotension and physical stress
released in the brain; has roles in sleep, hunger, pleasure recognition, and sometimes linked to mood disorders
white matter
portion of nerve fibers that have a myelin sheath
gray matter
does not have myelin sheath
3 layers of connective tissue membrane that enclose the brain and spinal cord (dura mater, arachnoid membrane, pia mater)
dura mater
thick, tough, outermost membrane of the meninges
epidural space
located above the dura mater and w/in the surrounding walls of bone
pertaining to dura mater
subdural space
located b/t dura membrane and arachnoid membrane
arachnoid membrane
2nd layer of the meninges surrounding the brain & spinal cord
subarachnoid space
located below arachnoid membrane and above pia mater, contains cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater
3rd layer of meninges, located nearest to the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid: produced by special capillaries w/in the ventricles of the brain. Is a clear, colorless, watery fluid that flows throughout brain and around spinal cord
largest and uppermost portion of the brain. Responsible for all thought, judgment, memory, and emotion, as well as for controlling and integrating motor and sensory functions
cerebral cortex
gray matter: outer layer of cerebrum; arranged in deep folds (fissures)
corpus callosum
the 2 cerebral hemispheres are connected at the lower midpoint
frontal lobe (of cerebrum)
controls skilled motor functions, memory, and behavior
parietal lobe (of cerebrum)
receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors in the tongue, skin, and muscles
occipital lobe
controls eyesight
temporal lobe
controls the senses of hearing and smell, and the ability to create, store, and access new information
below cerebrum; produces sensations by relaying impulses to and from the cerebrum and the sense organs of the body
below thalamus; controls vital body functions
the second largest part of the brain; produce smooth coordinated movements, maintain equilibrium, and sustain normal postures
the stalk-like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres w/ the spinal cord. Made of 3 parts: midbrain, pons, & medulla
midbrain & pons
provide conduction pathways to and from higher & lower centers in the brain
=medulla oblongata: at lowest part of brainstem; controls basic life functions (muscles of respiration, heart rate, & blood pressure)
# cranial nerves
12 pairs
# spinal nerves
31 pairs
autonomic nervous system
controls involuntary actions of the body (divided into symp. & parasym nervous systems
sympathetic nervous system
prepares body for emergencies & stress by increasing breathing rate, heart rate & blood flow to muscles
parasympathetic nervous system
returns the body to normal after a response to stress; also maintains normal body functions during ordinary circumstances
physician who specializes in administering anesthetic agents before and during surgery
person trained in administering anesthesia but who is not necessarily a physician
specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the nervous system
physician who specializes in surgery of the nervous system
holds a Medical Doctor (MD) degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating chemical dependencies, emotional problems, and mental illness
holds an advanced degree other than a medical degree, and specializes in evaluating and treating emotional problems and mental illness
cephalalgia (=)
=headache: pain in the head
migraine headaches
a headache syndrome characterized by sudden, throbbing, sharp pain that is usually more severe on one side of the head; pain is often accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light or sound
cluster headaches
characterized by concentrated pain on one side of the head; less common than migraines, but more painful, and often occur one or more times daily for weeks or months
encephalocele (=)
=craniocele: congenital herniation of brain substance through a gap in the skull
congenital herniation of the meninges thru a defect in the skull or spinal column
a condition in which there is an abnormally increased amount of CSF within the ventricles of the brain
an inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord
Alzheimer’s disease
a group of disorders associated with degenerative changes in the brain structure that lead to symptoms including progressive memory loss, impaired cognition, and personality changes
the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory
an inflammation of the brain
Reye’s syndrome
often fatal, affects all organs of the body but is most harmful to the brain and liver; has been linked to giving aspirin to children suffering from viral infections
Parkinson’s disease
a chronic, degenerative CNS disorder in which there is a gradually progressive loss of control over movement resulting from inadequate levels of the chemical dopamine in the brain. Characterized by fine muscle tremors, rigidity, and a slow or shuffling gait
Tetanus (=)
=lockjaw: an acute and potentially fatal infection of the CNS caused by a toxin produced by the tetanus bacteria (acquired thru deep wound).
a memory disturbance marked by a total or partial inability to recall past experiences that can be caused by a brain injury, illness, or psychological disturbance.
shaken together
condition or state of
a violent shaking up or jarring of the brain
cerebral contusion
the bruising of brain tissue as a result of a head injury, sometimes causes swelling of the brain
cranial hematoma
a collection of blood trapped in the tissues of the brain
conscious (=)
=alert: being awake, aware, and responding appropriately
a state of being unaware, with the inability to respond to normal stimuli
syncope (=)
=fainting: the brief loss of consciousness caused by the decreased flow of blood to the brain
a lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness, and apathy
a state of impaired awareness in which the mind and senses are dulled to environmental stimuli
a profound (deep) state of unconsciousness marked by the absence of spontaneous eye movements, no response to painful stimuli, and no vocalization
persistent vegetative state
a type of coma in which the patient exhibits a cyclic state of alternating sleep and wake cycles; unconscious even when appearing to be awake
a potentially reversible condition that comes on suddenly and is often associated w/ a high fever, intoxication, or shock
a slowly progressive decline in mental abilities including memory, thinking, and judgement, often accompanied by personality changes
AIDS dementia complex
a degenerative neurological condition that is the most common CNS complication of the HIV infection
brain tumor
an abnormal growth within the brain that may be either benign or malignant (both can be life threatening)
cerebrovascular accident (=)
=stroke: damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted because a blood vessel supplying it is either blocked or has ruptured
ischemic strokes
most common type of stroke in older people; occur when the flow of blood to the brain is blocked
transient ischemic attack (abbrev.)
