• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/88

Click to flip

88 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Home Rule
local self-government
Coalition
alliances of various parties
Rotten Boroughs
population shifts that caused few or no votes
Chartism
petition that demanded universal male suffrage, a secret ballot, annual parliamentary elections, and salaries for Parliament members
Victoria
queen with longest reign in British history
Benjamin Disareli
forged the old Tory party into the modern Conservative party
William Gladstone
led the Whigs, a liberal party
Corn Laws
imposed high tariffs on imported grains
Fabian Society
social organization that promoted gradual change through legal means instead of violence
Emmeline Pankhurst
leading suffragist convinced that only aggressive tactics would bring victory
Catholic Emancipation Act
allows Irish Catholics to vote and hold political office
Great Hunger
terrible famine
Charles Stewart Parnell
rallied Irish members of Parliament to press for home rule
Paris Commune
goal was to save Republic from royalist control
Georges Boulanger
rallied royalists and ultranationalists eager for revenge on Germany
Alfred Dreyfus
Jew who was convicted of spying, exiled, and later reinstated
Theodor Herzl
Hungarian Jewish journalist living in France
Jeanne-Elizabeth Schmahl
founded the French Union for women's suffrage
Zionism
movement devoted to rebuilding a Jewish state in Palestine
Reform Bill of 1832
gave representation to large town and dominated rotten boroughs; gave greater political voice to men in middle class
3 reforms that were imposed that helped workers:
reforms to improve public health and housing for workers, higer wages, shorter hour,no child labor
3 social reforms:
free elementary school education, jobs given based on skill not name, laws of insurance
Where did Zionism start?
Switzerland
How did France separate church and the state?
monasteries, convents, church schools were closed, stopped paying salaries for clergy
Anti-semitism
being intolerant for outsiders and violent hatred towards Jews
Boulanger Scandal
Boulanger was accused of plotting to overthrow the Republic. He fled, later committing suicide.
What was the difference between the French Government and the British Government?
French government had many parties, Britain only had two main ones
Communards
rebelled, set up Paris commune, wanted to save Republic from royalist control
What were problems in Ireland?
Harsh tax laws, no home rule, religious problems
Anarchist
person who wants to abolish all government
Zemstvo
elected assemblies who were made responsible for road repairs, agriculture, and schools
Pogrom
gangs that persecuted Jews by killing and looting them
Refugee
people who flee their homeland to seek safety elsewhere
Zollervein
economic union among the German states led by Prussia
Realpolitik
real politics, based on thorough-minded evaluation of the needs of the state
Schleswig and Holstein
two provinces within Denmark that an allied Austria and Prussia conquered and liberated
Austro-Prussian War
seven week war with Austria which ended in a decisive Prussian victory and added territory to Prussia
William I
first Kaiser of the Second Reich
Second Reich
German empire formed by Otto von Bismarck
Kulturkampf
battle for civilization, struggle between Catholic Church and Bismarck's government for the loyalty of the German people
Zemstvo
elected assemblies who were made responsible for road repairs, agriculture, and schools
Pogrom
gangs that persecuted Jews by killing and looting them
Refugee
people who flee their homeland to seek safety elsewhere
Zollervein
economic union among the German states led by Prussia
Realpolitik
real politics, based on thorough-minded evaluation of the needs of the state
Schleswig and Holstein
two provinces within Denmark that an allied Austria and Prussia conquered and liberated
Austro-Prussian War
seven week war with Austria which ended in a decisive Prussian victory and added territory to Prussia
William I
first Kaiser of the Second Reich
Second Reich
German empire formed by Otto von Bismarck
Kulturkampf
battle for civilization, struggle between Catholic Church and Bismarck's government for the loyalty of the German people
Giuseppe Mazzini
nationalist that founded secret society called "Young Italy"
Risorgimento
Italian nationalist movement led by King Victor Emmanuel II
Victor Emmanuel II
constitutional monarch of Kingdom of Sicily who hoped to unite Italy
Camillo Cavour
prime minister appointed by Victor Emmanuel who used the philosophy of realpolitik to unite Italy
Giusseppe Garibaldi
long life nationalist who was an ally of Mazzini and united the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and other southern Italian provinces
Francis Joseph
eighteen year old who inherited the throne to Hapsburg empire, Emperor of the Dual Monarchy of Austria - Hungary
Decembrist Revolt
revolt of Russian military officers who wanted liberal reforms in Russia, put down violently
Crimean War
war in which Russia invaded the Ottoman Island of Danube which they were repelled by the Britain and other European powers
Alexander II
eventually issued a royal decree to free serfs
People's Will
terrorist group who assassinated government officials and plotted to kill the Czar
Russification
the glorification and empowerment of ethnic "Russian" culture over other ethnic minorities in the Russian Empire
Serge Witte
appointed the Czar's financial minister whose main goal was to bring economic reforms to Russia
Bloody Sunday
Russia soldiers, under orders from Czar, opened fire on a religious demonstration
October Manifesto
new social reforms instituted by Czar Nicolas II who gave the people more rights, but almost immeditely revoked them
Peter Stolypin
appointed prime minister, used strategic arrests, pogroms and executions to restore order
How did Prussia take lead in unification of Germany?
introduced economic reforms on tariff barriers so that German states paid no tax when trading with one another
What were three wars that Prussia fought to unify Germany?
Schelswig and Holstein, Austro-Prussian War, and Franco-Prussian War
Who fought in the war of Schelswig and Holstein?
Prussia vs. Denmark
Who fought in Austro-Prussian War?
Prussia vs. Austria
What lands did Prussia gain in Austro-Prussian War?
many Northern German states
Who fought in Franco-Prussian war?
Prussia vs. France
What lands did Prussia gain from the Franco-Prussian War?
much of present-day Southern Germany
What kind of government was the German Empire?
constitutional monarchy
Why did Germany's economy grow so quickly?
large supply of coal ad irom, capable of building weaponry and railroads
Why was Bismarck so against Church influence in the lives of the Germans?
He wanted a large population of Catholics to be more loyal to state than church
What obstacles to unify did Italy face?
divided by regional governments
Why did Mazzini feel that Italy was to be unified?
cultural, religious, geographic, and language similarities
How was Garibaldi a threat to Cavour?
Cavour feared he would establish a Southern Italian Kingdom
Why was there political turmoil in the newly united Italy?
complicated constitutional monarch
Why was Russia considered to be a "backwards country"?
its economy wasn't strong and successful lke those of their European neighbors and still had feudal serfdom
What were the three ideals that Czar Nicholas believed in?
orthodoxy, autocracy, nationalism
Orthodoxy
strong ties between church and government
Autocracy
absolute power of the state
Nationalism
respect for Russian traditions and suppression of non-Russian groups within the empire
How did Czars crack down on liberal ideas of the people?
censored newspapers and writing, arrested people and sent them to Siberia
What reform did Alexander II institute in Russia?
Eased censorship, tried to reform military by reducing length of term by 10 years
What steps did Russia take to industrialize in late 1800's?
encouraged railroad building to improve trade
What was the cause of the Revolution of 1905?
Bloody Sunday