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224 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
action that results in desirable conduct or performance
Contractual rights
derived from contracts such as an employment contract.
due process
*employee's right to present a position during a disciplinary action

investigating a disciplinary problem
1) supervisor determines when the situation occurred
2) get the employee's view of the situation.
the role of ethics in the management of human resources
extends beyond the legal requirements of managing employees

employees are treated in a fair and objective way

employee's personal and work- related rights are respected and valued.
Due process
the employee's right to be heard through a complaint process
List 2 approaches to disciplinary action
1) Progressive discipline
2) Positive discipline
Legal implications
flow from how the employee is treated
alternative dispute resolution
*Term applied to different types of employee complaint or dispute-resolution procedures

Identify the job excpectancy rights of employees.
1) Fair and equitable treatment
2) workplace is safe and drug-free
3) Reasonable privacy
4) Access to own personnel file
5) Not disciplined for off-duty behaviour
6) notified of plant closings
primary purpose of having disciplinary procedures
to prevent or correct discipline problems
employee rights
*Guarantees of fair treatment from employers, particularly regarding an employee's right to privacy

3. Identify the general types of employment laws in Canada.
1 Employment standards Legislation
2 Labour legislation
3 Health, safety, and workers' compensation legislation
4 Human rights legislation
Why are disciplinary practices established?
Failure to take disciplinary action only serves to aggravate a problem that eventually must be resolved.
Explain Progressive discipline
1) designed to motivate an employee to correct misconduct

2) conceptual basis is that the employee must assume responsibility For personal conduct and job performance
Human rights legislation
-prohibits discrimination on the basis of such areas as race, ethnic origin, marital status, and gender
- is paramount over other employment laws
-protects individuals frorn sexual and other types of harassment.
- denying someone something because of race, ethnic background, marital status, or other prohibited grounds under human rights legislation.
any behaviour that demeans, humiliates, or embarrasses a person.
*Failure to provide reasonable care where such failure results in injury to consumers or other employees
manager's role in creating a work environment that is free from harassment and discrimination
*ensure that unacceptable behaviours are dealt with

*expected to work with employees to ensure that they are behaving and acting in an acceptable Fashion

*Line manager is key link in creating an appropnate work environment.
1) Treatment that punishes;
2) orderly behaviour in an organizational setting;
3)training that moulds and strengthens desirable conduct
4)training that corrects undesirable conduct
5)training that develops self- control

6. Explain employment equity
- individuals are employed in a fair and unbiased manner

- legislation may be used to help achieve a more equitable workforce

- women; visible minorities; first nations and persons with disabilities are singled out as requiring political assistance to right past wrongs.
Pay equity
equal pay for work of equal value

job content is examined and used to compare dissimilar work in an organization.
goal of diversity management
to make optimal use of an organization's multicultural workforce in order to Realize strategic business advantages.
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ]
A justifiable reason for discrimination based on business reasons of safety or effectiveness.

reasonable accommodation
Attempt by employers to adjust the working conditions or schedules of employees with disabilities or Religious preferences.

reverse discrimination
Giving preference to members of certain groups such that others feel they are the subjects of discrimination.

sexual harassment
Unwelcome advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in the working environment,

employment equity
The employment of individuals in a fair and nonbiased manner
designated groups
1 Women,
2 visible minorities,
3 First Nations peoples,
4 persons with disabilities

who have been disadvantaged in employment.
systemic discrimination
The exclusion of members of certain groups through the application of employment policies or practices based on criteria that are not job-related.
diversity management
The optimization of an organization's multicultural workforce in order to reach business objectives.

impact of laws on the behaviour and actions of supervisors and managers towards employees
- provincial and federal employment legislation guides accepted practices and behaviours
- laws establish certain minimum requirements regarding working conditions
- laws provide protection of basic human rights.
job analysis
Process of obtaining information about jobs by determining the duties, tasks, or activities associated with those jobs

job specifications
Statement of the needed Knowledge, skills, and abilities of the person iwho is to perform the position.

