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### 35 Cards in this Set

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 What is a Case-control study? compares a group w/ a disease to a group w/o to yield an odds ratio. What is a co-hort study? compares a group w/ a risk factor to a group w/o to yield a relative risk. What is a cross-sectional study? data taken from a group of people to assess the frequency of a disease/related risk factors at a given time. measures prevalence. What is a meta-analysis? pools data from a lot of studies; limitations include quality of studies studied & publication bias. What is prevalence? total cases in pop at a given time/ toltal pop at risk What is incidence? new cases in pop in given time period/ total pop at risk at that time What is sensitivity? percent of people w/ a disease that test +; high value SNOUT= SeNsitivity Rules OuT. What is specificity? percent of people w/o a disease that test -; high value SPIN= Specificity rules IN. What is a positive predictive value? probability that the person testing + actually has the disease; PPV= a/a+b What is a negative predictive value? probability that the person testing - truely doesn't have the disease. NPV= d/d+c What is an odds ratio? calculated in case control studies; odds of having a disease in the exposed group vs the unexposed group; a/b/c/d What is relative risk? calculated for cohort studies; probability of getting a disease in the exposed group vs the unexposed group; a/a+b/c/c+d What is attributable risk? difference in risk b/w exposed & unexposed groups; a/a+b - c/c+d What is precision vs accuracy? precision is consistency & reproducibility ( reliability) of a test while accuracy is the trueness of the test measurments (validity. What is meant by a positively skewed curve? asymmetry w/tail on the right; mean> median> mode. What is meant by a negatively skewed curve? asymmetry w/tail on the left; mode> median> mean. What is a type I error? saying that there is a relationship when there's not; false rejection of Null hypothesis. alpha level < .05 for most studies must not exceed 5%. What is type II error? saying that there is not a relationship when there is one; false rejection of alternative hypothesis (H1). beta is the probability of this error occuring in a study. What is power? power is the probability that your hypothesis (Null or H1) is true. power= 1-beta (type II error) What is a t-test? difference in means of 2 groups. What is ANOVA? difference in means of 3 or more groups. What is a chi-square test? compares proportions (not means) of 2 or more groups. What is an APGAR score? score is indicative of level of "liveliness". 0-10 score based on appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, & respiration; taken at 1 min & 5 min. What is a normal BMI? 18.5- 24.9kg How often does REM sleep occur? q90min. What is positive reinforcement? when a desired reward increases beh; operant conditioning. What is negative reinforcement? when an undesired stimulus is removed in order to increase a beh; operant conditioning. When does Babinski reflex disappear? 12-14m. When do kids start walking? 15m. When do kids tiolet train? 30-36m. What are beta waves? eyes open, awake waves; highest freq/ lowest amplitude. alpha waves are awakes w/eyes shut. What are theta waves? light sleep; approx 5% of sleep time. Where is most time spent during sleep? 45% of sleep is in stage 2 sleep w/ spindles/ K complexes. Where does the deepest non-REM sleep occur? stage 3-4 (approx 25% of sleep time); delta waves; night terrors, bed-wetting, sleep walking. this is slow wave sleep (as opposed to wakefulness). How much sleep time is REM? approx 25%.