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26 Cards in this Set

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tendon
connects muscle to bone
ligament
conects bone to bone
genetic factors affecting weight management
*body structure (ecto, meso, endo) & shape (gynoid, android)
*bodyfat (adipocyte) distribution
*metabolism (muscle fiber type distribution, hormones, etc.)
physiological factors affecting weight management
*resting metabolic rate-effect of age, activity
*hormones that regulate cell growth, metabolism, appetite-testosterone, estrogen, leptin, cholecystekinin (CCK), peptide YY, gluconlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)
lifestyle factors affecting weight management
*Eating habits-high fat, high sugar, calorie dense, portion sizes; "calorie intake increased 100-300 calories/day over past 2 decades
*physical activity- 15 min activity/ day vs. 150 min television/day
*psycholigical- eating provides a powerful distraction from...loneliness, anger, boredom, sadness, inadequacy; food=family symbol of love, social gatherings, holidays, celebrations
tendon
connects muscle to bone
ligament
conects bone to bone
genetic factors affecting weight management
*body structure (ecto, meso, endo) & shape (gynoid, android)
*bodyfat (adipocyte) distribution
*metabolism (muscle fiber type distribution, hormones, etc.)
physiological factors affecting weight management
*resting metabolic rate-effect of age, activity
*hormones that regulate cell growth, metabolism, appetite-testosterone, estrogen, leptin, cholecystekinin (CCK), peptide YY, gluconlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)
lifestyle factors affecting weight management
*Eating habits-high fat, high sugar, calorie dense, portion sizes; "calorie intake increased 100-300 calories/day over past 2 decades
*physical activity- 15 min activity/ day vs. 150 min television/day
*psycholigical- eating provides a powerful distraction from...loneliness, anger, boredom, sadness, inadequacy; food=family symbol of love, social gatherings, holidays, celebrations
Percent calories burned from physical activity
10-40
Percent calories burned from food digestion
5-15
Percent calories burned from resting metabolism
55-75
ectomorph
*small bones, thin muscles, slender arms and legs, narrow chest, round shoulders, flat abdomen, small buttocks
*higher metabolic rate, fewer adopocytes, more type 1 fibers
mesomorph
*firm, well-developed muscles, large bones, broad shoulders, muscular arms, trim waist, muscular buttocks, powerful legs
endomorph
*high percentage of body fat, short neck, large abdomen, wide hips, round full buttocks, wide hips, short heavy legs
dexicamly
can detect weakness in bone tussue
isometric
-exercises in which the muscle contracts against an immovable object (e.g wall)
-involves static contractions
-used in rehab
-only improves strength at one joint angle
-static contractions cause increase in blood pressure
isotonic
-exercises that involve lifting a set/constant weight to strengthen a muscle though a range of motion (e.g., barbells, dumbels, machines)
-Easy and inexpensive
Isokinetic
-Machine exercises that involve lifting a "variable" resistance through a range of motion; can involve concentric and eccentric and static contractions
-used in rehab
-very expensive
-machines can allow varying resistance
Type I fibers (slowtwitch oxidative)
color-red
blood supply-many
O2 supply-many
Tritch Rate- Slow
Metabolism-oxidative
Force production-Low
Fatigue resistance- high
Activity- Aerobic endurance
Type IIA fibers (FOG)
twitch rate- fast
color- pink(white)
blood supply- moderate
O2 supply- moderate
Metabolism- oxidative/glycotic
Force production-moderate
Fatigue resistance-high
Activity- cross training
Type IIB fibers (
twitch rate- fast
color- white
blood supply- few
oxygen supply- few
metabolism- glycotic
Force production- high
Fatigue resistance- low
Activity- strength
concentric contractions
muscle action in which the muscle fiber length shortens during contraction (force production)
eccentric contractions
muscle action in which the muscle fiber lengthens (returns to normal resting length) during contraction (a.k.a. "negatives")
*secret to body building
static contraction
muscle action in which the muscle exherts force but there is minimal change in fiber length