T-I-A: the temporary interruption in the blood supply to the brain (transient: passing quickly)
the loss of the ability to speak, write, and/or comprehend the written or spoken word
hemorrhagic stroke (=)
=a bleed: occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures
the prolonged or abnormal inability to sleep
a sleep disorder consisting of recurring episodes of falling asleep during the day
to walk
somnambulism (=)
=noctambulism or sleepwalking: condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening
a condition of unnatural sleepiness or semiconsciousness approaching coma
an inflammation of the spinal cord
a tumor of the spinal cord
poliomyelitis (=)
=polio: a highly contagious viral infection that in its acute form can inflame the spinal cord and brainstem, sometimes resulting in paralysis
root or nerve root
radiculitis (=)
=pinched nerve: an inflammation of the root of a spinal nerve
cervical radiculopathy
nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
inward curvature of the spine
lumbar radiculopathy
nerve pain in the lower back that may be caused by muscle spasms or by nerve root irritation from the compression of vertebral disks such as a herniated disk
multiple sclerosis
a progressive autoimmune disorder characterized by scattered patches of demyelination of nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord. Repeated episodes of nerve inflammation disrupt the transmission of nerve impulses and cause symptoms that may include loss of balance, fatigue, paralysis, and speech disturbances
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (=)
=Lou Gehrig’s disease: a degenerative disease of the motor nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord in which patients become progressively weaker until they are completely paralyzed. Intellect, eye motion, bladder function, and sensations are spared.
Bell’s palsy
the temporary paralysis of the 7th cranial nerve, causes drooping only on the affected side of the face; also include pain, tearing, drooling, hypersensitivity to sound in the affected ear, and impairment of taste.
Guillain-Barre syndrome (=)
=infectious polyneuritis: an inflammation of the myelin sheath of peripheral nerves, characterized by rapidly worsening muscle weakness that may lead to temporary paralysis.
inflammation of the sciatic nerve that results in pain, burning, and tingling along the course of this nerve through the thigh and leg
Tic douloureux (=)
=trigeminal neuralgia: an inflammation of the 5th cranial nerve; characterized by sudden, intense, brief attacks of sharp pain on one side of the face and affecting the lips, gum, or cheek.
cerebral palsy
a condition characterized by poor muscle control, spasticity, speech defects, and other neurologic deficiencies due to damage that affects the cerebrum. Occurs most often in premature or low-birthweight infants and is usually caused by an injury that occurs during pregnancy, birth, or soon after birth
a group of neurologic disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of seizures; may be caused by extreme high fever, brain injury, or brain lesions
Grand mal epilepsy
(more severe form of epilepsy) characterized by generalized seizures
Petit mal epilepsy (=)
=absence epilepsy: milder form: characterized by frequent but partial seizures
persistent severe burning pain that usually follows an injury to a sensory nerve
complex regional pain syndrome (=)
=reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome: a form of causalgia caused by either an identifiable injury to a sensory nerve or an injury to a part of the body such as arms or legs (injured nerves do not follow the usual healing path
condition of excessive sensitivity to stimuli
abnormal sensation, such as burning or prickling, in the extremities that may be caused by a wide range of neurological diseases or nerve damage
peripheral neuropathy (=)
=peripheral neuritis: a painful condition of the nerves of the hands and feet due to damage to the peripheral nerves
facilitate the examination of the soft tissue structures of the brain and spinal cord
magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography
carotid ultrasonography
an ultrasound study of the carotid artery; performed to predict or diagnose an ischemic stroke
the use of ultrasound imaging to diagnose a shift in the midline structures of the brain
the process of recording the electrical activity of the brain through the use of electrodes attached to the scalp
a radiographic study of the spinal cord after the injection of a contrast medium thru a lumbar puncture
lumbar punture (=)
=spinal tap: sampling of cerebrospinal fluid obtained by inserting a needle into the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region.
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation
(TENS): method of pain control by the application of electronic impulses to the nerve endings thru the skin
a medication that relieves pain without affecting consciousness
nonnarcotic analgesics
used for mild to moderate pain (ex: aspirin)
narcotic analgesics
used to relieve severe pain; may cause physical dependence or addiction (ex: morphine, Demerol, codeine)
depresses the CNS to produce calm and diminished responsiveness without producing sleep
depresses the CNS and usually produces sleep
a class of drugs whose major action is a calming or depressed effect on the CNS
a barbiturate used as a sedative and hypnotic
a barbiturate used as a sedative and as an anticonvulsant
prevents seizures and convulsions
the absence of normal sensation, especially sensitivity to pain, that is induced by the administration of an anesthetic
the medication used to induce anesthesia; may be topical, local, regional, or general
epidural anesthesia
regional anesthesia produced by injecting a local anesthetic into the epidural space of the lumbar or sacral region of the spine
electroconvulsive therapy (=)
=electroshock therapy: a controlled convulsion produced by the passage of an electric current thru the brain; used primarily in treatment of depression and mental disorders that do not respond to other forms of therapy
surgical removal of a portion of the brain to treat brain cancer or seizure disorders that cannot be controlled with medication
surgical incision into the thalamus; destroys brain cells, performed to quiet the tremors of Parkinson's disease, etc.
mental retardation
general intellectual functioning that is significantly below average and accompanied by a significant limitation in adaptive functioning
autistic disorders (=)
=autism: a group of conditions in which a young child cannot develop normal social relationships, compulsively follows repetitive routines, and frequently has poor communication skills
attention deficit disorder
(ADD): characterized by a short attention span and impulsive behavior inappropriate for the child's developmental age
dyslexia (=)
=developmental reading disorder: a learning disability characterized by substandard reading achievement due to the inability of the brain to process symbols.
