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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the parts of the model of communication
1. source 2. message 3. receiver 4. feedback 5. environment
individual speech sounds
rate, rhythm, intonation
the newborn infant can
make gross discriminations between various auditory signals
selective listening with infants is extended to speech stimuli
within a few weeks
the normal human ear is capable of perceiving auditory signals comprising frequencies from about
20 to 20,000 Hz
the maximum range of intensity we are able of processing cocurs at ____ to _____ Hz and varies from __ to ___ dbSPL
3000 to 4000. 0 to 130 dBSPL
the normal ear is capable of perceiving approximately ____________ distinguishable tones within the audible range of hearing
the range of intensity normally found in speech is small.
the most powerful phoneme is
/c/ au
the weakest phoneme is
the weakest vowel is
typical male speakers produce speech with an overall intensity that is about ___dB greater than female speakers
the points of peak amplitude are known as
formants provide important cues for the identification of
the consonants in English display a ______ high frequency spectral composition
the five featurs of consonants
voicing, nasality, affrication, duration, place
suprasegmental features
intonation, rhythm, stress, pitch
the overall spectrum of speech is composed of acoustical energy from
50 - 10,000 Hz
the duration of individual speech sounds in our langauge covers a range from about
30 to 300 msec
vowels generally have a ____ duration than consonants
the dynamic movements of the articulators in the production of adjacent phonemes produce acoustical byproducts termemed
transitional cues.
being aware of sound
ability to distinguish amoung individual speech stimuli
identify or label what one has heared by pointing to, naming
focusing on the speaker and the message being conveyed
ability to retain or store verbal information
the perceived speech elements must be brought together in a meaningful whole.
most hearing impaired listeners experience only _________ difficulty in vowel perception
vowel phonemes ___ and ___ were found to have the most difficulty
/o/ /E/
the most frequently missed phonemes by hearing impaired adults are
d, s, p, k, theta
the most common errors in consonant phoneme perception occur with the ______________ feature, followed by _______
place of articulation, mannar of articulation
the perception of sh, ch, and ja, was very dependent on sensitivity between
1000 and 2000 Hz
the more redundant the message,
the more readily it can be perceived by the listener.
structural constraints
the predictable manner in which linguistic units are chained together according to the rules of english
semantic constraints
allow the listener to predict the type of vocab
situational constraints
location, time and place, environment influence what we say
refers to a host of factors that can actually reduce the information present for a listener to use
topical constraints
the use of langauge bears some relationship with the context in which it is used. for example, in a stadium at a football game
ray carhart considered auditory training
a process of teaching the child or adult with gearing impairment to take full advantage of available auditory clues. awareness of sound, gross discrimination of nonverbal stimuli, and gross and fine discrimination of speech
erber described auditory training as
the creation of special communication conditions in which teachers and auds help hearing impaired children acquire many of the auditory perception abilities that normally hearing children acquire naturally.
when considering auditory training for adults, two general objectives are usually relevanat
1. learning to maximize the use of auditory and other related cues available for the perception of speech 2. adjustment and orientation to facilitate the optimum use of amplification, including cochlear implants and tactile devices
the altimate aim of auditory training is
to achieve maximum communication potential by developing the auditory sensory channel to its fullest.
goldstein's acoustic method
centered around systematic stimulation with individual speech sounds, syllables, words and sentences to improve speech perception
until world war II, the primary focus of auditory training was
its use with severely/ profoundly deaf children
carhart's believed that listening skills
are normally learned early in life and when a hearing loss occurs in later childhood or in adulthood, some of the person's auditory skills may become impaired even though they were intact prior to the onset of the hearing loss
carhart outlined 4 major steps involved in auditory training
1. awareness of sound 2. gross discriminations 3. broad discrim among simple speech patterns 4. finer discriminations for speech
_____________ combined with a person's hearing was also encouraged by carhart
carhart wanted auditory training to be conducted in three commonly encountered situations
1. relatively intense background noise 2. the presence of a competing speech signal 3. listening on the telephone
according to carhart, the use of _________ is vital in auditory training
use of hearing aids
auditory training is most commonly used in
children with prelingual sensorineural hearing impairment.