The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee.
job description
statement of the tasks, duties, responsibilities of a job to be performed
standards of performance
Set out the expected results of the job

job design
Process of defining and organizing tasks, roles, and other processes to achieve employee goals and Organizational effectiveness

employee empowerment
Granting employees power to change, thereby encouraging them to take charge of what they do

employee involvement groups
Groups of employees who meet to resolve problems or offer suggestlons for organizational Improvement

employee teams
which work functions are structured for groups rather than for individuals

team members are given discretion in matters traditionally considered management
eg process improvements, product or service development, and individual work assignments
Explain the supervisor's role in defining and designing work.
primary individual who determines what work needs to be done.

determines what skills and abilities are needed to successfully perform the work
job specifications
The specific skills, knowledge, and abilities that are required to successfully perform the job
job description
a written description listing the types of duties and the skills (job specifications) needed to successfully perform the work
Standards of performance
set out the expected Results of the job
Describe the relationship between planning, recruiting, and selecting people to work with the organization.
future people requirements need to be planned

the organization needs the right number and type of employees to implement a chosen business plan

Managers play a key role in planning for the human resources necessary to achieve the business plan.
advantages of recruiting from within the organization.
capitalizes on investments made in recruiting, selecting, training, and developing current employees.

rewards employees for past performance

sends a signal to other employees that future efforts will pay off.
disadvantages of recruiting from within the organization
inbreeding of ideas and attitudes.
advantages of external recruitment
can bring in new ideas

acquire people with specialized skills
disadvantages of external recruitment
Constraints on the organization, such as a legislated employment equity plan, may lead to a different pool of applicants than what the manager may want
objectives of the selection process
get the right person
with the right skills
at the right time
in the right job.
steps in the employee selection process
1) receipt of an application form,
2) initial interview,
3) possible employment tests,
4) interview with the supervisor,
5) reference checks,
6) hiring decision.
sources of information used for selection decisions
* Interviews
* Application forms or resumes
* References
* Employment tests
Explain the value of different types of employment tests
* More objective than the interview.

* Can provide a broader sampling of behaviour and skills.
approaches to conducting an employment interview
* Unstructured
* Structured
* Situational
* Behavioural
* Interviews by a single individual,
* Interviews by a panel,
* Interviews by computer interface.
human resource planning
* Ensuring that the people are being used as effectively as possible, where and when they are needed,in order to accomplish the organization's goals

The process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for jobs

job posting and bidding
Method of communicating information about job openings

labour market
* Area from which applicants are recruited

* The process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings

nondirective interview
* interview in which the applicant is allowed the maximum amount of freedom in determining the course of the discussion

* the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures

* How well a test or selection procedure measures a person's attributes

aptitude tests
* Measures of a person's capacity to learn or acquire skills

structured interview
* interview in which a set of standardized questions having an established set of answers is used

situational interview
An interview in which an applicant is given a hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would respond to it
behavioural description interview (BDI]
*An interview in which applicants are asked questions about what they actually did in a given situation

panel interview
*An interview in which a board of interviewers questions and observes a single candidate

characteristics of an effective orientation program
*new employees are familiarized with the organization,their job, and their work unit.
*Embeds organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours.
*supervisor is actively involved
systems approach to training and development
a)links training & development to the organization's goals and objectives

b)consists of five phases:
1) needs analysis,
2)training program design,
4)evaluation, and
5)transfer to work environment.
components of a training plan
* Involves five phases:
1)needs assessment,
2)program design,
4)evaluation, and
5)transfer of training.

*Contributes to the organization's overall goals.
Identify the principles of learning
1)Goal setting.
2)Meaningfulness of presentation.
4)Individual differences.
5)Active practice and repetition.
7)Rewards and reinforcement.
Identify the types of training methods
1) On-the-job.
2) Apprenticeship.
3) Cooperative and internship programs.
4) Computer-based.
5) Seminars and conferences.
6) Role playing and management games.
special training programs that are currently popular
*Basic skills training (such as literacy).
*Team work.
how does a career development program integrate individual and organizational needs
*It blends employee effectiveness and satisfaction with the achievement of the organization's strategic objectives.
*HRM practices must fit so that both individual and organization needs can be achieved.
methods used for developing supervisors and managers
*Mentoring programs.
*Specialized career programs for diverse workforce.
The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work