substance abuse
the addictive use of tobacco, alcohol, medications, or illegal drugs
chronic alcohol dependence with specific signs and symptoms upon withdrawal
delirium tremens
an acute organic brain syndrome due to alcohol withdrawal that is characterized by sweating, tremor, restlessness, anxiety, mental confusion, and hallucinations
psychotic disorder
characterized by the loss of contact with reality and deterioration of normal social functioning
a psychotic disorder characterized by two or more of the following: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behavior, and/or negative symptoms
false personal belief that is maintained despite obvious proof or evidence to the contrary
a sense perception (sight, tough, sound, smell, or taste) that has no basis in external stimulation
catatonic behavior
marked by a lack of responsiveness, stupor, and a tendency to remain in a fixed posture
dissociative disorders
occur when normal thought is separated from consciousness
common mood disorder characterized by lethargy and sadness, as well as a loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities
bipolar disorders
characterized by the occurence of manic or hypomanic episodes sometimes alternating with depressive episodes
dysthymia (=)
=dysthymic disorder: a chronic depression present at least 50% of the time for more than 2 yrs.
anxiety disorders
characterized by anxiety or fear out of proportion to the real danger in a situation
generalized anxiety disorder
characterized by persistent, intrusive, excessive worry about multiple topics that is difficult to control, causes significant distress or impairment in functioning, and is associated with specific symptoms, such as muscle tension, sleep disturbance, and restlessness
obsessive-compulsive disorder
characterized by obsessions and/or compulsions that are recurrent, persistent, and excessive
posttraumatic stress disorder
the development of characteristic symptoms after a traumatic event involving actual or threatened death or injury to the patient or someone else, during which the patient felt intense fear, helplessness, or horror
panic disorder
characterized by having more than one panic attack, resulting in persistent fear of the attacks
a persistent irrational fear of a specific thing or situation strong enough to cause significant distress and/or interfere with functioning
abnormal fear
an excessive fear of being in high places
market place
an excessive fear of situations in which having a panic attack seems likely and/or dangerous or embarrassing
an abnormal fear of being in narrow or enclosed spaces
somatoform disorders
characterized by physical complaints or concerns about one's body which are out of proportion to any physical findings or disease. The person is not delusional, is truly distressed, and is not deliberately causing the symptoms
somatization disorder
characterized by years of physical complaints of many types that are not explained by a medical condition
conversion disorder
characterized by a serious temporary or ongoing change in funtion, such as paralysis or blindness, triggered by psychological factors rather than any physical cause
characterized by misinterpretation of physical symptoms and fearing that one has a serious illness despite appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance.
to steal
a disorder characterized by repeatedly stealing objects neither for personal use nor for their monetary value
a disorder characterized by repeated, deliberate fire setting
related to hair
a disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's hair resulting in noticeable hair loss
personality disorders
a chronic pattern of inner experience and behavior that causes serious problems with relationships and work; this pattern is pervasive and inflexible, has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to distress or impairment
factitious disorder
a condition in which a person acts as if he or she has a physical or mental illness when he or she is not really sick (most are attempts to receive attention and sympathy)
factitious disorder by proxy
falsify an illness in a child (form of child abuse)
characterized by the intentional creation of false or grossly exaggerated physical or psychological symptoms, motivated by external incentives, such as avoiding work
psychotropic drugs
capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior and are used in the treatment of mental illness.
anxiolytic drugs (=)
=antianxiety drugs or tranquilizers: administered to temporarily suppress anxiety
work by increasing activity in certain areas of the brain, thus increasing concentration and wakefulness.
antipsychotic drugs
administered to treat symptoms of severe disorders of thinking and mood
mood stabilizing drugs
(lithium and valproic acid: anticonvulsant); used to treat mood instability and bipolar disorders
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (abbrev.)
(S-S-R-I): thought to work by reducing the re-entry of serotonin into nerve cells, thus allowing serotonin to build up in the nerve synapse
tricyclic antidepressants
named for their chemical structure, used to treat depression
based on the idea that mental disorders have underlying causes stemming from childhood and can only be overcome by gaining insight into one's feelings and patterns of behavior
behavioral therapy
focuses on changing behavior by identifying problem behaviors, replacing them with appropriate behaviors, and using rewards or other consequences to make the changes
cognitive therapy
focuses on changing cognitions or thoughts that are affecting a person's emotions and actions. These are identified and then are challenged thru logic, gathering evidence, and/or testing in action.
