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35 Cards in this Set

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What is a Case-control study?
compares a group w/ a disease to a group w/o to yield an odds ratio.
What is a co-hort study?
compares a group w/ a risk factor to a group w/o to yield a relative risk.
What is a cross-sectional study?
data taken from a group of people to assess the frequency of a disease/related risk factors at a given time. measures prevalence.
What is a meta-analysis?
pools data from a lot of studies; limitations include quality of studies studied & publication bias.
What is prevalence?
total cases in pop at a given time/ toltal pop at risk
What is incidence?
new cases in pop in given time period/ total pop at risk at that time
What is sensitivity?
percent of people w/ a disease that test +; high value SNOUT= SeNsitivity Rules OuT.
What is specificity?
percent of people w/o a disease that test -; high value SPIN= Specificity rules IN.
What is a positive predictive value?
probability that the person testing + actually has the disease; PPV= a/a+b
What is a negative predictive value?
probability that the person testing - truely doesn't have the disease. NPV= d/d+c
What is an odds ratio?
calculated in case control studies; odds of having a disease in the exposed group vs the unexposed group; a/b/c/d
What is relative risk?
calculated for cohort studies; probability of getting a disease in the exposed group vs the unexposed group; a/a+b/c/c+d
What is attributable risk?
difference in risk b/w exposed & unexposed groups; a/a+b - c/c+d
What is precision vs accuracy?
precision is consistency & reproducibility ( reliability) of a test while accuracy is the trueness of the test measurments (validity.
What is meant by a positively skewed curve?
asymmetry w/tail on the right; mean> median> mode.
What is meant by a negatively skewed curve?
asymmetry w/tail on the left; mode> median> mean.
What is a type I error?
saying that there is a relationship when there's not; false rejection of Null hypothesis. alpha level < .05 for most studies must not exceed 5%.
What is type II error?
saying that there is not a relationship when there is one; false rejection of alternative hypothesis (H1). beta is the probability of this error occuring in a study.
What is power?
power is the probability that your hypothesis (Null or H1) is true. power= 1-beta (type II error)
What is a t-test?
difference in means of 2 groups.
What is ANOVA?
difference in means of 3 or more groups.
What is a chi-square test?
compares proportions (not means) of 2 or more groups.
What is an APGAR score?
score is indicative of level of "liveliness". 0-10 score based on appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, & respiration; taken at 1 min & 5 min.
What is a normal BMI?
18.5- 24.9kg
How often does REM sleep occur?
q90min.
What is positive reinforcement?
when a desired reward increases beh; operant conditioning.
What is negative reinforcement?
when an undesired stimulus is removed in order to increase a beh; operant conditioning.
When does Babinski reflex disappear?
12-14m.
When do kids start walking?
15m.
When do kids tiolet train?
30-36m.
What are beta waves?
eyes open, awake waves; highest freq/ lowest amplitude. alpha waves are awakes w/eyes shut.
What are theta waves?
light sleep; approx 5% of sleep time.
Where is most time spent during sleep?
45% of sleep is in stage 2 sleep w/ spindles/ K complexes.
Where does the deepest non-REM sleep occur?
stage 3-4 (approx 25% of sleep time); delta waves; night terrors, bed-wetting, sleep walking. this is slow wave sleep (as opposed to wakefulness).
How much sleep time is REM?
approx 25%.