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26 Cards in this Set

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Act of Toleration
Act passed in Maryland in 1649 granting freedom of worship to all Christians.
Anne Hutchinson
Colonist in Massachusetts Bay who questioned whether one could achieve salvation solely by good works. She led the Antinomian controversy by challenging the clergy and laws of the colony. She was banished in 1638.
Anglican Church
Church of England started by King Henry VIII in 1533. Monarchy was head of church. Strongest in southern colonies.
Bacon's Rebellion
Attack by frontiersmen led by Nathaniel Bacon against the NAtive Americans in the Virginia backcountry. When the governor opposed Bacon's actions, Bacon attacked Jamestown, burning it and deposed of the governor.
Board of Trade and Plantations
Chief body in England for governing the colonies. The board gathered information, reviewed appointments in America, and advised the monarch.
Congregationalists (Puritans)
Believed in predestination and held that God was watchful and granted salvation only to those who adhered to His goodness. Strong in New England. Opposed the Anglican church.
Dominion of New England
An attempt to streamline colonial rule by combining all of the New England colonies under the control of one governor in 1688. It was dissolved after the Glorious Revolution.
Edmund Andros
An autocratic and unpopular governor of the Dominion of New England.
First Great Awakening
A religious revival in the colonies in 1730s and 1740s. Goerge Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards preached atonement for sins by admitting them to God. The movement combatted secularism and rationalism.
Halfway Covenant
Puritan leaders allowed children of members to be baptized, but they couln't take communion or vote. This was to fight the receding church membership.
Headright system
A means of attracting settlers to colonial America by offering land to each family head.
House of Burgesses
The first popularly-elected legislative assembly in America. It met in Jamestown in 1619.
Indentured servants
The mainstay of labor in many colonies, especially in the Chesapeake regions. Servants had their passage to America paid for in return for a certain number of years of unpaid labor.
Jonathan Edwards
Congregational minister of the 1740s who was a leading voice in the Great Awakening. He attacked the ideas of easy salvation and reminded the colonists of the absolute sovereignty of God.
John Smith
Saved Jamestown through firm leadership in 1607-08. He imposed work and order in the settlement.
John Winthrop
Leader of the PUritans who settled in Massachusetts Bay in the 1630s. He called for PUritans to create a "City upon a hill" and guided the colony through many crises, including the banishments of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson.
Mayflower Compact
Written agreement in 1620 to create a political body among the male settlers in Plymouth.
Mercantilism
Economic doctrine that called for the mother country to dominate and regulate its colonies. It fixed trade patters, maintained high tariffs, and discouraged manufacturing in the colonies.
Navigation Acts
A series of English laws to enforce the mercantile system. The laws established control over colonial trade, excluded all but British ships in commerce, and enumerated goods that had to be shipped to England or to other English colonies.
Roger Williams
Puritan who challenged the church to separate itself from the government and give recognition to to Native Americans. He was banished in 1635 and founded Rhode Island.
Salem Witchhunt
A period of hysteria in 1692 when a group of teenaged girls accused neighbors of bewitching them. In ten months, nineteen people were executed and hundred imprisoned.
Salutary neglect
Policy that British followed from 1607 to 1763 in which they interfered very little with the bolonies. Through this lack of control, the colonies thrived and prospered. It was an attempt to end this policy that helped create the friction that led to the American Revolution.
Society of Friends (Quakers)
Church founded by George Fox which believed in direct, individualistic experience with God. the church was strongly opposed tot he Anglican Church and the Congregationalist Church. In 1681, William Penn founded Pennsylvania as a haven for the Quakers.
Stono Rebellion
Slave rebellion in South Carolina in September 1739. 20-80 slaves burned 7 plantations, killed 20 whites, and tried to escape to Florida. The slaves were killed and decapitated and their heads were put on display as a deterrent to future uprisings.
Theocracy
Government organized and administered by the church.

Ex: Massachusetts Bay Colony -- only church members could vote.
William Penn
Quaker founder of Pennsylvania. He intended it to be a Quaker haven, but all religions were tolerated. The colony had very good relations with Native Americans at first.