the use of hypnosis to produce a relaxed state of focused attention in which the patient may be more willing to believe and act on suggestions
cerebrovascular accident
computerized tomography
delirium tremens
electroconvulsive therapy
generalized anxiety disorder
level of consciousness
mental retardation
multiple sclerosis
obsessive-compulsive disorder
Parkinson's disease
parasympathetic nervous system, peripheral nervous system
posttraumatic stress disorder
seasonal affective disorder
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
transcutaneous electronic nerve stimulation
transient ischemic attack
combining forms for: eyes (and vision)
opt/i, opt/o, optic/o, ophthalm/o
combining forms for lacrimal apparatus
dacryocyst/o, lacrim/o
combining forms for iris
ir/i, ir/o, irid/o, irit/o
combining forms for lens
phac/o, phak/o
combining forms for retina
combining forms for ears (hearing and sound)
acous/o, acoust/o, audi/o, audit/o, ot/o
combining forms for outer ear
combining forms for middle ear
myring/o, tympan/o
combining forms for inner ear
outside the eyeball
within the eyeball
pertaining to the eye or sight
adnexa (=)
=adnexa oculi: the structures outside the eyeball: the orbit, eye muscles, eyelids, eyelashes, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus
orbit (=)
=eye socket: bony cavity of the skull that contains and protects the eyeball and its associated muscles, blood vessels, and nerves
right eye
left eye
each eye (or both eyes)
the angle where the upper and lower eyelids meet
inner canthus
where the eyelids meet nearest the nose
a vertical fold of skin on either side of the nose
tarsus (=)
=tarsal plate: the platelike framework within the upper and lower eyelids that provides stiffness and shape
the transparent mucous membrane that lines the underside of each eyelid and continues to form a protective covering over the exposed surface of the eyeball
lacrimal apparatus (=)
=tear apparatus: consists of the structures that produce, store, and remove tears
lacrimal glands
located above the outer corner of each eye; secrete lacrimal fluid
lacrimal fluid
lacrimal canal
made up of 2 ducts at the inner corner of each eye; these ducts collect tears and empty them into the lacrimal sacs
lacrimal sac (=)
=tear sac: an enlargement of the upper portion of the lacrimal duct
lacrimal duct (=)
=nasolacrimal duct: the passageway that drains excess tears into the nose
the secretion of tears, especially in excess
globe (=)
=eyeball: one-inch sphere with only about 1/6 of its surface showing on the outside
sclera (=)
=white of the eye: the tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outer layer of the eye, except for the part covered by the cornea
the transparent outer surface of the eye covering the iris and pupil; it is the primary structure focusing light rays entering the eye
uveal tract (=)
=uvea: the vascular layer of the eye; the iris is in the front of it, and behind it are the choroid and the ciliary body
the pigmented (colored) muscular layer that surrounds the pupil
the black circular opening in the center of the iris that permits light to enter the eye
lens (=)
=crystalline lens: the clear, flexible, curved structure that focuses images on the retina
choroid (=)
=choroid coat: the opaque middle layer of the eyeball that contains many blood vessels and provides the blood supply for the entire eye
ciliary body
located w/in the choroid; is a set of muscles and suspensory ligaments that adjust the thickness of the lens to refine the focus of light rays on the retina
the sensitive innermost layer that lines the posterior segment of the eye
macula (=)
=macula lutea: a clearly defined yellow area in the center of the retina; this is the area of sharpest central vision
macula means...?
lutea =?
fovea centralis
a pit in the middle of the macula; color vision is best in this area b/c it contains a high conc. of cones but no rods
optic disk (=)
=blind spot: a small region in the eye where the nerve endings of the retina enter the optic nerve; contains no rods or cones
2nd cranial nerve (=)
=optic nerve: transmits the nerve impulses from the retina to the brain
anterior segment
the front 1/3 of the eyeball; is divided into ant. & post. chambers
anterior chamber
located behind the cornea and in front of the iris
posterior chamber
located behind the iris and in front of the ligaments holding the lens in place
aqueous fluid (=)
=aqueous humor: helps the eye maintain its shape and nourishes the intraocular structures; constantly filtered and drained thru the trabecular meshwork and canal of Schlemm
intraocular pressure (abbrev.) & =
IOP: regulated by constant drainage of aqueous fluid
posterior segment
posterior 2/3 of the eyeball; lined with the retina and its related structures
vitreous humor (=)
=vitreous gel: the soft, clear, jellylike mass that fills this segment to aid the eye in maintaining its shape
the process whereby the eyes make adjustments for seeing objects at various distances; includes constriction & dilation of pupil, movement of the eyes, and changes in the shape of the lens
the simultaneous inward movement of the eyes toward each other in an effort to maintain single binocular vision as an object comes nearer
the normal relationship b/t the refractive power of the eye and the shape of the eye that enables light rays to focus correctly on the retina
in proper measure
vision condition
the ability of the lens to bend light rays to help them focus on the retina
visual acuity
the ability to distinguish object details and shape at a distance
Snellen chart
used to measure visual acuity
first number
indicates the distance from the chart, which is always standardized at 20 feet
second number
indicates the deviation from the norm based on the ability to read progressively smaller lines of letters on the chart
holds an MD degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the eyes and vision
holds a Doctor of Optometry degree and specializes in measuring the accuracy of vision to determine whether corrective lenses are needed
one who measures
drooping of the upper eyelid that is usually due to paralysis
the eversion (turning outward) of the edge of an eyelid
the inversion (turning inward) of the edge of an eyelid
hordeolum (=)
=stye: a pus-filled lesion on the eyelid resulting from an infection in a sebaceous gland
chalazion (=)
=internal stye: a localized swelling inside the eyelid resulting from obstruction of one of the sebaceous glands
conjunctivitis (=)
=pinkeye: an inflammation of the conjunctiva, usually caused by an infection or allergy
subconjuctival hemorrhage
bleeding b/t the conjunctiva and sclera
xerophthalmia (=)
=dry eye: drying of eye surfaces; may be due to disease or to a lack of vitamin A in the diet
an inflammation of the cornea
these also mean “hard”
kerat/o & scler/o
corneal abrasion
an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea
corneal ulcer
a pitting of the cornea caused by an infection or injury
a noncancerous growth that develops on the cornea and can grow large enough to distort vision
