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31 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Motor Development
sequential, continuous age-related process whereby movement behavior changes.
3 Principles of Motor Developement
1) Motor development is sequential and age related
2) Most children move through the same continuum of motor development.
3) The rate that each child moves through this continuum varies
Motor Learning
Relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated with practice or experience.
Movement arises from the interactions of:
The individual
The immediate environment
The task to be performed
Individuals always undergo ______ changes
environmental, individual or task related restraint or facilitator of movement behaviors
5 types of constraint
universality vs. variability
The environment limits or controls the behaviors taken place in that environment. Changinv environmental variables however, results in the modification of behavior.
Ecological perspective
Emphasizes the interrelationship between the individual, environmental, and the task.
How we move is not related to only our body or environment-but rather_______
the interplay on internal and external factors within the environment
Branches of Ecological Perspective
Dynamic System Approach
Perception-Action Approach
Principles of Dynamic System Approach
A) Behavior is "softly assembles" rather than "hard wired"
B) Individuals are composed of complex, cooperative systems
C) New movement patterns replace old ones
Action approach
Cole relationship exists between the perceptual system and the motor system. We cannot study the individual without examining the environment.
5 goals motor developement specialists seek to accomplish
1) Determine the common and characteristic changes in behavior function and appearance across the lifespan.
2) Establish when these changes occur.
3) Describe what causes these changes.
4) Determine whether change can be predicted.
5) Find out whether these changes are individual or universal.
Primary determinants of Motor Behavior
*Environmental Contexts (affordances): opportunities for actions that objects, events of places in the environment provide.

Assumptions of Motor Development
-Continual and cumulative process from conception through older adulthood.
-Human development is a holistic process
-Environmental context will impact behavior
-Critical sensitive periods in developemnt(3-8)
-Development is aided by positive stimulation
-There is much plasticity in HD: we have a dramatic capacity for change.
triggered by a stimulus that activated a sensory receptor and an afferent sensory impulse is sent to the brain
Process in the brain that involves organizing and processing all information received by the senses
Erikson (1963)
-Student of Freud's focused on the influence of society rather than gender on development
-described eight stages of th ehuman life cycle and put them on a continuum, emphasizing factors of the environment, not heredity as facilitators of change
-view of human development acknowledged factors within the individual's experimental background as having a primary role in development
-view clearly points out the importance of successful oriented movement experiences as a means of reconciling the developmental crisis that each child passes through
Gesell (1945)
-Theory of growth and development also emphasizes the physical and motor components of human behavior
-documented and described general age periods for the acquisition of a wide variety of rudimentary movement abilities
-viewed these maturationally based tasks as important indicators of social and emotional growth
Havinghurst (1952)
-viewed development as an interplay between biological, social and cultural forces by means of which children are continuing to enhance their abilities to function effectively in society
-viewed development as a series of tasks that must be achieved within a certain time frame to ensure the proper developmental progression of the individual (learn one thing before another)
-teachable moments when the body is "ripe" and when society requires successful completion of a task
--model relies heavily on movement, play and physical activity for their development. Particularly during infancy and childhood.
Jean Piaget (1969)
-Places primary emphasis on the acquistition of cognitive thought processes
look at notes
3 stages which cognitive development occurs through
adaptation, accomidation, and assimilation
adaptation that one makes to the environment when new and incongruent information is added to available responses
the interpretation of new information based on present interpretations. Taking information from the encitonment and incorporating it into the individual's existing cognitive structures
sensorimotor (self-satisfying behavior)
-primary circular reactions
-secondary circular reactions
-first beginnings of cognition; cannot manipulate objects yet
-kanguage replaces sensorimotor activity
-widening of social interest in their world
concrete operational
-aware of alternative solutions
-rules in thinking
-understands reversibility
-eses play to understand their physical and social world
age stage theory
-refers to periods that are characterized by certain types of behavior
-each stage generally covers a period of one year or more and may be accompanied by one or more other stages
-motor theorists who adhere to age-stage concept of development have divided childhood or the entire lifecycle into ten periods or less
-age stage concept is most popular among parents and educators
developmental task theory
-an important accomplishment that one much achieve by a certain time if they are to function efficiently and meet the demands placed on them by society
-particular tasks a prerequisite to higher levels of functioning
-predictive of later success or failure based
developmental milestone theory
-refers to the strategic indicators of how far development has progressed
-the accomplishment of a milestone may or may not in itself be crucial to adjustment in the world as it is with a developmental task