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30 Cards in this Set

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Gray Zone
-invented by Primo levi in an essay
-zone where presecution nd victimhood diverge and converge (ie vichy government)
-Jewish councils
-ukranian and balkan mercenaries
-sonder commandoes
-does not equate evil with black
-gray=ambiguous persons read to compromise
-greater the oppression, more likely that people are to compromise their morals
-convoluted web
-doesn't want to condemn people, but wants to set things straight
-naive to think that national socialism protects its citizens
-dehumanizing
-takes away moral armor
Stella Goldschlag
-Jewish Marilyn Monroe
-1922=beautiful
-hated being jewish(hard childhood)
-worked as a Jewcatcher for the gestapo
-at first hid
-then arrested
-threated with deportation, resisted
-beaten, tortured
-gave in when her parents were threatened to be sent away to auschwitz
-parents sent anyways
-still jew catcher
-uboat
-tracked down former friends
-caught 62 jews in one weekend
Judenrat (Jewish councils)
-ultimately provided lists for auschwitz
-at first were the liason between Jewish communities and gestapo
-one in every ghetto
-severly criticized
-darkest chapter of holocaust
-w/o jewish help, either complete chaos
Gray Zone
-invented by Primo levi in an essay
-zone where presecution nd victimhood diverge and converge (ie vichy government)
-Jewish councils
-ukranian and balkan mercenaries
-sonder commandoes
-does not equate evil with black
-gray=ambiguous persons read to compromise
-greater the oppression, more likely that people are to compromise their morals
-convoluted web
-doesn't want to condemn people, but wants to set things straight
-naive to think that national socialism protects its citizens
-dehumanizing
-takes away moral armor
Stella Goldschlag
-Jewish Marilyn Monroe
-1922=beautiful
-hated being jewish(hard childhood)
-worked as a Jewcatcher for the gestapo
-at first hid
-then arrested
-threated with deportation, resisted
-beaten, tortured
-gave in when her parents were threatened to be sent away to auschwitz
-parents sent anyways
-still jew catcher
-uboat
-tracked down former friends
-caught 62 jews in one weekend
Judenrat (Jewish councils)
-ultimately provided lists for auschwitz
-at first were the liason between Jewish communities
and gestapo
-one in every ghetto
-severly criticized
-darkest chapter of holocaust
-w/o jewish help, either complete chaos,or drain on German manpower
-no way to deal with contradiction in Nazism
-one hand, Jews economically useful, second, Hitler's racial program
-their choices limited
-agreed to sacrifice some to save others
-did it with good intentions
-did not profit from collaborations (usually were sent themselves)
-discouraged organized resistance
-what works best is to appease the enemy
-Jewish participation/non=no significant effect on the holocaust
Chaim Bumkowski
-Leader of a Jewish council in Lichtmenstat for 4 years
-60 year old industrialist
-childless widower
-saw himself as enlightened monarch
-traveled in carriage around ghetto
-believed in rescue through labor
-felt he could reason with Nazis
-best idea to keep Jews alive
-ghetto=gold mine of workers
-helped war efforts
-work provides publicity for ghetto and enhances confidence in it
-assembled lists
-"give me the children"
-most infamous Jewish council elder
"rescue through labor"
-Chaim Bumkowski's idea that he could save the Jewish people by emphasizing their worker qualities
-felt the nazis could be reasoned with
-if the Germans used the Jews for labor, they might be saved
-the ghetto was a gold mine of workers
-indeed, Jews made up an extremely large portion of te Nazi's war labor
-the work would provide publicity for the ghetto and confidence in it
Rosenstrasse Protest
-resistance of the heart
-christian wives
-husbands didn't come home from factories one day
-wives went to the rosenstrasse building and chanted that they wanted their husbands back
-the men were released
-shows what popular resistance could achieve in totalitarian Germany
-Nazis didn't want to risk ire of public
-easier to appease women, not threatening
-Nazis sensitive to public opinion
Bielski Otriad
-partisan land
-3 peasant brothers=Jews
-decided to rescue Jews
-vowed the wouldn't go to the ghetto
-first participated in military actions against Germany
-over 3000 bands
-eventually main focus not on Nazis, but on saving Jews
-traveled the roads looking for fugitives
-operated from a forest
-saved 1200 Jews
-survived=high survival rate
-almost everyone saved
Sobibor Escape
-largest outbreak of inmates from a concentration camp
-sobibor=concentration camp in 1922
-3 gas chambers
-ukranian guards
-kept jews to do work
-14 Oct 1943
-revolt began with the murder of 10 guards
-mass of fugitives broke through fence and ran into forest
-300 escaped
-many shot in forests
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
was the Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German occupied Poland during World War II
-opposed Nazi Germany's effort to transport the remaining ghetto population to the Treblinka extermination camp.