an adhesion that binds the iris to an adjacent structure such as the lens or cornea
a condition in which the pupils are unequal in size
the loss of transparency of the lens
floaters (=)
=vitreous floaters: particles of cellular debris that float in the vitreous fluid and cast shadows on the retina
an involuntary, constant, rhythmic movement of the eyeball
papilledema (=)
=choked disk: swelling and inflammation of the optic nerve at the point of entrance into the eye thru the optic disk
detached retina (=)
=retinal detachment: the retina is pulled away from its normal position of being attached to the choroids in the back of the eye
uveal tract
an inflammation anywhere in the uveal tract
a group of diseases char’d by increased intraocular pressure, resulting in damage to the retinal nerve fibers and the optic nerve
macular degeneration (=)
=age-related degeneration: a gradually progressive condition in which the macula at the center of the retina is damaged, resulting in the loss of central vision but not in total blindness
diplopia (=)
=double vision: the perception of 2 images of a single object
blindness in one half of the visual field
monochromatism (=)
=color blindness: the inability to distinguish certain colors
nyctalopia (=)
=night blindness: a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night
old age
describes the common changes in the eyes that occur with aging
strabismus (=)
=squint: a disorder in which the eyes point in different directions or are not aligned correctly b/c the eye muscles are unable to focus together
esotropia (=)
=cross-eyes: strabismus char’d by an inward deviation of one eye or both eyes
exotropia (=)
=walleye: strabismus char’d by the outward deviation of one eye relative to the other
refractive disorder
a focusing problem that occurs when the lens and cornea do not bend light so that it focuses properly on the retina
out of proportion
any error of refraction in which images do not focus properly on the retina
a condition in which the eye does not focus properly b/c of uneven curvatures of the cornea
hyperopia (=)
=farsightedness: a defect in which light rays focus beyond the retina
myopia (=)
=nearsightedness: a defect in which light rays focus in front of the retina
dim or dull
a dimness of vision or the partial loss of sight, especially in one eye, without detectable disease of the eye
scotoma (=)
=blind spot: an abnormal area of absent or depressed vision surrounded by an area of normal vision
visual acuity measurement
an evaluation of the eye’s ability to distinguish object details and shape
an examination procedure to determine an eye’s refractive error and the best corrective lenses to be prescribed
the unit of measurement of a lens’s refractive power
the measurement of intraocular pressure
ophthalmoscopy (=)
=funduscopy: the visual examination of the fundus of the eye with an ophthalmoscope
mydriatic drops
medication placed into the eyes in the form of eye drops that produce temporary paralysis: forces the pupils to remain dilated even in the presence of bright light
slit-lamp ophthalmoscopy
a diagnostic procedure in which a narrow beam of light is focused onto parts of the eye to permit the ophthalmologist to examine the structures at the front of the eye, including the cornea, iris, and lens
fluorescein staining
the application of fluorescent dye to the surface of the eye; causes a corneal abrasion to appear bright green
fluorescein angiography
a radiographic study of the blood vessels in the retina of the eye following the intravenous injection of a fluorescein dye as a contrast medium
visual field testing (=)
=perimetry: performed to determine losses in peripheral vision
a surgical incision into the orbit for biopsy, abscess drainage, or the removal of a tumor or foreign object
the partial, or complete, suturing together of the upper and lower eyelids
corneal transplant (=)
=keratoplasty: the surgical replacement of a scarred or diseased cornea with clear corneal tissue from a donor
ocular prosthesis
may be fitted to wear over a malformed eye or to replace an eyeball
radial keratotomy
a surgical procedure to correct myopia; incisions are made partially thru the cornea that cause it to flatten
vitreous fluid
the removal of the vitreous fluid and its replacement with a clear solution
the general term used to describe the surgical removal of a cataract-clouded lens
the use of ultrasonic vibration to shatter and break up a cataract making removal easier
an eye in which the natural lens has been replaced with an intraocular lens
intraocular lens
an artificial lens that is surgically implanted to replace the natural lens
laser iridotomy
used to treat acute, or closed-angle, glaucoma by creating an opening in the iris to allow drainage
laser trabeculoplasty
used to treat chronic, or open-angle, glaucoma by creating an opening in the trabecular meshwork to allow fluid to drain properly
Laser-Assisted in SItu Keratomileusis: used to treat vision conditions that are caused by the shape of the cornea; a flap is opened in the surface of the cornea and then a laser is used to change the shape of a deep corneal layer
photo-refractive keratectomy
used to correct refractive errors by shaving away some of the top layer of the cornea
used to reattach the detached area in a retinal detachment
the use of lasers to treat some forms of macular degeneration by sealing leaking or damaged blood vessels
right ear
left ear
each ear or both ears
hearing or sense of hearing
pertaining to the sense of hearing
hearing or sound
relating to sound or hearing
pinna (=)
=auricle: the external portion of the ear; catches sound waves and transmits them into the external auditory canal
external auditory canal
transmits sound waves from the pinna to the middle ear
cerumen (=)
=earwax: secreted by ceruminous glands that line the auditory canal
tympanic membrane (=)
=eardrum: located b/t the outer and middle ear
mastoid bone cells
surround the middle ear: hollow air spaces located in the mastoid process of the temporal bone
auditory ossicles
3 small bones found in the middle ear; transmit the sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear by vibration
the hammer
the anvil
the stirrup
Eustachian tubes (=)
=auditory tubes: narrow tubes that lead from the middle ear to the nasal cavity and the throat; equalize the air pressure in the middle ear with that of the outside atmosphere
inner ear (=)
=labyrinth: contains the sensory receptors for hearing and balance
oval window
located under the base of the stapes; is the membrane that separates the middle ear from the inner ear
the spiral passage that leads from the oval window
cochlear duct
located within the cochlea; is filled w/ fluid that vibrates when the sound waves strike it
organ of Corti
located w/in the cochlea; the receptor site that receives vibrations and relays them to the auditory nerve fibers
auditory nerve fibers
transmit vibrations to the auditory center of the brain’s cerebral cortex, where they are heard and interpreted