The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem

Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours

task analysis
Process of determining what the content of a training program should be on the basis of a study of the tasks and duties involved in the job

competency assessment
Analysis of the sets of skills and knowledge needed for decision-oriented and knowledge-intensive jobs

person analysis
Determination of the specific individuals who need training

trainee readiness
The consideration of a trainee's maturity and experience when assessing him or her

on-the-job training (OJT]
Method by which employees are given hands-on experience with instructions from their supervisor or other trainer

cooperative training
Training program that combines practical on-the-job experience with formal educational classes

internship programs
Programs jointly sponsored by colleges, universities, and other organizations that offer students the opportunity to gain real-life experience while allowing them to find out how they will perform in work organizations

computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
A system that delivers training material directly through a computer terminal in an interactive format

transfer of training
Effective application of principles learned to what is required on the job

Placement of an individual in another job for which duties, responsibilities, status, and remuneration are approximately equal to those of the previous job
Change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the organization

Change of assignment to a job at a higher level in the organization

Executives who coach, advise, and encourage individuals of lesser rank
What is the organizations responsibilty when establishing disciplinary practices?
Organizations need to clearly outline rules and expectations regarding performance and behaviour.
performance management system
a set of integrated management practices.
Explain Positive discipline
*requires a cooperative environment for joint discussion and problem solving between the supervisor and the employee.
the purpose of a performance management system
Allows the organization to get the right things done.

*Helps increase employees' satisfaction with their work and the organization.
statutory rights
*Rights that derive from legislation

What is the relationship between training & discipline?
1) moulds and strengthens desirable conduct or
2) corrects undesirable conduct
3) develops self- control
positive, or nonpunitive, discipline
1) focuses on early correction of employee misconduct,
2) employee takes total responsibility for correcting the problem

the management practices necessary lor a good performance management system
1) clear performance expectations are set & communicated .
2)performance objectives are
clear & specific
3)coaching is supportive & helpful
4)Focusing on accomplishment of objectives during performance appraisals.
5) Recognize & celebrate good performance.
peer-review system
1) system for reviewing employee complaints
2) a group composed of equal numbers of employee representatives and management appointees
3) functions as a jury
4) members weigh evidence, consider arguments,
5) deliberate,
6) vote independently to render a final decision

different sources of performance appraisal information
1) Manager/supervisor who is able to evaluate contribution
2) Self
3) Subordinate
4) Peers and team members
5) Customers
methods used for performance appraisal
1) Trait approaches
2) Behavioural methods
3) Productivity measures
4) Management by objectives (MBO)
characteristics of an effective performance appraisal interview
1) employee self evaluation prior to the interview.
2) Invite and encourage active participation by employees in the discusion their performance.
3) Express appreciation for what the employee has done well.
4) Minimize criticism.
5) Change the behaviour, not the person.
performance management system
* A set of integrated management practices

*Designated individual from whom employees may seek counsel for the resolution of their complaints

Manager and/or supervisor appraisal
* performance appraisal done by employee's supervisor

*Peformance appraisal done by he employee being evaluated, generally on an appraisal form completed by the employee prior to the performance interview
subordinate appraisal
*Performance appraisal of a superior by an employee, which more appropriate for developmental than for administrative purposes

peer appraisal
*Performance appraisal done by fellow employees, generally on forms that are compiled into a single profile for use in the performance terview conducted by the employee's manager

team appraisal
*Performance appraisal, based on TQM concepts, that recognizes team accomplishment rather than individual performance

customer input
*Performance appraisal that, like team appraisal, is based on TQM concepts and seeks evaluation from both external internal customers
graphic rating scales
A trait approach to performance appraisal whereby each employee is rated according to a scale of characteristics
critical incident
*Unusual event that denotes superior or inferior employee performance in some part of job

behaviourally anchored rating scale (BARS)
*A behavioural approach to performance appraisal that consists of a series of vertical scales, one for each important dimension of job performance

management by objectives
*Philosophy of management that rates performance on the basis of employee achievement of goals