-The insurgency was launched against the Germans on January 18, 1943
-The most significant portion of the rebellion took place from April 19 until May 16, 1943
-ended when the poorly armed and supplied resistance was crushed by the German troops under the direct command of Jürgen Stroop
-It was the largest single revolt by the Jews during the Holocaust
Auschwitz I, II, III
-6 death camps (Auschwitz was one)
-Vanzch conference 1942
-final solution =exterminate 11 mil Jews (industrialized annhilation)
-final solution exlusively with Jews
-camp system under hitler
-personnel of T4 program instrumental in process
-efficiency was primary concern
-gas chambers easier on conscience of SS
-"liquidated"
-Zyklon B used, not CO
-2000 people accomodated in the gas chamber @ Auschwitz whereas treblinka accomodated 200
-small polish town
-swampy soil, unhealthy climate, close to railway system-40 subcamps
-3 components
I. Main Camp=stanmlager
II. Birkenau="place of birches"-Oct 1941=creamatoria/ovens/womens camp
III. Monowitz=Buna=synthetic rubber plant
-camp with polish prisoners at first
-Rudolf herst told to expand auschwitz, final solution implemented
-work camp and death camp
-work: coal mines, metal, chem plants, large german companies
-28/40 work for german armament-rest foor forestry
-destruction through labor
-victims killed 3 to 15 min
-upwards of 9000 people died in one day
Sonderbehandlung
-"special treatment"
-wartime Nazi documents the word nearly always is a euphemism for liquidation - what the CIA used to call "terminating with extreme prejudice". There are a few instances where, even when used by Heinrich Himmler, this is demonstrably not so.
-no specific word you can link back to hitler
-however hitler know what he was doing
Zyklon B
-the gas used in the gas chambers instead of CO
- cyanide-based pesticide infamous for its use by Nazi Germany against human beings in gas chambers of extermination camps during the Holocaust.
-when exposed to air, the material released gaseous hydrogen cyanide (HCN).
Sonderkommando
-man heard a lot of screams for 15 min
-work units of Nazi death camp prisoners who aided with the killing process during The Holocaust
-means "special unit" and was part of the vague and euphemistic language which the Nazis used to refer to aspects of the Final Solution
-Their primary responsibility was disposing of the corpses. They were forced into the position, and accepted it because it meant a few more days or weeks of life, as well as moderately less disastrous living conditions.
Angel of Death/good uncle
-Dr. Josef Mengele
-enjoyed work
-interested in twins
-experimented with 350 sets of twins
-had his own kindergarten in barracks 29 and 30
-took kids toys and chocolates
-well liked by children
-experiment: two 4 year old boys sewed together by veins, wanted to create siamese twins
-some of ausch research used today and organs preserved
IG Faeben (buna)
-a German chemical industry conglomerate.
-Its name is taken from Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG (lit. Community of interest of the dye industry).
-The company was formed in 1925 from a number of major companies that had been working together closely since World War I.
-During its heyday IG Farben was the fourth-largest company in the world, after General Motors, US Steel and Standard Oil.
-IG Farben built a factory (named Buna Chemical Plant) for producing synthetic oil and rubber (from coal) in Auschwitz, which was the beginning of SS activity and camps in this location during the Holocaust.
-At its peak in 1944, this factory made use of 83,000 slave laborers
- The pesticide Zyklon B, for which IG Farben held the patent, was manufactured by Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), which IG Farben owned 42.2 percent of (in shares) and which had IG Farben managers in its Managing Committee.
There is no why here
-comes from the work: if this is man -italian
-primo levi
-dehumanization of man
-idea of man dies, condemn it into memory
-ideal of man and dignitiy taken away
-24 years old-captured bc part of italian resistance
-worked in Buna-not a single pound of rubber ever produced
-connection between German industries and camps
-divided people into two camps
-save oneself by working alive
-all about luck
Pius XII
-pope largely silent, knew what was happening
-not hitler's pope
-wanted to maintain vatican's neutrality to play peacemaker
-afraid of communism, nazism better alternative
-if he had spoken up to catholics, more jews would have been saved
-worried about bombing of Rome and loss of treasures
Raoul Wallenberg
-Swedish businessman, not a jew
-worked in Swedish legation in Hungary
-enjoyed diplomatic immunity
-situation of hungarian jews=bad
-440000 deported to Auschwitz
-Jews of budapest remained
-came up with idea of protective passports
-carrier of passport under protection
-created a department to give them out
-organized checkpoints at borders and demanded the return of jews
-his jews were put in houses protected by 3 neutral powers=sweden, switzerland, and the vatican
-saved the lives of 20000 Jews
-disappeared
Irena Sendler
-born near warsaw
-righteous gentile
-daughter of polish socialist doctor who treated many jews
-convinced of normalcy of interacting with Jews
-Senior administrator in warsaw's social welfare department
-altruistic
-organized polish canteens
-issued clothing, food, and fictitious papers to Jews
-zegota=council for aid of Jews in poland, nominated her to head up children's section
-visited warsaw daily
-as a sign of solidarity, wore an armband anytime she went through warsaw
-saw bad conditions of the ghetto
-started saving children
-tried to convince families to give up children, smuggled kids out of the ghetto