semicircular canals
(3); located w/in inner ear; contain endolymph (a liquid) and sensitive hair cells (which bend in response to the movements of the head and set up impulses in nerve fibers to help maintain equilibrium)
acoustic nerves
(cranial nerve VIII); transmits info to the brain, and the brain sends messages to muscles in all parts of the body to ensure that equilibrium is maintained
air conduction
the process by which sound waves enter the ear thru the pinna
bone conduction
occurs as the eardrum vibrates and moves the auditory ossicles
sensorineural conduction
occurs when sound vibrations reach the inner ear via the oval window
specializes in the measurement of hearing function and in the rehab of persons w/ hearing impairments
impacted cerumen
an accumulation of cerumen that forms a solid mass adhering to the walls of the external auditory canal
otalgia (=)
=earache: pain in the ear
any inflammation of the ear
otomycosis (=)
=swimmer's ear: a fungal infection of the external auditory canal
the flow of pus from the ear
bleeding from the ear
pressure-related ear discomfort often caused by changes in pressure when flying, driving in the mountains, or scuba diving, when the eustachian tube is blocked
an inflammation of any part of the mastoid process
an inflammation of the tympanic membrane
the ankylosis of the bones of the middle ear resulting in a conductive hearing loss
patulous eustachian tube
distention of the eustachian tube
otitis media
an inflammation of the middle ear
acute otitis media
usually associated w/ an upper resp. infection and is most commonly seen in young children; can lead to a ruptured eardrum
serous otitis media
a fluid buildup in the middle ear that may follow acute otitis media or may be caused by obstruction of the eustachian tube
acute purulent otitis media
a buildup of pus within the middle ear
an inflammation of the labyrinth that can result in vertigo and deafness
a sense of whirling, dizziness, and the loss of balance, often combined with nausea and vomiting`
Meniere's syndrome
a rare chronic disease in which the amount of fluid in the inner ear increases intermittently, producing attacks of veritgo, a fluctuating hearing loss (usually in one ear) and tinnitus
a ringing, buzzing, or roaring sound in one or both ears
the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear
a gradual loss of sensorineural hearing that occurs as the body ages
conductive hearing loss
occurs when sound waves are prevented from passing from the air to the fluid-filled inner ear
sensorineural hearing loss (=)
=nerve deafness: develops when the auditory nerve or hair cells in the inner ear are damaged
noise-induced hearing loss
a type of nerve deafness due to damage caused by repeated exposure to very intense noise such as aircraft engines, noisy equipment, or loud music
the use of an audiometer to measure hearing acuity
an electronic device that produces acoustic stimuli of a set frequency and intensity
a measure of sound frequency that determines how high or low a pitch is
sound volume is measured in decibels
speech audiometry
measures the threshold of speech reception (hearing speech sounds) and speech discrimination (understanding speech sounds)
the measurement of acoustical energy absorbed or reflected by the middle ear thru the use of a probe placed in the ear canal
monaural testing
involves one ear
binaural testing
involves both ears
surgical repair of the pinna
the surgical removal of mastoid cells
the surgical incision of the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes
tympanostomy tubes (=)
=pediatric ear tubes: tiny ventilating tubes placed thru the eardrum to provide ongoing drainage for fluids and to relieve pressure that can build up after childhood ear infections
the surgical correction of a damaged middle ear, either to cure chronic inflammation or to restore function
the surgical removal of the top portion of the stapes bone and the insertion of a small prosthetic device called a piston that conducts sound vibrations to the inner ear
a surgical procedure in which a new opening is created in the labyrinth to restore hearing
hearing aid
an external electronic device that amplifies sounds thru a small speaker
the surgical removal of all or a portion of the labyrinth
a surgical incision b/t 2 of the fluid chambers of the labyrinth to allow the pressure to equalize
cochlear implant
an electronic device implanted behind the ear that receives sound signals and transmits these signals to electrodes implanted in the cochlea
esotropia, eustachian tube
intraocular lens
otitis media
photo-refractive keratectomy
serous otitis media
tympanic memebrane
combining forms for skin
cutane/o, dermat/o, derm/o
combining form for sebaceous glands
combining forms for sweat glands
combining forms for hair
pil/i, pil/o
combining forms for nails
onych/o, ungu/o
derma & cutaneous mean...?
the ouutermost layer of the skin; made up of several specialized epithelial tissues
epithelial tissues
form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body
squamous epithelial tissue
forms the upper layer of the epidermis; consists of flat, scaly cells
basal layer
cells produced in the lowest layer (here)
fibrous, water-repellent protein; soft keratin= primary component of the epidermis... hard keratin= found in hair and nails
special cells also located in the basal layer; produce and contain a dark brown to black pigment called melanin
ultraviolet (UV)
light that is beyond the visible spectrum at the violet end; some UV rays help the skin produce vit D, but others damage it
dermis (=)
=corium: the thick layer of living tissue directly below the epidermis
pertaining to the sense of touch
the ability to recognize sensory stimuli
=glue: a tough, yet flexible, fibrous protein material; found in skin, bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments
mast cells
found in the connective tissue of the dermis; respond to injury, infection, or allergy by producing and releasing substances including heparin and histamine
released in response to injury, is an anticoagulant
released in response to allergens, causes itching and increased mucus secretion
lipocytes (=)
=fat cells: are predominant in the subcutaneous layer where they manufacture and store large quantitities of fat
sebaceous glands
located in the dermis layer of the skin and are closely associated with hair follicles
secreted by sebaceous glands: is released thru ducts opening into the hair follicles
sweat glands (=)
=sudoriferous glands: tiny, coiled glands found on almost all body surfaces
where ducts from sweat glands open on the surface of the skin
sweat (=)
=perspiration: secreted by sweat glands and is made up of 99% water plus some salt and metabolic waste products
secreting sweat; a means of excreting excess water & also cools the body
the production and excretion of sweat
hair (fibers)
rodlike structures composed of tightly fused, dead protein cells filled with hard keratin
hair follicles
the sacs that hold the root of the hair fibers.
