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7 Cards in this Set

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Chinggis Khan
Born as Temujin. He was called "Chinggis Khan" or "unversal ruler". In English, we call him Genghis Khan. He raided Jurchen in 1211 and controlled China in the north by 1220. He tried to trade with the Saljuq leader that ruled Persia in 1218, but was rejected. He went for revenge and destroyed their cities and qanat. He set the foundation for a great empire.
Tamerlane
Timur-i Lang was a self-made Turkish conqueror named Timur who attacked Persia. He had a limp and was called "Timur the Lame". His name in English is Tamerlane. He began taking out his rivals in the 1360s by making them his allies or defeating them in battle. He was recognized as the leader of his tribe. He started building his capital in Samarkand. Established authorities in rich cities so he could levy taxes on trade and agricultural produce. It was said that when he invaded India he demolished it so bad that even birds didn't come around. His role model was Genghis Khan, and like Khan, Tamerlane preferred to conquer over being a governor. When he planned to invade China, he became sick and had people carry him around. He set up his conquered territories to be cared for by overlords who took tributes and taxes for him.
"those who pray, those who fight, and those who work"
This phrase refers to the three social classes in Medieval Europe. Those who prayed were the Roman Catholic clergymen. They were loyal to the church. Those who fight were the noblemen whose positions were inherited. They were taught how to ride horses and fight in the military. Those who worked were the biggest part of the population. They were the peasants who farmed. The clergymen and the noblemen were given rights that were different from the ones that were given to the peasants. This classification changed society in medieval society. The nobleman were expected to be chivalrous and have high ethical standards. The clergyman started a initiating the noblemen as knights in the 12th century. As part of this initiation, the noblemen placed their swords on the altar and pledged their services to God. As a result of this pledge, they devoted themselves to order, piety and Christianity instead of wealth and power.
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II launched the crusades in 1095 saying that "God wills it!" At a council meeting in France, he said that the Muslim Turks threatened the eastern borders of Christendom. The Byzantine emperor requested military forces from Europe as Turkish invaders moved in on Constantinople.
Ali'i nui
High chiefs from Hawaii that ruled and conquered to create larger states. They weren't able to overcome the geographic challenges before the 19th century. The Ali'i nui intermarried, were allowed food that was considered taboo, and wore cloaks that had thousands of brightly colored bird feathers. It was taboo to approach the Ali'i nui or cast a shadow on them.
*Lief Ericsson
The Viking Lief Ericsson explored south and west of Greenland in 1000. They discovered fish and wood in Newfoundland. He named it Vinland because of the wild grapes growing. After his discovery, more people from Greenland moved down to Vinland.
*Marco Polo
Best known long-distance traveller. His father was a merchant, and Marco travelled with him. When he returned from China, there was a war between Venice and Genoa. He was captured and locked up. While he was in prison, he told stories about his travels, the spices, gems, and other good that were being traded, to the other prisoners. One of them was a writer, who put Marco's stories together and it circulated through Europe. Europeans and Italians began trading more with China after reading Marco's stories.