employer concerns in developing a compensation program
1) enhances employee motivation and growth
2) tailored to fit the needs of the company and its employees
3) employees believe the compensation be equitable.
Internal factors that influence the setting of wages
1) organisation's compensation policy,
2) perceived worth of the job,
3) performance of the employee, and
4) employer's willingness to pay.
External factors that influence the setting of wages.
1) labour Market conditions,
2) cost of living,
3) collective bargaining; and
4) legal considerations.
4 major job evaluation systems
1)job ranking system.
2)job classification system,
3)Point system,
4)Factor comparison system,
job ranking system
groups jobs on the basis of their relative worth
job classification system
jobs are grouped according to a series of predetermined grades based on a number of factors.
Point system
determines a job's relative worth by using a quantitative system of points
List the parts of the compensation structure.
* Wage and salary survey,
* Developing a wage curve,
* Development of pay rates
Wage and salary survey
provides information about average wage rates external to the organization
wage curve
indicates the rates currently paid for jobs within the organization
List 6 types of incentive plans
1) Individual bonus
2) Team- or group-based
3) Merit raises
4) Gainsharing
5) Profit-sharing
6) Employee stock ownership plan
employee benefits that are required by law
1) Canada and Quebec pension plans 2) Employment insurance,
3) Workers' compensation insurance,
Describe voluntary benefits
1) benefits an organization chooses to provide
2) Can include health and welfare coverage, pay for time not worked (vacation, sick leave), wellness programs, and child-care assistance.
List the current compensation and benefits issues
1) Equal pay for work of equal value
2) Wage-rate compression,
3) Low salary budgets,
4) Two-tier wage system,
5) Flexible benefit plans,
Equal pay for work of equal value
tries to remedy the situation of undervaluing traditiorially female occupations.
Wage-rate compression
the differences between job classes are reduced and can create inequity.
Low salary budgets
by which companies have attempted to control compensation costs.
Two-tier wage system
new employees are paid less than pre- sent employees ior the same work.
Flexible benefit plans
individuals can choose benefits that best fit their needs
direct compensation
*Employee wages and salaries. incentives. bonuses, and commissions

indirect compensation
* Many benefits supplied by employers

pay-for-performance standard
* Standard by which managers tie compensation to employee effort and performance

equitable pay
* Compensation received is archived to be equal to the value of the work performed

* Work paid according to the number of units produced

job evaluation
* Systematic process of Determining the relative worth of jobs in order to establish which jobs should be paid more than others within an organization

consumer price index (CPI)
*Measure of the average change prices over time in a fixed 'market basket" of goods and Services

real wages
Wage increases larger than rises in the consumer price index; that is, the real earning power of wages
wage and salary survey
* Survey of the wages paid to employees of other employers in the surveying organization's relevant labour market

pay grades
Groups of jobs within a particular class that are paid the same rate or rate range
skill-based pay
*Pay based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can perform

comparable value
The concept that male and female jobs that are dissimilar, but equal in terms of value or worth to the employer, should paid the same
wage-rate compression
*Compression of differentials between job classes, particularly the differential between hourly workers and their managers
two-tier wage system
*Compensation plan that pays vvly hired employees less than present employees performing the same or similar iobs
flexible benefit plans
*Plans that enable individual employees to choose the Benefits that are best suited to their particular needs

measures that should be taken to control and eliminate health safety hazards
1) Take precautions to ensure Employee safety.
2) Inform and train employees about safety and Health requirements
3) Keep records and investigate accidents.
4) Involve employees in identifying and eliminating health and safety problems
5) Provide safety training programs
6) emphasize importance of health and safety in the workplace.
7) Enforce safety procedures.
current workplace health and salety issues
1) Indoor air quality,(2nd-hand smoke)
2) Repetitive strain injuries
3) Communicable diseases
4) Workplace violence
organizational services and programs for building better health
1) Wellness programs
2) Employee assistance programs
3) Substance abuse programs
4) Stress management programs
role of employee assistance programs
1) EAPs provide employees in need with appropriate resources.
2) EAPs typically cover financial, family, and emotional issues.