arrector pili (=)
=erector muscles: tiny muscle fibers attached to the hair follicles that cause the hair to stand erect
unguis (=)
=nail: the keratin plate protecting the dorsal surface of the last bone of each finger and toe
nail body
is translucent; is closely molded to the surface of the underlying tissues
nail bed
joins the nail body to the underlying connective tissue, nourishes the nail
free edge
the portion of the nail not attached to the nail bed, extends beyond the tip of the finger or toe
a pale half-moon-shaped region at every nail root, generally easiest seen in the thumbnail
a narrow band of epidermis attached to the surface of the nail just in front of the root, protecting the new keratin cells as they form
fastens the nail to the finger or toe by fitting into a groove in the skin
specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the skin
cosmetic surgeon (=)
=plastic surgeon: specializes in the surgical restoration and reconstruction of body structures
acne vulgaris
most common type of acne: a chronic inflammatory disease that is char'd by pustular eruptions of the skin caused by an overproduction of sebum
a noninfected lesion formed by the buildup of sebum and keratin in a hair follicle
sebaceous cyst
a sebaceous gland containing yellow, fatty material
any of several common skin conditions in which there is an overproduction of sebum
seborrheic dermatitis
an inflammation that causes scaling and itching of the upper layers of the skin or scalp
seborrheic keratosis
a benign growth that has a waxy "pasted-on" look
the abnormal condition of lacking sweat in response to heat
a condition of excessive sweating in one area or over the whole body
profuse sweating
abnormal condition
miliaria (=)
=heat rash or prickly heat: an intensely itchy rash caused by blockage of the sweat glands by bacteria and dead cells
an inflammation of the hair follicles that is especially common on the limbs and in the beard area on men
the presence of excessive bodily and facial hair in women, usually occurring in a male pattern
alopecia (=)
=baldness: the partial or complete loss of hair, most commonly on the scalp
abnormal curving of the nails that is often accompanied by enlargement of the fingertips
koilonychia (=)
=spoon nail: a malformation of the nails in which the outer surface is concave or scooped out like the bowl of a spoon
hollow or concave
fingernail or toenail
onychia (=)
=onychitis: an inflammation of the matrix of the nail
ingrown toenail
a fungal infection of the nail
nail biting or nail eating
an acute or chronic infection of the skin fold around a nail
an inherited deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and irises due to a missing enzyme necessary for the production of melanin
chloasma (=)
=melasma or the mask of pregnancy: a pigmentation disorder char'd by brownish spots on the face
any condition of unusual deposits of black pigment in different parts of the body
believed to be an autoimmune disorder, is char'd by a loss of melanin resulting in whitish areas of skin, usually on the face and hands.
contusion (=)
=bruise: an injury that does not break the skin and is char'd by discoloration and pain
small pinpoint hemorrhages that are less than 2 mm in diameter
a condition that causes spontaneous bruises that are 2 mm to 10 mm in diameter, as well as hemorrhages in the internal organs and other tissues
pouring out of juice
an irregular area of purplish discoloration that is larger than 10 mm in diameter
a swelling of clotted blood trapped in the tissues that is usually caused by an injury
a pathologic change of the tissues due to disease or injury
crust (=)
=scab: a collection of dried serum and cellular debris
macule (=)
macula: a discolored, flat spot that is less than 1 cm in diameter (ex: freckles or flat moles)
a small, raised red lesion that is less than 0.5 cm in diameter; does not contain pus (ex: small pimples or insect bites)
a solid raised skin lesion that is larger than 0.5 cm in diameter and deeper than a papule
a scaly, solid raised area of closely spaced papules
flakes or dry patches made up of excess dead epidermal cells
verrucae (=)
=warts: small, hard skin lesions caused by the human papilloma virus
wheal (=)
=welt: a small bump that itches
a closed pocket containing pus that is caused by a purulent bacterial infection
producing or containing pus
a deep closed sac just under the skin containing soft or semisolid material
pustule (=)
=pimple: a small, circumscribed lesion containing pus
a small blister, less than 0.5 cm in diameter, containing watery fluid
a large blister that is usually more than 0.5 cm in diameter
an injury in which superficial layers of skin are scraped or rubbed away
a groove or crack-like sore
a jagged wound or an accidental cut
puncture wound
a deep hole made by a sharp object such as a nail
an open lesion of the skin or mucous membrane resulting in tissue loss around the edges
decubitus ulcer (=)
pressure ulcer or bedsore: an ulcerated area in which prolonged pressure causes tissue death
port-wine stain
a large, reddish purple discoloration of the face or neck; will not resolve without treatment
strawberry hemangioma
a soft raised dark, reddish purple birthmark; is a benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels; usually resolve, without treatment, by about age 5
blood vessels
pruritus (=)
=itching; is associated with most forms of dermatitis
a form of dermatitis that is usually associated with severe itching
contact dermatitis
a localized allergic response caused by contact with an irritant or allergen
any redness of the skin due to dilated capillaries, including a nervous blush, inflammation, or sunburn
erythroderma (=)
=exfoliative dermatitis: a condition in which there is widespread erythema accompanied by scaling of the skin
any acute, inflammatory, pus-forming bacterial skin infection
a general term used to denote skin lesions or eruptions of any type that are not associated with inflammation
dry or scaly
a group of hereditary disorders that are char'd by dry, thickened, and scaly skin
lupus erythematosus (=)
=systemic lupus erythematosus: an autoimmune disorder that is char'd by a red, scaly rash on the face and upper trunk.
a chronic swelling caused by the collection of fat and fluid under the skin
lip =?