auditory training in recent times has been
with conclear implant recipients
word intelligibility by picture identification - four lists of 25 monosyllabic words. closed set. used with children
northwestern university children's perception of speech. 50 monosyllabic nouns
ling 5 sound test
/a/ /u/ /i/ /s/ /sh/. up to 1000 should detect vowels. up to 2000 should detect /sh/ and up to 4000 should detect /s/
test of auditory comprehension - for children ages 4-12 with moderate to profound HL. speech discrim, memory,, figure-ground discrim, story comp
glendonald auditory screening procedure. based on a model of auditory perception. 1. phoneme detection 2. word identification 3. sentence comprehension. eber said gasp can aid in planning aud training.
developmental approach to successful listening. sound awareness, phonetic listening, auditory comp. children from 3 years of age can be evaluated.
california consonant test. test consonants in initial and final position. this is more sensitive to the speech difficulties experienced by hight freq. loss
Speech perception in noise. high and low probability.
minimal auditory capabilities for assessing auditory and visual skills of profound hearing impaired people. if other tests are too difficult use this one.
central institute for the deaf
attempts to break speech into smaller componants. exercies that emphases same - different discrim of vowel or consonant phonemes in syllables.
emphasizes a more global approach to speech perception, stressig the use of clues derived from syntax
training the communicator to control communication variables such as level of speech, signal to noise ratio
erber's approaches to auditory training
1. conversational approach, 2. moderately structured approach. 3. practice on specific tasks
conversational approach
the teacher adapts to the child's responses by presenting auditory tasks in a systematic mannar derived from any cell in the matrix
moderately structured approach
applies a closed set auditory identification task, but follows this activity with some speech devel. and related comprehansion task.
developmental approach to successful listening - . sound awareness, phonetic listening, auditory comprehension.
comprehensive identification and home intervention treatment program for infants with hearing impairment
speech perception instructional curriculum and evaluation - provides a guide for clinicians in evaluating and developing auditory skills in children with prof. hearing loss. four levels. detection, suprasengmental, voweland consonant perception, connected speech.
consonant recognition training
used with adults and relies primarily on an analytic approach. it frequently incorporates speech reading into a combined audio-visual approach.
communication training
communication strategies and pragmatics. anticipatory strategies, repair strategies,
watch talkers mouth. ask specific questions. talk about your hearing loss. change the situation. health care knowledge.
average voice
65 dbSPL at 1 meter
average shout
85 dBSPL at 1 meter
average whisper
45 dBSPL at 1 meter
fo for males
130Hz fundamental
fo for females
260 hz fundamental
auditory training
1. uses residual hearing 2. trains mind 3. uses sensory aids
four design principles
1. auditory skill 2. stimuli 3. activity type 4. difficulty level
different levels of auditory skills
1. awareness 2. descrimination 3. identification 4. comprehension
stimulus units
1. analytic - phoneme, syllable, word 2. synthetic - sentence, communication, discourse, (meaning of utterance)
analytic auditory approach
vowels are more intense in lower frequencies, and are more audible to most. formants - back, front, central, high, mid, low. consonants - focus on place, manner and voicing characteristics.
activity type
informal training - part of daily routine, incorporated into other activities. formal - highly structured, usually one on one training
difficulty level
1. stimulus set, unit, similarity, context, task, SNR
1. discriminate vowels that differ in first formant information 2. identify words with different vowels using a four item resonse set. identify words with different vowels from an open set of vocabulary.
1. discriminate between a declarativea nd interrogative sentencce 2. carry on a conversation 3. follow the instructions of simple commands
speech perception tests look at
- how well listeners understand speech - reflect handicap created by HL - classify degree and type of HL - baseline measure for treatment - determine benefit from sensory aid.