Organizations recognize that personal problems can create organizational problems.
ways in which supervisors can support work groups on health and safety matters.
1) Create health and safety goals.
2) Plan for their implementation
3) Develop a process to assess goal attainment.
4) Learn from experience.
5) Continually improve the quality of the work experience.
occupational injury
*Any cut, fracture, sprain, or amputation resulting from a workplace accident
occupational illness
*Abnormal condition or disorder resulting from exposure to environmental factors in the workplace

industrial disease
disease resulting from exposure relating to particular process, trade, or occupation in industry

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS]
Documents that contain vital information about hazardous substances

repetitive-strain injuries (RSls]
*Injuies involving tendons of the fingers, hands, and arms that become inflamed from repeated stresses and strains

employee assistance program
*Program to provide short-term counselling and referrals to appropriate professionals

*any adjustive demand caused by physical. mental, or emotional factors that requires _ coping behaviour
Identify 6 different types of alternative dispute-resolution procedures
1) Step-review systems
2) Peer-review systems
3) Use of hearing officers
4) Open-door system
5) Ombudsperson system
6) Arbitration
contractual rights
*Rights that derive from contracts

progressive discipline
*Application of corrective measures by increasing degrees

wrongful dismissal
*Terminating an employee's employment without just cause

step-review system
System for reviewing employee complaints and disputes by successively higher levels of management

hearing officer
*Person who holds a full-time position with an organization but assumes a neutral role when deciding cases between management and the aggrieved employees

open-door policy
*Policy of settling grievances that identifies various levels management above the immediate Supervisor for employee contact

*Set of standards of conduct and moral judgments that help to determine right and wrong behaviour

labour relations and the supervisor
*Labour relations influences what a supervisor does and how an employee is treated.
Cite the reasons employees join unions
1) Dissatisfaction with pay and benefits.
2) Dissatisfaction with managerial practices.
3) Desire For recognition and status.
Describe the process by which unions organize employees and gain recognition as their bargaining agent.
1) Employees make contact with a union representative.
2) Union schedules meeting with other employees
3) Application is made to labour relations board.
4) Labour relations board grants bargaining rights.
Describe the functions labour unions perform at the national and local levels
1) National unions help organize local unions.
2) National unions help train and educate local unions.
3) Local unions negotiate collective agreement & process grievances.
How does public-sector labour relations differ from private-sector?
1) specialized legislation
2) political element in labour-management relations
3) Strikes may be banned
changing conditions that effect labour organizations.
1) Foreign competition
2) technological changes
3) Decline in public image of labour 4) Attempts to organize white-collar workers
5) Innovative workplace practices, resulting in increased employee satisfaction
labour relations process
*Logical sequence of four events:
(1] workers desire representation,
(2] begins its organizing campaign,
(3) collective negotiations lead to a contract, and
(4) the contract is administered
union shop
*Provision of the collective agreement that requires employees to join the union as a condition of their employment

unfair labour practices
*Specific employer and union illegal practices that operate to deny employees their rights and benefits under labour law

*Acquisition of exclusive rights by union to represent the employees

management rights
*Decisions regarding organizational operations over management claims exclusive rights

craft unions
*Unions that represent skilled craft workers
industrial unions
Unions that represent all workers-skilled, semiskilled, unskilled-employed along industry lines

employee associations
*Labour organizations that represent various groups of professional and white-collar employees in labour-management relations

union (shop] steward
*Employee who, as a nonpaid union official, represents the interests of members in their relations with management
compulsory binding arbitration
Binding method of resolving collective-bargaining deadlocks by a neutral third party

final-offer arbitration
*Method of resolving collective- deadlocks whereby the arbitrator has no power to compromise but must select one or Another of the final offers submitted by the two parties

forms of bargaining power that a union may utilize to enforce their bargaining demands
1) picket/ strike,
2) boycott the employer
employer's power during negotiations comes from its ability to
1) lock out employees
2) operate during a strike by using managerial or replacement employees.
2 principal methods by which bargaining deadlocks may be resolved
1) Mediation
- negotiation deadlocks

2) Interest arbitration
- finalize the collective agreement
- used in the public sector, where unions are Largely prohibited from striking.
Give examples of current collective-bargaining trends
* Attitudes of less-adversarial collective bargaining.