a common skin disorder char'd by flare-ups in which red papules covered with silvery scales occur on the elbows, knees, scalp, back, or buttocks
a chronic condition of unknown cause that produces redness, tiny pimples, and broken blood vessels; usually occurs on the central area of the face and appears most often in people over 30
rhinophyma (=)
=bulbous nose: is hyperplasia (overgrowth) of the tissues of the nose and is associated with advanced rosacea, but usually only in older men
an autoimmune disorder in which the connective tissues become thickened and hardened, causing the skin to become hard and swollen
urticaria (=)
=hives: are wheals caused by an allergic reaction
connected with
xeroderma (=)
=xerosis: excessively dry skin
furuncles (=)
=boils: large tender, swollen, areas caused by a staphylococcal infection around hair follicles or sebaceous glands
a cluster of connected furuncles (boils)
an acute, rapidly spreading infection within the connective tissue that is char'd by malaise, swelling, warmth, and red streaks
tissue necrosis (death) that is most commonly caused by a loss of circulation to the affected tissues; this is followed by bacterial invasion that causes putrefaction (if this infection enters the bloodstream it can be fatal)
decay that produces foul-smelling odors
a highly contagious bacterial skin infection char'd by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
necrotizing fasciitis (=)
=flesh-eating bacteria: caused by Group A strep
tinea (=)
=ringworm: a fungal infection that can grow on the skin, hair, or nails
pityriasis versicolor (=)
=tinea versicolor: a fungal infection that causes painless, discolored areas on the skin
branlike, referring to bran-like scales
the dwelling of microscopic parasites on external surface tissue
a skin infection caused by an infestation with the itch mite that produces distinctive brown lines and an itchy rash
an infestation with lice
a thickening of part of the skin on the hands or feet caused by repeated rubbing
a normal scar resulting from the healing of a wound
granulation tissue
the tissue that normally forms during the healing of a wound; it is this tissue that becomes the scar tissue
a general term used to describe small knotlike swellings of granulation tissue in the epidermis; may result from inflammation, injury, or infection
growth or tumor
an abnormally raised or thickened scar that expands beyond the boundaries of the incision
hard or horny
any skin growth, such as warts or a callus, in which there is overgrowth and thickening of the skin
a benign fatty deposit under the skin that causes a bump
nevi (=)
=moles: small dark skin growths that develop from melanocytes in the skin; normally they are benign
dysplastic nevi
atypical moles that may develop into skin cancer
a benign, superficial wartlike growth on the epithelial tissue or elsewhere in the body, such as in the bladder
a general term used most commonly to describe a mushroom-like growth from the surface of a mucous memebrane
skin tags
small flesh-colored or light brown polyps that hang from the body by fine stalks
basal cell carcinoma
the most frequent and least harmful type of skin cancer, is a malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis; occurs mainly on the face and neck, is slow growing and rarely spreads; lesions are pink, smooth, raised w/ a depression in the center, tend to bleed easily
squamous cell carcinoma
begins as a malignant tumor of the thin, scaly squamous cells of the epithelium; can quickly spread to other body systems; lesions appear to be sores that will not heal or sores w/ crusted, heaped-up look
malignant melanoma (=)
=melanoma: a type of skin cancer that occurs in the melanocytes; 1st sign is a change in the size, shape, or color of a mole and may spread to other parts of body
actinic keratosis
a skin lesion caused by excessive exposure to the sun; are rough, red or brown scaly patches on the skin that may be precancerous
an injury to body tissues caused by heat, flame, electricity, sun, chemicals, or radiation
first-degree burn
superficial burns, sunburn: no blisters, superficial damage to the epidermis
second-degree burn
parital thickness burns: blisters, damage to the epidermis and the second layer (dermis)
third-degree burn
full thickness burns: damage to the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers and possibly also the muscle below
the removal of a small piece of living tissue for examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis
exfoliative cytology
a technique in which cells are scraped from the tissue and examined under a microscope
pertains to a specific location
applied to unbroken skin so that it is absorbed continuously to produce a systemic effect
the destruction of tissue by burning
the removal of material from the surface by scraping; this technique is used to remove and destroy basal cell tumors
chemical peel (=)
=chemabrasion: the use of chemicals to remove the outer layers of skin to treat acne scaring, fine wrinking, and general keratoses
the destruction or elimination of abnormal tissue cells thru the application of extreme cold (often by using liquid nitrogen)
the removal of dirt, foreign objects, damaged tissue, and cellular debris from a wound to prevent infection and to promote healing
a form of abrasion involving the use of a revolving wire brush or sandpaper; used to remove acne and chickenpox scars, etc.
incision and drainage (abbrev. & =)
I & D: involves incision (cutting open) of a lesion and draining the contents
Mohs' surgery
a technique of excising skin tumors by removing tumor tissue, layer-by-layer, examining the removed portion microscopically for malignant cells, and repeating the procedure until the entire tumor is removed
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
rhinophyma (treated by...?)
using a laser to reshape the nose by vaporizing the excess tissue
port-wine stain (treated by...?)
using short pulses of laser light to remove the birthmark
blepharoplasty (=)
=lid lift: the surgical reduction of the upper and lower eyelids by removing excess fat, skin, and muscle
a formulation of botulinum toxin type A.
collagen replacement therapy
a form of soft-tissue augmentation used to soften facial lines or scars or to make lips appear fuller
dermatoplasty (=)
=skin graft: the replacement of damaged skin with healthy tissue taken from a donor site on the patient's body
the use of an electric current to destroy hair follicles; it produces relatively permanent removal of undesired hair
the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin
liposuction (=)
=suction-assisted lipectomy: the surgical removal of fat beneath the skin with the aid of suction
rhytidectomy (=)
=facelift: the surgical removal of excess skin and fat for the elimination of wrinkles
used in treatment of spider veins; involves injecting a sclerosing solution (saline solution) into the vein being treated, this solution irritates the tissue, causing the veins to collapse and disappear
cryo (abbreviation for...?)
debr (abbrev. for...?)
I & D
incision and drainage
sun protection factor
systemic lupus erythematosus