-placed kids with false names in foster families
-saved 2500 children
-preserved original names in jars in her neighbor's backyard
-arrested and tortured by gestapo
Sophie Scholl (White Rose)
-white rose was a group of students
-cultural resistance
-student resistance group at Munich University in 1942
-4 students and 1 professor
-grew up in devout family
-joined league of german girls (hitler youth)
-enjoyed it, first supported nazism
-was going to be a kindergarten teacher, enrolled as a bio/philosophy student and joined the white rose due to her brother, Hans
-tried to subvert Nazism through anti-Nazi pamphlets
-tried to alert people of the injustice of the regime
-tried to overthrow regime from within
-arrested and beheaded
Operation Valkyrie
-best known act of resistance
-from beginning, resistance in Veirmacht to Hitler, bc they didn't believe he was qualified
-at first this opposition was silent
-in 1941, new officers came in
-Count Claus von Stauffenberg
-one of the first people who realized Germany could only be saved if hitler was removed
-was able to involve Rommel of Africa and Von Stulpnagel of France
-opportunity to act
-stauffenberg promoted, could participate in briefing at fuhrer's headquarters
-smuggled a bomb into headquarters on july 20th
-hitler was there
-force of bomb dissipated and hitler was shielded by an oak table
-conspirators didn't know hitler didn't die, waited too long and were shot by gestapo
-5000 people killed immediately afterwards
-motives were little to do with Jews
-to preserve Germany from total disaster
-conservative nationalists
-moral imperative: "everything else indifference"
-must happen
-germany not totally morally impure
The Lucifer Effect
-coined by Philip Zimbardo
-explanation for why nazis did what they did
-raises a fundamental question about the nature of human nature: How is it possible for ordinary, average, even good people to become perpetrators of evil? In trying to understand unusual, or aberrant behavior, we often err in focusing exclusively on the inner determinants of genes, personality, and character, as we also tend to ignore what may be the critical catalyst for behavior change in the external Situation or in the System that creates and maintains such situations.
Police Battalion 101
-Reserve Police Battalion 101 was a unit of the German Order Police [Ordnungspolizei or Orpo] that during the Nazi occupation of Poland played a central role in the implementation of the Final Solution against the Jewish people and the repression of the Polish population. Members of the battalion participated in the round-up and expulsion of Jews, Poles and Gypsies, the guarding and liquidation of ghettos, the deportation to concentration camps and the mass shooting of tens of thousands of civilians.
-In the first place, the actions taken or refused by individual members of the battalion varied greatly. This variation indicates that even under circumstances designed to smother conformity and produce a group of cold-blooded murderers who obey every order given, there were still individuals who refused to carry out such murderous orders directly or indirectly.

Therefore, there is an assumption in the question, or "notion," which is not supported by the facts--everyone in the battalion did not behave as cold-blooded murderers, and therefore it cannot be argued that "anyone" would behave as the worst and most murderous of the members of the battalion behaved.
Heinz Buchmann
-Goldhagen cites an example of a noteworthy refusal to kill by one of the battalion’s officers. Beginning with the killings at Jozefow, Lieutenant Heinz Buchmann avoided being directly involved in the killings and managed to get himself assigned to other duties. He led an escort as the so-called “able bodied” to a work camp near Lublin. His commanding officer, in future massacres, gave orders to the Lieutenant’s subordinates to do the killing. There appears to have been acceptance for choosing not to kill. Other soldiers saw this example of an officer not being ostracized or outcast socially, yet most chose not to follow this example.
-supposed to shoot women, children, and elderly
-refused
Trawnikis
-SS labour camp which sent labour to a nearby industrial plant. The Trawniki camp was commanded by Hauptsturmführer Theodor von Eupen.
-Deployment in the operations of the "Final Solution" became a key function of the Trawniki-trained guards. The Trawniki men provided the guard units for the Operation Reinhard killing centers at Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka II.
The Goldhagen theory
-In Hitler's Willing Executioners, Goldhagen posited that ordinary Germans not only knew about, but also supported, the Holocaust because of a unique and virulent "eliminationist" antisemitism in the German identity, which had developed in the preceding centuries
-He implores us not to view German society as we would view our own, nor to presume it had the same moral values.
-In times of economic prosperity it had simply been "latent": its later re-emergence proved that the concept was still alive in people's minds.
-only fourteen accounts of Germans who were punished for refusing to carry out orders to kill Jews: nine were executed, four were sent to concentration camps, one was transferred to a military penal unit.
teku
-native american indian
-succumbs to Hitler's wordless charisma
-first offers flowers and then carves a crude ceremonial stool for hitler
-in response to hitler, says "proven"
-name is the word rabbis use to mean let eternity decide between them whenever they could not resolve an argument
-also the russian american agreement which made israel officially possible
-answer lies beyond human wisdom, imponderability of evil that haunts moral inquiry