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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
3 main cancer treatments
chemotherapy
radiation
surgery (cutting off tissue)
2 primary causes of cancer
1. diet
2. tobacco
characteristics of cancer cells
-abnormal cell division
-abnormal chromosome configuration
-abnormal shape and size
-grows and spreads rapidly
-no useful function
carcinogens
cause onco gene to be expressed can be:
-radiation
-viruses
-chemicals
benign vs malignant
benign-harmless normal cells
malignant- non cemetrical grown at its own pace in all directions
pseudopia
arms on cells- can metastacize (arms break off and spread)
can spread through lymphatics
top 3 cancers causing death for women
-lung caner
-breast cancer
-cancer of colon and rectum
top 3 cancers causing death for men
-lung cancer
-prostate cancer
-cancer of colon and rectum
top 3 cancers occuring in women
-breast cancer
-lung cancer
-cancer of the colon and rectum
top 3 cancers occuring in men
-prostate cancer
-lung cancer
-cancer of the colon and rectum
5 year survival rate of lung cancer
less than 15%
vitams and minerals with antioxidative properties
A,C,E, betacarotine, solenium
Free radicals
-unstable compounds that can react with fats, proteins and DNA, damaging key cellular components.
-normal byproducts of energy metabolism
-very reactive
-not complete (unpaiared electrons on outer shells)
antioxidants
react with free radicals and donate electrons, rendering them harmless
dietary defense against cancer
-eat a varied diet
-eat 5-9 servings of fruits and vegetables each day. choose a wide variety
-eat high fiber foods
-cut down on intake of fat and saturated fat
-be moderate in consumption of salt-cured, smoked, and nitrite-cured foods.
-be moderate in consumption of alcoholic beverages
major warning signs of cancer
Change in bowel or bladder habits
A sore that does not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump in the breasts
Indigestion of difficulty in swallowing
Obvious change in a wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness
function of the liver
has over 100 functions
-detoxifies blood
-secretes cholesterol
-stores glucose
-produces plasma proteins
-produces bial
function of the gallblader
stores bial
function of the pancreas
-produces insulin and glucagon
-secretes growth hormones
-produces and secretes pancreatic juices which absorb proteins and carbohydrates in the small intestine
function of kindeys
filter bloodr and control fluids, blood volume, and blood pressure
four main biomolecules
protein, carbohydrates, fats, and nucleotides
amino acids
essential and non essential strings that become proteins
with heat protein ____
denatures
percent protein in recommended diet
10-15% (50-60g)
glucose and percent recommended
C6H12O6
60-70% of diet
extra glucose is stored as fat
glycolosis
breaking down of glucose
glucose becomes ATP
about 36 ATP/ glucose molecule
old food guide pyramid
1.fats oils and sweets- use sparingly
2. Milk, yogurt and cheese group: 2-3 servings
Dry beans, nuts, seeds, and meat substitutes group (vegetarians): 2-3 servings
meats poultry and eggs group: 2-3 servings
3. Vegetable group: 3-5 servings
fruit group: 2-4 servings
4: Bread, cereal, rice, and pasta group: 6-11 servings
new good guide pyramid
1. red meat and butter -use sparingly
white rice, white bread, potatoes, pasta, and sweets -use sparingly
2. Dairy or calcium supplement: 1-2 servings
3. fish, poultry, and eggs: 1-2 servings
4. nuts and legumes: 1-2 servings
2-4 - alcohol: in moderation unless contraindicated
2-4- mutiple vitamins: for most
5. Vegetables: in abundance
Fruit: 2-3 servings
6. Whole grain foods: at most meals
pland oils (olive, canola, soy, corn, sunflower, peanut, and other vegetable oils): at most meals
7. daily exercise and weight control
drug that regulates cholesterol levels
statin
cell membrane
lipid bilayer- protects integrity of cell, promotes hormone production
soluble vs insoluble fibers
soluble- absorbed and digested, reduces some cancers, bonds with cholesterol
insoluble- not absorbed- cleans out excess bial
omega 3 fatty acids
from seafood- reduce advancement of atheroscelerosis
omega 6 fatty acids
lower LDLs and VLDLs- may lower HDLs
vitamins
Organic, contain carbon, catalysts
some fat soluble and some fat unsoluble
minerals
inorganic, do not contain carbon
phytochemicals
give plants color
origional date rape drugs
rohypnol and GHB
3 classes of carcinogens
-radiation
-chemicals
-viruses