* A restructuring of attitudes by both managers and union officials and members
Identify the major provisions of a collective agreement
1) provisions governing the labour-management employment relationship.
2) wages rates of pay,
3) overtime differentials,
4) holiday pay,
5) hours (shift times, days of work),
6) working conditions (safety issues, performance standards, retraining].
Management rights refers to
the supremacy of management's authority in all issues except those shared with the union through the collective agreement.
Describe a typical grievance procedure.
1) 3 to 5 steps, each having specific filing and reply times.

2) higher steps involve higher-level managers and union officials

3) final step may be arbitration.

4) Arbitrators render a final decision for problems not resolved at lower grievance steps.
Explain the basis for arbitration awards.
1) wording of the collective agreement.

2) Hearing testimony and evidence including how parties interpreted the collective agreement.

3) Arbitration criteria against which cases are judged.

4) did the offence actually occur was the imposed penalty appropriate?
collective bargaining process
*Process of negotiating a collective agreement, including use of economic pressures by both parties

pattern bargaining
*Bargaining in which unions negotiate provisions covering wages and other benefits that are similar other agreements existing within the industry or region

bargaining zone
*Area within which the union and the employer are willing to concede when bargaining

*situation in which unionized workers refuse to perform their work

*Union tactic to encourage others to refuse to patronize an employer

*Strategy by which the employer denies employees the opportunity to work by closing its operations

1) Third party in a labour dispute
2) meets with one party and then the other
3) suggests compromise solutions or 4) recommends concessions from each side that will lead to an agreement

1) neutral 3rd party
2) resolves a labour dispute by issuing a final decision in an agreement

interest arbitration
*Binding determination of a collective-bargaining agreement by an arbitrator

rights arbitration
*Binding determination of a complaint (grievance) that something in the collective agreement has been violated

residual rights
*Concept that management's authority is supreme in all matters except those it has expressly conceded to the union in the collective agreement

defined rights
*Concept that management's authority should be expressly defined and clarified in the collective agreement

grievance procedure
*Formal procedure that provides for the union to represent members and nonmember in processing a grievance
grievance resolution
*Process in which a neutral third party assists in the resolution of an employee grievance

expedited arbitration
*An agreement to bypass some steps in the grievance process

submission to arbitrate
*Statement that describes the issues to be resolved through arbitration

Describe the bargaining process and the bargaining goals and strategies of a union and an employe
1)Each side list goals they wish to achieve & try to anticipate the others goals

2) Both sides sensitive to:
a) current bargaining patterns
b) cost-of-living trends, and
c) geographical wage differentials. 3) process includes negotiations & power tactics used to support demands
Explain how federal and provincial legislation provides the frame-work for labour relations.
1) Laws determine who can unionize.

2) Laws require that unions and employers bargain in good faith.

3) Laws enable unions to strike and employers to lock out.
Factor comparison system
*job is evaluated on a factor-by-factor basis
*this type of system is typically used for legislated pay equity purposes.
Identify the steps in an effective performance management system
1)Clarify the work (jobs to be done).

2)Set goals and establish a performance plan.
3)Regular and frequent coaching.
4)Conduct formal review of performance.
5)Recognize and reward performance.
Job analysis
the process of obtaining information about jobs (or work) by determining wbat the duties, tasks, or activities are.

Outcomes of job analysis are job descriptions, job specifications, and job standards
To create a safe and healthy work environment the supervisor:
1) is familiar with occupational health & safety legislatlon

2) Enforces health and safety standards

3) Protects employees from physical hazards, unhealthy conditions, & unsafe acts of other employees.
apprenticeship training
* System of training
* skilled trades
* instruction and experience, provided on and off the job
* covers practical and theoretical aspects of the work

arbitration award
* Final and binding award
* issued by an arbitrator
* in a labour-management dispute

authorization card
* A statement
* signed by an employee
* authorizes union to act as a representative of the employee in collective bargaining

bargaining unit
*Group of 2 or more employees
* share common employment interests & conditions
* grouped for collective bargaining purposes

* Process of measuring one's own services and practices against the recognized leaders
* to identify areas for improvement

business agent
* Normally a paid labour official
* responsible for negotiating administering the collective agreement * works to resolve union members' problems

constructive dismissal
*Changing an employee's working conditions
* compensation, status, or prestige is reduced